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Dr. Carol Gordon


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Title: Dr. Carol Gordon

Re-designing Knowledge Spaces From Information
Literacy to Knowledge Outcomes Part II
Dr. Carol Gordon Center for International
Scholarship in School Libraries Rutgers, The
State University of New Jersey cissl.scils.rutgers
.edu cgordon_at_scils.rutgers.edu
The Good Old Days
  • In these gentle rooms bursting with riotous
    thought, with question on the brink of answer,
    with the insistency of every story ever told,
    every word ever laid down, there is enough energy
    to rock the world. All librarians know this. They
    know that kindness and good manners are essential
    in the face of this die-hard effort to define a
    single moment, to express a sacred mystery.
    Thats why we whisper here. Why there are solid
    oak chairs and tables. Why we are friendly but
    reserved. Why there is order on the shelves.
    Flowers from the garden club on the front desk.
    Say a prayer when you enter, hang onto your hat.
    Anything can happen. This is a library.

Warrior Librarians
Tough Times
  • What is the future of the book?
  • What is the future of libraries?
  • What is the future of schooling?
  • How is technology most effective in schooling?
  • How do we educate students for the 21st century?

The focus is on 21st century survival skills.
Partnership for 21st Century Skills Report of the
National Center of Education and the Economy
Are they Really Ready to Work? This is a world
in which a very high level of preparation in
reading, writing, speaking, mathematics,
science, literature, history, and the arts will
be an indispensable foundation. In order to
compete in a global economy, American graduates
must be comfortable and well-organized, able
to learn very quickly and work as a member of a
team and have the flexibility to adapt quickly
to frequent changes in the labor market as the
shifts in the economy become ever faster and
more dramatic. (2007).
Private Sector
The focus is on reading comprehension.
National Reading Panels Report Teaching
Children to Read
RAND Reading and Study Group Reading for
Understanding Toward an RD Program in Reading
Institute of Education Sciences Program of
Research On Reading Comprehension
Government No Child Left Behind
National Assessment of Educational Progress
Private Sector
The Partnership for 21st Century Skills
ETS Report One-third of a Nation
Report of the National Center of Education and
the Economy
The focus is on information skills.
  • Educational Testing Service ICT Test
  • Tested 6300 students and found the majority of
    high school and college students lack
  • critical thinking skills when researching online
  • judging the objectivity and authoritativeness of
    a web site
  • entering multiple search terms
  • identifying a statement that captured demands of
  • assignment.

Or is it?
Is information literacy enough?
Going from Information to Knowledge
A collection of data is not information A
collection of information is not data A
collection of knowledge is not wisdom A
collection of wisdom is not truth
Fleming, Neil. Coping with a Revolution Will
the Internet Change Learning?, Lincoln
University, Canterbury, New Zealand
Information to knowledge
Data symbols
  • .

Knowledge application of data and information
in a strategy or practice or method answers
"how" questions
Information data that are processed to be
useful provides answers to "who", "what",
"where", and "when" questions
Understanding appreciation of "why"
  • Wisdom embodies principle, insight, moral,
    archetype evaluated understanding

How can we facilitate the information-knowledge
What does cognitive psychology tell us?
  • Kellys Personal Construct Theory
  • All knowledge begins with confusion
  • Constructs are patterns built to make sense of
    the world
  • Patterns provide frames of reference for
    decisions and choices
  • Constructs built from experience to anticipate
    future events
  • Constructs are not easily discarded or changed
  • Deweys Reflective Thinking
  • Five phases suggestion, intellectualization,
    guiding idea (hypothesis), reasoning, testing by
  • Inter-relatedness of actions and thoughts
  • Facts, data, and information arouse ideas that
    help make inferences (leaps from the known)
  • Piaget/ Bruners Schema Theory
  • Schema integrated, organized representation of
    the past which guides us in reconstructing
    previously encountered material and enables us to
    go beyond evidence, to fill gaps, to extrapolate.

  • Q What does the word "benign" mean?'  A Benign
    is what you will be after you be eight
  • Eventually, the Ramons conquered the Geeks.
    History call people Romans because they never
    stayed in one place for very long. At Roman
    banquets, the guests wore garlic in their hair.
    Julius Caesar extinguished himself on the
    battlefields of Gaul. The Ides of March killed
    him because they thought he was going to be made
    king. Nero was a cruel tyrany who would torture
    his poor subjects by playing the fiddle to them.
  • Q What happens to a boy when he reaches
    puberty?  A He says good-bye to his boyhood and
    looks forward to his adultery.

