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The Spheres of the Earth

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Title: The Spheres of the Earth


1
The Spheres of the Earth
2
World Geography
Chapter 2 Water, Climate and Vegetation
3
World Geography
Artic Ocean
Russia and Eurasian Republic
N. America
Europe
Atlantic Ocean
E. Asia
Pacific Ocean
S. Asia
Modern Middle East
M. America
Sub-Sahara Africa
Pacific Ocean
Indian Ocean
N. America
S. E. Asia
S. America
Europe
Oceania
Australia
Southern Ocean
Antarctica
4
The Atmosphere
  • Atmosphere The gaseous envelope of air
    surrounding Earth, made up of a mixture of about
    78 nitrogen, 21 oxygen and 1 other gases and
    water vapor.
  • It is the outer most and least dense sphere
  • Reflects, absorbs and alters the suns harmful
    ultra violet (UV) rays
  • Supports all life forms by providing oxygen and
    carbon dioxide
  • Carries and holds water vapor,
  • influencing precipitation and
  • humidity
  • Influences winds and
  • atmospheric pressure

5
The Geosphere
  • Geosphere The rocks, mountains, the
    lithospheric plates and other physical features
    of Earth, except water.
  • The main divisions of the geosphere are the
    crust, mantle and core (inner and outer).
  • One specific part of the geosphere is the
    lithosphere which consists of the rigid mantle
    and the asthenosphere.
  • This includes the rock layers of
  • the ocean floor.
  • The geosphere is always c
  • hanging through volcanic activity,
  • plate tectonics and erosion.

6
The Hydrosphere
  • Hydrosphere the collective mass of water found
    on, under, and over the surface of a planet.
  • This includes the water in the oceans, lakes,
    rivers, ground water, the ice at the poles and
    even the water vapor in the atmosphere.
  • Approximately 70.8 per cent of the Earth is
    covered by water
  • Majority of Earths water is salty 98
  • Only 2 is fresh water, with 80
  • of the fresh water is ice locked.
  • Causes the atmosphere to
  • appear blue

7
The Biosphere
  • Biosphere All living organisms in the Earth
    system and their environment
  • The vegetation, humans, animals, single cell
    organisms and fish in the ocean.
  • Basically the Earths ecosystems.

8
The Interaction of the Spheres
  • The four spheres, geosphere, hydrosphere,
    atmosphere and biosphere, are All living
    organisms in the Earth system and their
    environment .
  • Volcanoes (geosphere) erupt, sending ash and
    gases into the air (atmosphere) and lava and ash
    down onto surrounding forests (biosphere) and
    human habitation (biosphere).
  • Plants (biosphere) draw carbon dioxide from the
    air (atmosphere) and water (hydrosphere) they
    release oxygen back into the air (atmosphere) and
    serve as food for other creatures (biosphere).
  • Hurricanes (atmosphere) sweep across the ocean
    (hydrosphere) and onto the land (geosphere), and
    damages cities and homes (biosphere).
  • Human beings (biosphere) drill wells
  • into Earths crust (geosphere) to
  • draw out groundwater (hydrosphere)
  • for drinking and irrigation
  • of crops (biosphere).

9
The Environment
10
World Geography
Chapter 2 Water, Climate and Vegetation Section
I The Water Planet
11
Hydrosphere
  • Ocean the ancient Greeks noticing the strong
    current that flowed off Gibraltar
  • This global, interconnected body of salt water,
    called the World Oceans, is generally divided by
    the continents into the following bodies, from
    the largest to the smallest the Pacific Ocean,
    the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the
    Southern Ocean, and the Artic Ocean.

12
The Hydrosphere
Surface Area of the Planet (510,066,000 sq km)
Land Area on the Planet (148,647,000 sq km)
29.1 Ocean Area (335,258,000 sq km) Total
Water Area (361,419,000 sq km) 70.9 Type of
Water (97 salt), (3 fresh)
13
The Hydrosphere
Pacific Ocean Largest and deepest
Atlantic Ocean
14
The Hydrosphere
Arctic Ocean Smallest
Indian Ocean
15
The Hydrosphere
For many years only (4) four oceans were
officially recognized, and then in the spring of
2000, the International Hydrographic Organization
established the Southern Ocean, and determined
its limits. Those limits include all water below
60 degrees south, and some of it, like the Arctic
Ocean, is frozen.
16
Surface Water
  • Oceanography (Marine Science) is the study of
    the Earth's oceans and seas.

