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Imperialism

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The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the mid-18th ... The parody 'Brown Man's Burden' was created soon after this. The Scramble for Africa Begins ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Imperialism


1
Imperialism
2
Imperialism The policy by a stronger nation to
attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker
nations economically, politically, culturally, or
militarily.
3
How Did Imperialism Begin?
A coaling station for steamships, Cape Town,
South Africa
4
The Industrial Revolution
  • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain
    in the mid-18th century
  • Britains advantages
  • The spread of industrialization

5
Economic Motives
  • Industrialized nations sought
  • Raw materials
  • Natural resources
  • A cheap labor supply
  • New marketplaces for manufactured goods

6
Technological Advances
  • The steam engine
  • Better transportation
  • Increased exploration
  • Improvements in communication

The steamboat Herald (with mounted machine guns)
on the Zambezi river in Africa
One of the first steam engines
7
The Maxim Gun
British troops fighting forces in Benin in 1897
8
Exploration
  • 1813 - 1873
  • David Livingstone
  • Mapping the Dark Continent
  • 1st European to cross the African Continent
  • By late 1800s Europeans knew about the majority
    of Africas natural resources

David Livingstone
9
Dr. Livingstone, I presume?
  • Livingston was assumed to be dead
  • A missionary found him in 1871
  • This is the famous greeting

Henry Morton Stanley in 1869
10
Ideological Motives
  • A desire to civilize non-Europeans also spurred
    the development of imperialism
  • Social Darwinism
  • Natural Selection ideas used for stronger races
    success

Darwins handwritten cover page for The Origin of
Species
Herbert Spencer
11
The White Mans Burden
By Rudyard Kipling
  • Take up the White Mans burden
  • Send forth the best ye breed
  • Go, bind your sons to exile
  • To serve your captives need
  • To wait, in heavy harness,
  • On fluttered folk and wild
  • Your new-caught sullen peoples,
  • Half-devil and half-child.
  • Take up the White Man's burden
  • In patience to abide,
  • To veil the threat of terror
  • And check the show of pride
  • By open speech and simple,
  • An hundred times made plain,
  • To seek another's profit
  • And work another's gain.

12
The White Mans Burden appeared in childrens
books and even in advertisements of the time
period.
The parody Brown Mans Burden was created soon
after this.
13
The Scramble for Africa Begins
  • Believed he needed to acquire lands in Africa to
    make his own small country more powerful
  • Gov.t and citizens did not support him
  • He made his own company and established a colony
    in the Congo

King Leopold II of Belgium
14
The International African Association
  • Morgan Stanley represented King Leopold
  • Made treaties with local Congo chiefs
  • By 1882 he secured 900,000 square miles of
    territory

Steamboat Stanley on the Congo River
15
The Berlin Conference
  • Established a set of agreed-upon rules regarding
    the competition among the great powers for
    colonies in Africa
  • Hosted by Otto Von Bismarck (Germany)
  • Congo Area to Leopold
  • Nations had to notify other nations before
    staking claims
  • Territory could not be occupied if it was already
    claimed
  • No one from Africa was present to protest its
    division

16
Egypt
The Suez Canal in 1875, six years after it opened
  • The Suez Canal
  • Shares in the canal held by France, Egypt
  • Britain buys out Egypts interest
  • Egyptian financial crisis
  • 1882 uprisings
  • British invade and occupy Egypt

17
European Control of Africa
By 1914, only two African nations remained
independent
18
Cecil Rhodes
  • Prime minister of British Cape colony in South
    Africa
  • British imperialist who made huge profits from
    Africas natural resources
  • Founder of the state of Rhodesia in Africa
  • De Beers Company
  • Sound familiar?
  • Todays Diamonds!