Guided Inquiry A Knowledge Construction Tool
  • Guided Inquiry is carefully planned, closely
    supervised targeted intervention of an
    instructional team of school librarians and
    teachers to guide students through curriculum
    based inquiry units that build deep knowledge and
    deep understanding of a curriculum topic, and
    gradually lead towards independent learning.
  • Guided Inquiry is grounded in a constructivist
    approach to learning, based on the Information
    Search Process developed by Kuhlthau, for
    developing students competence with learning
    from a variety of sources while enhancing their
    understanding of the content areas of the

What does the ISP tell us?
Stages Feelings Thoughts Actions Task
uncertainty ambiguity seeking i i
relevant Topic Selection
optimism n n information
c t Pre-focus exploration confusion
r e e r Focus formulation
clarity a e
s s Information Collection confidence
e t d Search closure
relief specificity seeking
pertinent Starting writing
ISP as a diagnostic tool
  • Vygotsky

Novice Expert
Uncertainty Understanding
Constructivism Meta-cognition
Zones of Intervention
Zone of Proximal Development
Task Initiation First Stage
Topic Selection Second Stage
Prefocus Exploration Third Stage
Focus Formulation Fourth Stage
Information Collection Fifth Stage
Search Closure Sixth Stage (Presentation)
Break-out Session
  • What happens when the information process goes
  • What does it look like when students get stuck?
  • thoughts
  • feelings
  • actions
  • How can the ISP help to diagnose and remediate?
  • Outcome A list of symptoms and your diagnoses on
    newspaper print.

When it goes wrong
Interpretation of ComplexityConnecting new
information into patternsin a continuum
Flow is the state of deep but effortless
involvement in an activity. Reading is
currently perhaps the most often mentioned flow
activity in the world.
Csikszentmihalyi, 1991, p. 117
Context Independent
Highly connected understood
Csikszentmihalyi, Miahly. The Evolving-Self A
Psychology for the Third Millennium,
Harperperennial Library, 1994.
How do we guide the inquiry?
  • Read

What are you curious about? What do you already
know? What personal experiences might you
explore? What have you/could you read?
Task Initiation Topic Selection
Pre-focus Formulation Focus Formulation
Information Collection Closure/Presentation
Strategic Reading
  • Understanding
  • being able to explain information,
  • connect it with previous knowledge,
  • and use information. (Beck, et al.)
  • Strategic
  • Reading
  • thinking about reading
  • in a way that enhances
  • learning and understanding
  • (Harvey Goudvis, 2000)

Information The raw material
Instructional Interventions/Reading Strategies
Asking What do you wonder? to promote student
Generated questions
Making connections (text-text text-life
Asking questions to track confusion (How do you
know when you are confused? What do you do when
Thinking aloud, marking text (sticky notes,
highlights codes to types of thinking)
Mental modeling (read aloud/think aloud)
ISP is the organizing principle
  • ISP is the only research-based information search
  • ISP is central to guided inquiry
  • Stages of ISP parallel reading comprehension

Task Initiation First Stage
Establishing Prior Knowledge Visualization Conce
pt Maps
Topic Selection Second Stage
Asking questions before, during, after
reading What do you wonder? Mental modeling
Prefocus Exploration Third Stage
Monitoring comprehension clarifying,
summariz-- ing, predicting, fix-up (repair)
Focus Formulation Fourth Stage
Determining what is important graphic
organizers Sticky notes highlighting
Information Collection Fifth Stage
Inferences, connections graphic organizers for
Search Closure Sixth Stage (Presentation)
Synthesizing information Making connections
(text-life text-other texts text-world)
Support for the Research Process
  • Making a Difference
  • School Library Association of Victoria
  • http//www.slav.schools.net.au/
  • Click on Publications
  • Download order form

Break-out Session
  • Reflect on and discuss your practice and the
    opportunities for remediation in the context of
    actual projects you have designed and/or taught.
    Use your work from last session.
  • How can you use instructional interventions that
  • Help information search process problems?
  • Promote reading for understanding?
  • How could the ISP have helped?
  • How could you have used reading strategies, as
    well as information problems, to help your
  • Outcome Create a list of problems and

The BHS Story
Reading Takes You Places
http//www.barnstable.k12.ma. us/bhs/Library/ Summ
Research Questions
  • What can we learn about the reading behaviors and
    attitudes of students from a web-based summer
    reading program/
  • How can we use this evidence to revise the

