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AUTOMATED PLANNING SOFTWARE: ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR (Intelligent) AUTONOMOUS AGENTS

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To give you an idea, using NASA's work on autonomy as an example, what is the ... It has to produce plans to transport mundane. things from home to work to town ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AUTOMATED PLANNING SOFTWARE: ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR (Intelligent) AUTONOMOUS AGENTS


1
AUTOMATED PLANNING SOFTWARE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY
FOR (Intelligent) AUTONOMOUS AGENTS
  • Lee McCluskey
  • Professor of Software Technology,
  • Dept of Informatics,
  • Email lee_at_hud.ac.uk

2
Outline
  • To give you an idea, using NASAs work on
    autonomy as an example, what is the function of
    automated planning software
  • To give you an idea of the use of GIPO, a tool to
    help people utilise automated planning software

3
What is Autonomy? WordNet Definitions
  • S (n) autonomy, liberty (immunity from arbitrary
    exercise of authority political independence)
  • S (n) autonomy, self-direction, self-reliance,
    self-sufficiency (personal independence)

4
What is Autonomy? My Definition of Autonomy as it
applies to Software..
  • Autonomous software ..
  • Deliberates and Acts Can choose and perform its
    own actions / activities
  • Senses Has an awareness of its own environment
    and internal state
  • Accepts Commands Is controlled by being given
    tasks to perform or goals to achieve
  • ( lots of other stuff to do with Learning and
    Adaptation .. left out here..)

5
What is not Autonomy?
Hondas biped Asimo Asimo is the best robot
in the world according to http//www.robot.org.uk
It can walk and recognise some objects. It has
very good movement but not much
intelligence! Picture from this website.
6
Example of an Intelligent Autonomous Agent - Deep
Space 1
1998 1999 NASA demonstrated that planning
software called Remote Agent could be used to
manage a spacecraft the Deep Space 1 . The
spacecraft was controlled for a portion of its
journey with little human intervention.
7
Example of an Intelligent Autonomous Agent - The
2007 Mars Exploration Rover
Aye Aye Captain !
COLLECT A ROCK SAMPLE AT CRATER 3 THEN GET BACK
TO THE MOTHER SHIP BEFORE SUNSET..
Millions of Miles
pictures from NASA-Ames Research Website
8
Necessary equipment for IAA ..?
WITHOUT PLANNING CAPABILITY
communication mechanism with its controller
sensing mechanism
motor control
9
Necessary equipment for IAA ..?
WITH PLANNING CAPABILITY
communication mechanism with its controller
sensing mechanism
motor control
a rich dynamic store (database) representing the
outside world facts, events, actions, processes
..
a program to reason with the database and form
plans of action to satisfy the controllers
requests, and schedules to carry out the plans
10
Automated Planning and Scheduling ..
PLANNING assembling orderings of actions in
order to achieve goals or tasks
KNOWLEDGE BASE
a rich dynamic store (database) representing the
outside world facts, events, actions, processes
..
a program to reason with the database and form
plans of action to satisfy the controllers
requests, and schedules to carry out the plans
SCHEDULING assigning actions to fixed times
and resources
11
Automated Planning and Scheduling .. Challenges
in Knowledge Acquisition
KNOWLEDGE BASE
Formulating this kind of knowledge is VERY HARD!
Formulating knowledge of continuous processes
and uncertain outcomes of actions, in particular,
is still a great challenge for AI
a rich dynamic store (database) representing the
outside world facts, events, actions, processes
..
12
Automated Planning and Scheduling .. Challenges
in Automated Planning
PLANNING assembling orderings of actions in
order to achieve goals or tasks
Automated Planning is VERY HARD! Many automated
planning programs exist but they make simplifying
assumptions about the outside world.
a program to reason with the database and form
plans of action to satisfy the controllers
requests, and schedules to carry out the plans
SCHEDULING assigning actions to fixed times
and resources
13
Some Other Applications of Automated Planning and
Scheduling..
  • Satellite mission planning and scheduling
  • Spacecraft Assembly
  • Automated image processing
  • Planning for military air campaigns
  • Planning for Crisis Management
  • Brewery production-line scheduling
  • Generation of control programmes for industrial
    plant
  • Oil Spill Response Planning
  • Ship Building using a shipyard scheduling
    optimisation system
  • Aircraft crew scheduling
  • Chemical Plant control
  • Autonomous Vehicles control
  • Workflow/Workforce management
  • Web Service Composition

14
GIPO
  • GIPO is a software tool that addresses some of
    the Challenges in Knowledge Acquisition described
    above it is a GUI for helping building up the
    knowledge base for use in a planning application.
  • GIPO won the best tools award at the First
    International Competition in Knowledge
    Engineering for AI Planning at Monterey,
    California in 1995.
  • Scientists at NASA-Ames have used GIPO, and are
    keen to see it adapted for use with their
    knowledge representations. A future version of
    GIPO could well be used in future space missions

15
The Briefcase World a simple logistics example
The Mars rover has been given a day job! It has
to produce plans to transport mundane things
from home to work to town .
Bags
Things
Locations
16
The planning function requires a planner a
knowledge base and a specification of the tasks
putin(briefcase,home,cake) move(briefcase,home,wor
k) takeout(briefcase,work,cake) move(briefcase,wor
k,town) putin(briefcase,town,letter) move(briefcas
e,town,work) putin(briefcase,work,tools) move(brie
fcase,work,home) takeout(briefcase,home,tools)
GOAL
PLAN
INITIAL STATE
17
GIPO Demonstration
  • To attempt to do something NO-ONE has ever done
    before during a (public) lecture . Create a
    planning application form scratch .
  • Resources
  • Planning and Scheduling programs
    http//scom.hud.ac.uk/planet/repository/
  • GIPO
  • http//scom.hud.ac.uk/planform/gipo/
  • UK Planning Special Interest Group
  • http//planning.cis.strath.ac.uk/plansig/

18
Summary
  • There are useful applications of Automated
    Planning and Scheduling in Space, Logistics,
    Crisis Management etc. But current applications
    tend to embody simplified views of the world (for
    example, they assume no uncertainty, or they
    assume all processes/actions involve discrete
    change)
  • NASA are currently one of the leaders in this
    area. Scientists at NASA-Ames have used GIPO, and
    are keen to see it adapted for use with their
    knowledge representations.
  • GIPO is a knowledge acquisition tool which helps
    people encode knowledge that can be used with
    automated planning programs
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