19
The Rhodes Colossus
This cartoon depicts British imperial ambitions
to control the entire African continent. MINE!
20
A Closer Look at Imperialism in Africa
  • European quest to control natural resources
  • Doing so led to drastic changes in the
    infrastructure of the continent
  • Subsistence farming to growing cash crops such as
    peanuts
  • Changed traditional life styles

The port of Zanzibar around 1900
21
Improvements in Transportation and Communication
  • Construction of roads and bridges
  • Railroads
  • Telegraph lines
  • Allowed easier exploitation of natural resources
  • More political power over Africans

22
Direct vs. Indirect Rule
  • European nations chose one of two different paths
    when it came to colonial rule

Indirect rule colonies were given a degree of
internal autonomy Example Nigeria
Direct rule the colony was directly administered
by the colonizer Example Senegal
23
South Africa
  • The Dutch first arrived on the Cape of Good Hope
    in 1652
  • Europeans soon began to settle on the Cape,
    taking land and forcing the natives out.
  • Or turning them into slaves
  • Beginning of permanent European settlements

Jan van Riebeeck landing on the Cape of Good
Hope in 1652
24
The Great Trek, 18351843
  • 1815 British Annexed the Cape
  • British encroached on Boer (Dutch) areas
  • Boers moved North, forced natives out
  • Many conflicts (killings)

25
The Boer War, 18991902
  • Dutch and British troops fought for control of
    the Cape
  • The British prevailed
  • Dutch/ Boers/ Afrikaners

British troops landing on the Cape
26
Diamonds and Gold
In 1867, diamonds were discovered in South
Africa in 1886, gold was discovered. This is why
Britain wanted the area the Boers were in (they
were farmers)
Diamond mining in South Africa
27
China
  • In the 1700s, China enjoyed a favorable balance
    of trade.
  • Ming Qing dynasties traded their tea for
    European silver
  • This changed when Spain lost its silver holds in
    the Americas (1800s)
  • Britain used (American Indian) opium as a new
    trade with China

28
The Power of Opium
  • By 1779, the British East India Company was
    importing opium into China
  • Within a generation, opium addiction in China
    became widespread
  • China even tried to imposed severe penalties for
    opium use
  • Opium trade still flourished

Mandarin with Opium Pipe
29
The East India Companys opium factory stacking
room
30
China and Britain Clash over Opium
  • In 1839, a Chinese official demanded that the
    opium trade in Guangzhou (Canton) stop.
  • China destroyed 20,291 opium chests
  • The British retaliated with a war

Chinese unloading opium from a British ship
31
The Opium War 18391842
  • Britain had a powerful navy
  • 1842 Chinese conceded
  • Britain forced them to sign a treaty

The British navy attacks
32
The Treaty of Nanjing
  • Britain gained
  • Control of Hong Kong
  • The right to trade in five major cities
  • Extraterritoriality
  • The legalization of opium in China
  • China felt subjugated semicolonialism

The signing of the Treaty of Nanjing aboard the
British ship Cornwallis
33
Treaty Ports
  • These are the areas opened up in China for trade
  • China didnt like it

34
The Open Door Policy
  • Turmoil in China
  • Spheres of influence
  • Open Door policy formulated by U.S.
  • Proposed every nation shares the ports in China
  • Other countries didnt endorse the idea
  • Didnt do anything about it

U.S. Secretary of State John Hay
35
Catholic cathedral in Shanghai
36
The Boxer Rebellion, 1899
  • Harmonious Fists
  • Angered by European presence in China
  • Attacked missionaries, Chinese Christians, and
    Gov't officials
  • Defeated by Europeans, Americans, and Japanese
    soldiers

American, Japanese, and British troops storming
Beijing
37
The Boxer Protocol
  • China forced to sign protocol
  • Required to repay damages to Europeans
  • Forced to allow foreign soldiers to live in
    Beijing

Signing of the Boxer Protocol
38
Chinese Nationalism
Nationalism increased in China as groups fought
to not only rid China of foreigners, but to end
centuries of imperial rule.
39
Japan
Japan had closed its doors to the world in the
1600s
40
The Opening of Japan
  • In the mid-1800s, the U.S. opened Japan to trade
  • March 31, 1854 US and Japan signed a peace treaty
    for trade
  • soon, it too became a strong industrialized
    nation.
  • Sent students to learn about European
    Industrialization