17
Surface Water
  • Water on the Continents The water located on
    the continents may be collected in a variety of
    formations, such as
  • Bay
  • Bayou
  • Brook
  • Canal
  • Channel
  • Creek
  • Estuary
  • Fjord
  • Gulf
  • Harbor
  • Lake
  • Pond
  • Reservoir
  • River
  • Sea
  • Stream
  • Sound
  • Strait
  • Swamp

18
The Hydrosphere
  • Gulf or Bay is a part of a lake or ocean that
    extends so that it is surrounded by land on three
    sides.

19
The Hydrosphere
  • Wetlands any landscape that is covered with
    water for at least part of the year.

Wetland
  • Canals are man-made waterways, usually
    connecting existing lakes, rivers, or oceans.
    There are two main types of canal
  • Irrigation canal used for the delivery of
    water
  • Transportation canals for passage of goods and
  • people.

20
The Hydrosphere
  • Strait and Channel a relatively narrow body of
    water that connects two larger bodies of water.

21
The Hydrosphere
  • Estuary connection with the open sea and
    within which seawater mixes with freshwater.

22
The Hydrosphere
  • Fjord (or fiord) is a narrow inlet of the sea
    between cliffs or steep slopes. A fjord is eroded
    significantly below sea level allowing deep-draft
    vessels to navigate easily.

23
The Hydrosphere
  • Harbor or Haven is a place where ships may
    shelter from the weather or are stored.

24
The Hydrosphere
  • Lake is a body of water or other liquid of
    considerable size surrounded by land. The vast
    majority of lakes on Earth are fresh water, and
    most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher
    latitudes. Smaller lakes tend to put the word
    "lake" after the name, as in Green Lake, while
    larger lakes often invert the word order, as in
    Lake Michigan.

25
The Hydrosphere
  • Pond is a body of water smaller than a lake.
    However the difference between a pond and a lake
    is subjective. Pond usually describes small
    bodies of water, generally smaller than one would
    require a boat to cross.
  • Reservoir is, most broadly, anything used for
    storage of large amounts of a liquid

26
The Hydrosphere
  • Sea is a large expanse of saline water
    connected with an ocean, or a large, usually
    saline, lakes that lack a natural outlet such as
    the Caspian Sea and the Dead Sea. The term is
    synonymous with ocean.

27
The Hydrosphere
  • Sound is a large sea or ocean inlet larger
    than a bay and wider than a fjord, or it may
    identify a narrow sea or ocean channel between
    two bodies of land.

28
The Hydrosphere
  • The Water cycle movement of water on, above
    and below the surface of the Earth

Part 1 Part 2
29
The Hydrosphere
30
The Hydrosphere
  • Groundwater water found beneath the surface of
    the Earth
  • Aquifers rocks layers which water flows
    rivers under ground
  • Water table the level when all the space
    beneath the Earths surface is filled with water.
  • construction
  • homes,
  • housing areas,
  • communities and
  • cities

31
The Hydrosphere
  • Drainage basin the route waters flows to the
    ocean or lakes

32
The Hydrosphere
How do we get more fresh water?
33
The Hydrosphere
How do we get more fresh water?
Desalination
The removal of excess salt and other minerals
from water in order to obtain fresh water
suitable for animal consumption or irrigation
however, almost all of the salt is removed, for
human consumption.
34
The Hydrosphere
  • Natural disasters
  • Flooding
  • Rivers flow over relatively flat land
  • Bordered by flood plains
  • Caused by heavy rainfall or melting snow
  • Benefits of flooding, it deposits silt on the
    flood plain, improving its fertility
  • Flash flood occurs during or immediately
    following heavy rainfall, usually last a short
    time. However violent.

