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Dispelling the CE Mark Myth: Whats Required for European Compliance December 12, 2003

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Conducted Interference Enters and Exits Equipment through Wiring ... Simulates brownouts and blackouts on equipment operation. Voltage Dip: Voltage Interrupt: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dispelling the CE Mark Myth: Whats Required for European Compliance December 12, 2003


1
Dispelling the CE Mark MythWhats Required
for European ComplianceDecember 12, 2003
2
What is EMC?
  • EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
  • Emissions Unwanted radiated and conducted
    electrical energy
  • Immunity Undesirable response to external
    electrical energy
  • EMI Electromagnetic Interference

3
Elements of an EMI Situation
  • Source "Culprit"
  • Coupling method "Path"
  • Sensitive device "Victim"

VICTIM
SOURCE
PATH
4
How Does EMI Affect Electronics?
  • Radiated and conducted interference
  • Conducted Interference Enters and Exits Equipment
    through Wiring and Cabling
  • Radiated Interference Enters and Exits Equipment
    through Wiring and Enclosure Penetration

Radiated Susceptibility
Radiated Emissions
Conducted Susceptibility
Conducted Emissions
5
Radiated Coupling Field to Cable
Electromagnetic Wave
Radio
Patient Monitor
VCM
6
Interference to TV Reception
No Interference
Two Interfering Signals Injected into TV
7
Transients
  • Electrostatic Discharge Transient Pulses
  • ESD can induce glitches in circuits, leading to
    false triggering, errors in address data lines
    and latch-up of devices
  • Upset
  • Damage
  • Degradation leading to future failure(s)

8
PERSONAL COMPUTERS PERIPHERALS, RADIO RECEIVERS
  • Method 1Test at Approved Laboratory

Declaration of Conformity. Does not go to the FCC
Test Product at approved Laboratory
Report with Technical Information
Declaration of Conformity
Sell Product
DOC
9
RADIO TRANSMITTERS
  • Examples
  • Cordless Phones, Radio Transmitters, CB Radios,
    Wireless Products

CERTIFICATION
Report with Technical Information
Send Report and Application to FCC or TCB
Test Product
FCC GRANT with FCC ID Number
FCC Grant
Sell Product
10
EUROPEAN REQUIREMENTS
11
Top US Markets
12
OVERVIEW OF EUROPEAN REQUIREMENTS
  • Terms and Definitions
  • Comparison with US Standards
  • Options for Conformity
  • Technical Requirements
  • Use of the CE Mark

13
TERMS DEFINITIONS
  • European Directive
  • Legal Document adopted by EC Council of Ministers
  • Must be adopted into National Law by each EC
    member state
  • Does not call out technical standards refers to
    private standards-making bodies to draw up
    product standards
  • European Norm (EN)
  • Harmonized Standard Common Standard used for
    determining conformity
  • Committee process
  • ENs based on existing standards (CISPR, IEC)
  • Must be adopted into National Standards by each
    EC Member state
  • CENELEC (Comite Europeen de Normalisation
    Electrotechnique)
  • European Committee for Electrotechnical
    Standardization responsible for generating
    European Norms
  • CE Communaute Europeenne

14
REASONS FOR COMPLIANCE
  • Regulatory Requirements
  • Domestic
  • EMC FCC Requirements
  • Penalties
  • 7000/occurrence
  • Bellcore
  • European
  • EMC EMC Directive
  • Military/Aerospace
  • Functionality and Mission Success

15
NEW APPROACH DIRECTIVES
  • Objective Elimination of Technical Barriers
  • New Approach calls out Essential Requirements
  • Technical Details Left to Committees
  • Harmonization of European Norms (Standards)
  • CENELEC
  • Conformity to European Norms demonstrates
    compliance
  • Products meeting essential requirements eligible
    for CE Marking

16
EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES
17
THE EMC DIRECTIVE
  • 89/336/EEC The EMC Directive
  • Adopted 1989 by Council of the European
    Communities
  • Original Implementation 1 January 1992
  • Amended by 92/31/EEC
  • Affects all products to be placed on the Market
  • Calls out essential protection requirements
    which include emissions as well as susceptibility
  • Does not call out specifications or standards
  • New Approach Directive
  • Essential Protection Requirements
  • Allows Self-Certification
  • CE Marking certifying products conformance