Japanese admire gifts brought by U.S. Commodore
Perry
41
The Meiji Restoration
  • Tokugawa Shogunate overthrown by imperial forces
  • Emperor Mutsuhito ruled 18671912
  • Modernization to compete with the West
  • Democracy
  • Emperor shares power with legislature

Japanese Emperor Mutsuhito
42
Japanese Modernization
  • Modernized navy, military and economy
  • Done to avoid conflict with China and Chinas
    fate from European countries
  • Led to a strong Japanese Empire

Japanese battleship Shikishima
43
Japanese Industrialization
  • Students sent to study Western science and
    languages
  • Invested in modern transportation
  • Now seeking resources to support industrialization

44
The Russo-Japanese War
  • 19041905
  • Japan and Russia fought for control of Manchuria
  • Japan won easily Russia was humiliated
  • Japan annexed Korea
  • Sided with Britain during WWI and seized
    Germanys Sphere of Influence in China

A Japanese print depicting Japan's naval victory
in the Russo-Japanese War
45
Japanese Empire-Building, 19291939
  • US great Depression in 1929 led to fascism in
    Japan
  • High priority to seize resources
  • Conquered Manchuria in 1931
  • Invaded China 1937
  • WWII 1939 sided with Axis Powers and continued to
    build its empire

Axis rally in Tokyo, 1937
46
The United States
  • By 1800s US was on its way to industrialization
  • 19th century entered its own period of Imperialism

Women at work on a power loom mill
47
The Monroe Doctrine
  • Part of President Monroes 1823 Message to
    Congress
  • Warned European powers not to interfere with
    Western Hemisphere affairs or overthrow
    independent republics there
  • Promised the U.S. wouldnt interfere with
    European affairs or colonies
  • AKA leave me alone and we will leave you alone.
    Stay on your own side to the world

Political cartoon titled Keep Off!
48
Hawaii
  • Independent kingdom in the Pacific Ocean
  • Became a republic in 1894 after US missionaries
    arrived
  • Sanford Dole took over as president after kicking
    out the Queen
  • Then he gave the islands to the US
  • Annexed by the United States in 1898
  • Dole Pineapple Company is still in Hawaii ever
    since

Queen Liliuokalani, the last reigning queen of
Hawaii
49
The Panama Canal
Construction of the canals Miraflores Lock
  • De Lesseps obtains canal rights from Colombia
  • U.S. buys rights in 1903
  • U.S. backs Panamanian independence
  • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
  • Panama as U.S. protectorate
  • Canal completed in 1914

50
Improvements in Indias Infrastructure
  • In India, the British built
  • The worlds third largest railroad system
  • Telephone and telegraph lines
  • Dams, bridges, and canals

51
The Sepoy Rebellion
  • Sepoys Indian soldiers who served under British
    commanders
  • 1857 Sepoys refused to use ammunition greased
    with pork/beef fat
  • Why is this Hint their religion
  • Full-scale rebellion broke out
  • After quashing the rebellion, the British took
    control of India
  • Britain used it as an excuse to take over
    politics and economic control in India

52
The Legacy of Imperialism
  • World War I
  • Economic Consequences
  • Third-World Nationalism
  • Current Problems in Africa
  • World War II
  • Rwandan Massacre of 1993

53
World War I
  • Germany became aggressive with imperialism
  • Britain and France vied for same areas
  • Other nations viewed Germany as the cause of all
    aggression

British troops on the front line, Somme area, 1916
54
Economic Consequences
  • Cash Crops devastated Africas food supplies
  • Labor forced in these areas instead of local
    industries
  • Years of dependence made modernizing difficult

Tea workers on a plantation in Assam, India,
circa 1950
55
Third-World Nationalism
  • Europeans forced political boundaries w/o concern
    for tribes, culture or languages
  • This lead to mutual resentment towards Europeans
  • Lead to nationalism among diverse people

56
The Legacy of Imperialism
  • Imperialism created a Third World
  • Political instability followed
  • Dictators are able to seize power
  • Black South Africans didnt gain the right to
    vote until 1994
  • What obligations, if any, does the industrialized
    world owe to the nations which it dominated and
    exploited for so long?
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