35
World Geography
Chapter 2 Water, Climate and Vegetation Section
II Climate
36
Factors Affecting Climate
Climate Weather conditions in a geographic
region over a long period of time
Weather The condition of the atmosphere at a
given time or place.
37
Factors Affecting Climate
Climate Weather conditions in a geographic
region over a long period of time
Weather The condition of the atmosphere at a
given time or place.
Tilt of the Earth
Ocean Current
La Nena
Temperature
Orographic effect/lift
El Nino
Rotation - winds
Biosphere
Geosphere
38
The Winds
  • Wind The roughly horizontal movement of air
    caused by uneven heating of the Earth's surface
    and the Earths Rotation (Coriolis Effect)
  • Global winds resulting from solar heating of the
    Earth Surface and Oceans
  • Air naturally moves from areas of
  • high pressure to areas of low pressure
  • Move heat and cool across the
  • Earths surface
  • The air is deflected to the right in the
  • Northern Hemisphere and to the
  • left in the Southern Hemisphere

39
The Winds
  • Prevailing winds
  • Blow in the same direction most of the year
  • Blow from the northeast and southeast towards
    the equator
  • Known as the trade winds
  • Middle latitudes known as westerlies
  • High latitudes come mainly from the east off
    the ocean, blow from the polar region to the
    middle latitudes

40
The Winds
41
The Winds
  • Doldrums A region along the equator, which is
    usually calm
  • Monsoon A wind pattern that reverses direction
    with the seasons.

42
The Winds
  • Jet Stream A region along the equator, which
    is usually calm
  • Fast flowing, relatively narrow air currents
    found in the atmosphere
  • Formed at the boundaries of adjacent air masses
    - polar region and gulf stream
  • Westerly winds (flowing west to east) in the
    Northern and Southern Hemisphere
  • Moves most major weather patterns
  • Gulf Stream A powerful, warm, and swift
    Atlantic Ocean current that originates in the
    Gulf of Mexico, exits through the Strait of
    Florida follows the eastern coastlines of the
    U.S.

43
The Winds
44
The Winds
45
The Winds
46
The Winds
47
The Orographic lift
  • Orographic lift The changing in air masses as
    it moves over areas of high elevation.

48
The Orographic lift
Air flow
Windward side
Leeward side
Clouds
Snowline
Rain shadow
Precipitation Rain and Snow
49
The Orographic lift
Windward side
Leeward side
50
The Oceans
  • Ocean currents
  • heat and cool slower than land
  • area near the oceans have usually milder
    temperatures
  • ocean currents move heat back and forth between
    the tropics and the polar regions
  • Ocean currents are created by winds, Earths
    rotation and varying ocean temperatures

51
The Oceans
52
The Oceans
53
The Ninos
La Nina
El Nino
54
Biosphere
People pollution car exhaust, hair sprays and
burning
Greenhouse effect
55
World Geography
Chapter 2 Water, Climate and Vegetation Section
III Climate Zones and Vegetation
56
Climates
Section II
57
Tropical Climates Rain Forest
58
Tropical Climates Savanna
59
Dry Climates - Arid
60
Dry Climates Semi Arid
61
Mid. Latitude Climates Humid Subtropical
62
Mid. Latitude Climates Humid Continental
63
Mid. Latitude Climates Marine West Coast
64
Mid. Latitude Climates Mediterranean
65
High Latitude Climates Subarctic
66
High Latitude Climates Tundra
67
High Latitudes Climates Ice Cap
68
World Geography
Chapter 2 Water, Climate and Vegetation Section
IV The Environment and Society
69
Biosphere
Biosphere
Geosphere
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
  • Irrigation
  • Pollutants
  • Pollution
  • Greenhouse effect
  • Acid rain
  • Deforestation
  • Soil exhaustion

70
Ecosystem
Biosphere
Forest
Animals
Hydrosphere
  • Waste
  • Pollute
  • Population
  • Population
  • Clear cutting
  • Forest fires

71
Waste Hierarchy
Section V
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