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Health Impact Assessment

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(Image centered left to right, 2.5 up from bottom, 2.0 from top) ... Metropolitan Design Center. www.designforhealth.net. Design for Health. August 13, 2007 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Health Impact Assessment


1
Design for Health
Health Impact Assessment
Kevin Krizek
2
Health Impact Assessment
Agenda
  • What is a Health Impact Assessment (HIA)?
  • What is special about the Design For Health HIA
    series?
  • What are the types of HIAs?
  • What type(s) of HIA is best for your community?

Ann Forsyth
(Image centered left to right, 2.5 up from
bottom, 2.0 from top)
3
Health Impact Assessment
What is a Health Impact Assessment?
  • Identifies and evaluates the effects of policies,
    plans, programs, and designs on the health of a
    population.
  • Health impact changes in health of an
    individual or group due to a project, program,
    policy, or plan
  • Typically done before, during, or after the
    preparation of a project of plan
  • Comes in a variety of
    forms

Ann Forsyth
(Image centered left to right, 2.5 up from
bottom, 2.0 from top)
4
Health Impact Assessment
What is different about our HIA series?
  • Characteristics of traditional HIAs
  • Led by public health experts
  • Focus on the social environment
  • crime, economic development, affordable housing,
    etc.
  • Most are very general, linked to broad health
    outcomes

Ann Forsyth
(Image centered left to right, 2.5 up from
bottom, 2.0 from top)
5
Health Impact Assessment
What is different about our HIA series?
  • Design for Health HIA
  • Targets urban planners
  • Comprehensive planning
  • Plan implementation
  • Development review
  • Focuses on areas of the built environment of
    relevance to planners.
  • Addresses a wide range of health issues, but only
    those where there is evidence of a health effect.

Ann Forsyth
6
Health Impact Assessment
What are the different types of HIAs?
  • Preliminary Checklist (also called an audit)
  • Rapid Assessment
  • HIA Threshold Analysis (a form of intermediate
    HIA)
  • Comprehensive HIA

Ann Forsyth
(Image centered left to right, 2.5 up from
bottom, 2.0 from top)
7
Preliminary Checklist
Overview
  • First step in HIA process
  • Checklist/survey of health issues
  • Determine if further assessment is needed
  • Quick
  • Point-based

Carissa Schively
8
Preliminary Checklist
Overview
  • Assesses significance of project, plan, or policy
    in terms of its size and scope
  • Is it significant enough to assess?
  • Does the plan or proposal meet some initial
    thresholds for a healthy community?
  • Initial scan of impacts
  • Helps determine whether additional analysis is
    needed

Carissa Schively
9
Preliminary Checklist
Part I Is it significant enough to assess?
  • Geographic extent
  • Reversibility
  • Population or workforce increase
  • Cumulative impact
  • People affected
  • Land use change
  • Institutional capacity

Carissa Schively
(Image centered left to right, 2.5 up from
bottom, 2.0 from top)

10
Preliminary Checklist
Part 1 Is it significant enough to assess?
11
Preliminary Checklist
Part 2 Does the plan/policy/project meet
thresholds?
  • Accessibility
  • Physical Activity
  • Social capital
  • Air Quality
  • Water Quality
  • Food
  • Safety

Carissa Schively
(Image centered left to right, 2.5 up from
bottom, 2.0 from top)

12
Preliminary Checklist
Part 2 Does the plan or proposal meet some
initial thresholds for a health community?
13
Preliminary Checklist
Using the HIA
  • Who is involved?
  • City staff planners, engineers, parks, public
    health, others
  • Public
  • Elected/appointed officials
  • Other agencies/organizations
  • What is required?
  • Time varies
  • Basic knowledge of the project, plan, or policy

Carissa Schively
14
Preliminary Checklist
Using the HIA
  • What are the outcomes of a preliminary checklist?
  • Knowledge about the connections between health
    and planning
  • Additional HIA may be needed
  • Key health concerns may emerge
  • Need for scoring adjustments to reflect local
    values and conditions

Carissa Schively
15
Design for Health
  • Rapid Health Impact Assessment
  • Big idea
  • Participants
  • Information
  • Agenda/workshop
  • Results

16
Rapid Assessment
Characteristics
  • More time intensive
  • Few weeks to prepare
  • One-half day to conduct
  • Few weeks to write-up
  • Participatory focus group workshops
  • Prospective

Ann Forsyth
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bottom, 2.0 from top)
17
Rapid Assessment
Steps to Prepare for the HIA
  • Identify and gather participants
  • Steering committee, stakeholders, etc
  • Gather information
  • Inventory of existing plans/policies, creating an
    area profile, talking to those affected
  • Run the workshop
  • Write-up the results and move forward

(Image centered left to right, 2.5 up from
bottom, 2.0 from top)
18
Rapid Assessment
Results
  • Several Types of Results
  • Report introduction, information, results of
    the workshop, recommendations for changes
  • Implementation e.g. results incorporated into
    plan
  • Evaluation Michigan Public Health Institute is
    doing a process and outcome/implementation
    evaluation
  • Monitoring of implementation

19
Rapid Assessment
How can planners use the results?
  • Determine if a more detailed HIA is needed
  • Determine the financial and political risk
  • Use to make changes to plan, policy, or
    project
  • Identify methods to monitor and evaluate
    health outcomes
  • Educate city staff and
    stakeholders

Metropolitan Design Center
20
Threshold Analysis
Characteristics
  • Potentially time intensive for data preparation
  • Detailed
  • Lists thresholds
  • Requires evidence
  • Point-based

Ann Forsyth
(Image centered left to right, 2.5 up from
bottom, 2.0 from top)
21
Where to use in the HIA process?
  • Most rapidly evolving of the types of HIAs being
    developed
  • Best used later in the planning process

22
Characteristics of the Threshold HIA
  • Most specific in the suite of HIA tools provided
    by Design for Health.
  • Informed by synthesizing and digesting available
    research.
  • What does the research tells us
  • How strong/clear is that research
  • How can it be applied to more specific projects
    or plan proposals

23
Structure of the Threshold HIA
  • Uses same categories of public health categories
    as other tools in the Design for Health HIA suite
  • Further breaks these areas down into 20 or so
    specific criteria
  • Requires specific knowledge of the plan or
    project (e.g., specific information or
    characteristics about plan element or development
    proposal
  • Scoring is based on sliding scale

24
Threshold Analysis (Draft)
Topic Accessibility
Transit Service (Threshold)
25
Types of HIAs
How do you choose which type of HIA your
community should use to inform plan, policy, or
project decisions? Questions that planners
should ask Are there only very limited resources
available to conduct a HIA? Is there only limited
time to conduct an HIA? Will the HIA only have
limited influence? Is the timeframe for the
decision-making process set by external factors
beyond your control? Is it relatively short?

26
Health Impact Assessment
Agenda
  • What is a Health Impact Assessment (HIA)?
  • What is special about the Design For Health HIA
    series?
  • What are the types of HIAs?
  • What type(s) of HIA is best for your community?

Ann Forsyth
(Image centered left to right, 2.5 up from
bottom, 2.0 from top)
27
Health Impact Assessment
For more information visit www.designforhealth.net
Ann Forsyth
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