18
APPLICATION OF THE EMC DIRECTIVE
  • Electrical Apparatus Covered
  • Exceptions components, large installations and
    devices that must comply with other Directives
    that address EMC (e.g., telecommunications)
  • Member states adopt ENs
  • Penalties for non-compliance
  • Country-by-Country basis.
  • Example UK Requirements
  • Fines up to 5000
  • Up to 3 months imprisonment for misuse of CE mark
  • Forfeiture of equipment

19
COMPLIANCE WITH EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES
  • Product-Specific Standards
  • or use
  • Generic Standards
  • Use Generic Requirements if Product-Specific
    Standards do not exist
  • Conformity Assessment Options
  • Declaration of Conformity
  • Technical Construction File

20
CE Marking
  • Implementation of the CE Marking
  • Must be affixed to
  • Product
  • Packaging
  • Instructions for use, OR
  • Guarantee certificate
  • Can be used with other marks providing they do
    not reduce the visibility and legibility of the
    mark
  • The marking may include
  • The identification of a notified body involved in
    assessment

21
RTTE
  • Covers the following aspects
  • Efficient use of spectrum
  • EMC
  • Safety

22
RTTE Approval Process
  • CE Marking by manufacturer is allowed
  • Self-Declaration for many products
  • Reduced approval procedures and processes
  • Harmonized standards developed
  • Faster, cheaper, more market coverage for SME

23
CONDUCTED EMISSIONS TESTING
  • Measure Noise on Power Line

Product
Spectrum Analyzer
Power Cord
LISN
24
RADIATED EMISSIONS TESTING
  • Test Site Measure Radiated
  • Noise from Equipment Case
  • and Cables

Spectrum Analyzer
Open Area Test Site
Product
3 m or 10 m
Turntable
Measuring Antenna
25
RADIATED EMISSIONS TESTING
  • Test Site Measure Radiated
  • Noise from Equipment Case
  • and Cables

Spectrum Analyzer
Open Area Test Site
Product
3 m or 10 m
Turntable
Measuring Antenna
Photos EMC Test System, Austin, TX emctest.com
26
Typical Ambient Profile
Cell phone
FM Radio
Switching noise
27
Immunity Test Requirements
  • 1000-4 Series
  • IEC 61000-4-1 Introduction
  • IEC 61000-4- 2 Electrostatic Discharge
    Requirements
  • IEC 61000-4- 3 Radiated Immunity
  • IEC 61000-4- 4 Electrical Fast Transient
  • IEC 61000-4- 5 Surge
  • IEC 61000-4- 6 Conducted RF Immunity
  • IEC 61000-4-7 Interharmonics
  • IEC 61000-4-8 9 Magnetic field immunity
  • IEC 61000-4-10 Damped Oscillatory pulsed field
    immunity
  • IEC 61000-4-11 Dips Interrupts (power
    quality)
  • IEC 61000-4-12 Damped Oscillatory (surge)

28
ESD Testing
ESD Simulator
29
Anechoic Chamber
www.emctest.com
30
EFT Testing
EFT Generator
EFT Clamp
Ground Plane
31
Surge Coupling
  • Lightning and pulse sources cause high-energy
    transients into power and data cables

32
Voltage Dips Interrupts
  • IEC 1000-4-11
  • Simulates brownouts and blackouts on equipment
    operation
  • Voltage Dip
  • Voltage Interrupt

33
A Testers Perspective
  • Radiated Emissions Consumes at least 1/2 of all
    testing and re-engineering time required for
    passing most EMC programs
  • Most Common Failures (in approximate order of
    occurrence)
  • 1. Radiated Emissions
  • 2. Conducted Emissions
  • 3. ESD
  • 4. Radiated and/or conducted immunity
  • 5. Surge
  • 6. EFTs

34
Reach us
  • Washington Laboratories, Ltd.
  • 7560 Lindbergh Drive
  • Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879
  • Phone 800/839-1649
  • Fax 301/417-9069
  • Email info_at_wll.com
  • www.wll.com
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