Findings of the Barnstable Study
  • Participation in summer reading
  • Non-participants 10 (14 of males 4 of
  • CP1s had highest non-participatory rate (33)
  • 11th and 12th grades had higher non-participatory
  • What students liked
  • Choice non-graded lists multiple (12) lists
  • High and average achieving students enjoyed
    freedom to browse and liked the choices of lists
    and titles
  • Most popular lists for girls was Best Sellers
    for boys Non-fiction. The other 2 most popular
    YA (Quick Reads), Student and Staff Pix.
  • Choice of project work, e.g., writing, art (more
    project submitted)

What were the reading behaviors?
  • What students didnt like or respond to
  • Digital natives underused features of an
    interactive digital environment (blogging,
    linking to school library and public library
    networked collaborative, linking to virtual book
    stores, using NoveList to find more books like
    the featured title of each list
  • Boys were not happy with reading lists,
    preferring non-fiction (only one list of twelve
    were non-fiction)
  • Students wanted more specific categories
    (boy/girls books sports)
  • Where students got their books for summer reading
  • Students read an average of 3.26 books (3 were
  • CP1 average of books read was 1.2 books
  • 40 got their books from local bookstore 38 of
    books were borrowed from public libraries 36
    read books from home 15 got books from school
    library 13 from a friend or relative 7
    purchased books
  • online.

What were the benefits?
Questions for further study
  • What is the purpose of summer reading?
  • How can we motivate low achieving students to
  • Outlier I feel I can read anything now. CP1
  • How can we better address the reading needs of
  • How can the public library play a significant
    role in supporting the schools goals for summer

Warrior Librarians
The Good Days to Come
  • In these volatile rooms bursting with riotous
    thought, with question on the brink of answer,
    with the insistency of every story ever told,
    every word ever laid down, there is enough energy
    to rock the world. All librarians know this. They
    know that perseverance and change are essential
    in the face of this die-hard effort to define a
    single moment, the mystery of coming to know.
    Thats why we do not whisper here. Why there are
    solid professionals who do not contain their
    enthusiasm. Why there is disorder on the shelves
    as young minds discover that the wonders of a
    universe are within their grasp. Say a prayer
    when you enter, hang onto your hat. Anything can
    happen. This is a library.

Print Resources
  • Beck, I. L.., M. G. McKeown, L. Kucan. 1997.
    Questioning the author An approach for enhancing
    student engagement with text. Newark, DE
    International Reading Association.
  • De Bono, E. 1999. Six thinking hats. Boston
    Little, Brown Co.
  • Harvey, S. 1998. Nonfiction matters. Portland ME
  • Harvey, S. Goudvis, A. 2000. Strategies that
    work. Portland ME Stenhouse
  • Kuhlthau, C. C. 2004. Seeking meaning A process
    approach to library and information services. 2nd
    ed..Westport, CT Libraries Unlimited.
  • National Institute for Child Health and Human
    Development (NICHD). 2000. Report of the National
    Reading Panel. Teaching children to read An
    evidence-based assessment of the scientific
    research literature on reading and its
    implications for reading instruction. (NIH
    Publication No. 00-4769.) Washington D.C. U. S.
    Government Printing Office.
  • RAND Reading Study Group. 2002. Reading for
    understanding Toward and R D program in
    reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA RAND.
  • Tovani, C. 2000. I read it, but I dont get it.
    Portland ME Stenhouse

Web Resources
  • Center for International Scholarship in School
    Libraries. Accessed February 20, 2007.
  • National Center on Education and the Economy.
    2006. Tough times or tough choices Executive
    Summary. Accessed February 15, 2007.
  • Thinkfinity. Literacy, Education and Technology.
    Verizon. http//www.thinkfinity.org/home.aspx
  • The National Reading Panels Report, Teaching
    Children to Read, Partnership for 21st Century
    Skills. 2006. Results that matter 21st century
    skills and high school reform. Accessed February
    15, 2007. lthttp//www.21stcenturyskills.org/docume
  • NGA Center for Best Practices. 2006. Closing the
    achievement Gap. Washington, D.C.
  • lt http//www.subnet.nga.org/educlear/achievement/gt
  • Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Are they
    really ready to work? Employers perspectives on
    the basic knowledge and applied skills of new
    entrants to the 21st century U.S. workforce.
    http//www. Accessed February 15, 2006.
  • Educational Testing Service. 2006. College
    students fall short in demonstrating the ICT
    literacy skills necessary for success in college
    and the workplace. Accessed February 15, 2007.
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