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Excavations of Homeric Troy Mrs Grahams Ancient History

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His digging methods were crude, but he had a good strategy. ... Philological study of ancient writings, oral tradition, mythological research ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Excavations of Homeric Troy Mrs Grahams Ancient History


1
Excavations of Homeric Troy Mrs Grahams Ancient
History
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Evolution of Archaeology
4
Archaeologists of Troy
5
Schliemanns Diary
6
Schliemans sketch of Troy
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Schliemans Legacy
  • Schliemann was very good at stratigraphy, once he
    got started, not so good at architecture. His
    digging methods were crude, but he had a good
    strategy. He gathered a team of experts to the
    site photographers, surveyers, physical
    anthropologists, experts on numismatics ancient
    history, experts on plant remains. This practice
    helps contribute to his title of father of
    scientific archaeology.
  • Schliemanns assistant Wihelm Dorpfeld, a German
    architect, identified Troys nine basic strata- a
    scheme that some archaeologists still follow today

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Treasures of Troy
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Blegen and Troy
  • Blegen returned to Troy, digging there from
    1932-8, hoping that by bringing to bear the
    latest scientific techniques, he could find the
    Homeric level. He fine-tuned the stratigraphy,
    re-examined Troy V strata, which was Dorpfelds
    candidate for the Homeric Troy. Blegen disagreed,
    thought the destruction was natural (earthquake
    shift in foundation walls, rubble patterns,
    reoccupation of the place as a shanty town with
    refugees, etc.).
  • Carl used highly refined excavation methods to
    differentiate 46 construction phases or sub
    strata.
  • In untouched strata above Troy VI, Blegen
    discovered Troy VIIa, which seemed to show
    evidence of a siege and fall. Expecting to find
    this, Blegen declared it Homeric Troy.
  • His most famous finds were a large palace from
    Troy VI, called the Pillar House and a Greek
    Roman sanctuary

17
Pillar House from TroyVI
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Korfmann- New Focus, New Technology
  • We are no longer interested in clarifying
    whether the Trojan War and the ensuing
    destruction of Troy VI around 1250 BC - really
    took place . Manfred Korfmann

21
Focus of New Archaeology
  • To Korfmann and his colleagues, the investigation
    of the ancient world is not about finding
    spectacular objects or evidence for the war.
    Rather they aim at a thick description of history
    of the city and its environs that is they seek
    to reveal, as completely as possible, all the
    material evidence that bears on life in Troy and
    the role Troy played in binding continents and
    cultures.

22
NASA Satellite image of Troy
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Aerial View of Troy
24
  • Modern Archaeological Methods in Troy
  • Dating samples Comparison of ceramic finds.
    Determining the amount of radioactive isotopes
    (C-14), thermoluminescence, dendrochronology
    (annual growth rings of wooden finds)
    Reconstruction of ancient Chemical analysis of
    samples, isotope trade routes examinations (lead,
    rare earths) Diet of the indigenous Statistical
    compilation of animal populatin bones and plant
    seeds, food chain analysis (trace elements and
    isotopes in human and animal bones)
    Reconstruction of landscape Depth drillings
    ("Archaeomog"), geomorphology, sedimentology Myth
    and poetry Philological study of ancient
    writings, oral tradition, mythological research
    Discovery of notable Geophysical survey
    (disturbances in the excavation sites Earth's
    magnetic field caused by walls, pottery or
    organic material). Drillings ("Archaeomog")
    Survey, documentation Topographic survey,
    orthoscopic photo- grammetry, computer-assisted
    recording of finds Visualization of the results
    Three-dimensional representation and animation
    using powerful computers.

25
Magnetometers and Archaeomogs
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Cesium Magnetometer
  • Using an electronic apparatus that measures
    electrical resistance in the ground Hans Jansen
    had charted large areas of the lower city,
    however it could only measure changes in soil
    composition to 3feet.
  • In 1992 scientists began using a cesium
    magnetometer, the only one in the world, to
    detect disturbances in the earths magnetic field
    to a depth of 10 feet below the surface. The
    resulting data are processed and graphically
    displayed by a computer. It was with this
    instrument that Korfmann was able to discover and
    track the ditch

27
Lower City of Troy
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Bronze Age pottery shards
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Wilusian coins
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Trading Connections
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Conclusions of Korfmann
  • The results do not conflict with the state of
    Homeric scholarship
  • Troia was An important city within the region
  • A Bronze Age city, which in all essentials, as
    far as the layout of the city and the citadel, as
    well as the diagnostic finds was orientated
    towards Anatolia rather than the Aegean
  • Troia was also known as Wilusa, a regional power
    which became a vassal of the Hittites in the 13th
    century BC
  • The existance of a lower city can no longer be
    contested

36
The Future Direction of Trojan Archaeology
  • After the end of the Cold War, the Troad was no
    longer a military zone and land speculators made
    plans to build vast vacation resorts on the site
  • The plans were halted in 1996 when the Turkish
    Government declared Troy a national historical
    park
  • Troy has become not only an interdisciplinary
    project but also an international one, with
    scientists representing as many as 13
    nationalities, allowing for free exchange of
    information
  • In 1998 Troy was added to UNESCOSlist of world
    cultural heritage sites and a large museum was
    completed
  • Finds from Troy have been distributed among more
    than 50 museums and collections around the world.
    The Trojan gold now held in the Pushkin museum is
    claimed by both Germany and Russia
  • Troys promise is to return to what it once was
    a place of cultural exchange between east and
    west , north and south
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