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Gladiatorial Graffiti in Pompeii

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Latin Graffiti. Sometimes painted, sometimes etched into plaster walls ... The Nuceria Gate Graffiti. Gladiator Name: Attilius, Hilarus, Raecius, etc. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gladiatorial Graffiti in Pompeii


1
Gladiatorial Graffiti in Pompeii
  • James M. Lohmar
  • University of Florida
  • Gainesville, FL
  • jmlohmar_at_ufl.edu

2
Pompeii
  • Vesuvius erupts on August 24, 79 AD
  • Pliny the Younger's letter to Tacitus
  • One day frozen in time
  • Valuable resource for classicists

3
Latin Graffiti
  • Sometimes painted, sometimes etched into plaster
    walls
  • This one to the right is a caricature of the
    house dominus

4
Latin Graffiti
  • Tombs on either side of road as you approach city
  • Prime place for graffiti
  • heavy traffic
  • All letters written in capitals
  • u and v are both denoted by capital V
  • e.g. NVCERIA for Nuceria
  • A most often written as ?
  • Principle of Economy
  • abbreviations preferred least amount of space
    for
  • maximum amount of information
  • Interpuncts for word separation
  • Mutual dependence of text and image

5
The Nuceria Gate Graffiti
  • Gate to Nuceria
  • Walls of tombs
  • contain graffiti
  • House of Ceii

6
The Nuceria Gate Graffiti
  • Basic Rubric
  • Gladiator Name
  • Roman Numeral
  • Backward C
  • Second Numeral
  • Final Letter
  • M. ?TTILIVS
  • XII
  • ?
  • X
  • Either V or M

7
The Nuceria Gate Graffiti
  • Gladiator Name Attilius, Hilarus, Raecius, etc.
  • First Roman Numeral Probably denotes the number
    of victories this gladiator has won.
  • victoriae/victoriarum
  • The Reversed C symbol for coronae
  • Second Roman Numeral Number of coronae won
  • This numeral never greater than first
  • Final Letter M or V
  • M stands for missus est reprieved (lost,
    but lived)?
  • V stands for vicit he won
  • Celadus at Pompeii as suspirium puellarum

8
CIL iv 10236
  • M ?TT / M ?TTILIVS I ? I V. / L R?ECIVS FELIX
    XII ? XII M
  • M(arcus) Att(ilius) / M(arcus) Attilius
    (victoriae) I (coronae) I V(icit). / L(ucius)
    Raecius Felix / (victoriarum) XII (coronarum) XII
    M(issus est).
  • Marcus Attilius. Marcus Attilius, victorious
    once, awarded a wreath once, won. Lucius Raecius
    Felix, victorious 12 times, awarded a wreath 12
    times, earned a reprieve.

9
CIL iv 12037
  • HIL?RVS NER XIV ? / XII V. / CREVNVS VII ? V M.
    / PRICEPS / NER XII ? XII? / V.
  • Hilarus Ner(onianus) (victoriarum) XIV /
    (coronarum) / XII v(icit). / Creunus
    (victoriarum) VII (coronarum) V m(issus est). /
    Pri(n)ceps / Ner(onianus) (victoriarum) XII
    (coronarum) XII? / v(icit).
  • Hilarus, from Nero's training school, victorious
    14 times, awarded a wreath 12 times, won.
    Creunus, victorious 7 times, awarded a wreath 5
    times, earned a reprieve. Princeps, from Nero's
    training school, victorious 12 times, awarded a
    wreath 12 (?) times, won.

10
CIL iv 12038
  • M ?TTILIVS T V. / HIL?RVS NER XIV ? XIII / M.
  • M(arcus) Attilius t(iro) v(icit). / Hilarus
    Ner(onianus) (victoriarum) XIV (coronarum) XIII /
    m(issus est).
  • Marcus Attilius as an amateur won. / Hilarus,
    from Nero's training school, victorious 14 times,
    awarded a wreath 13 times, earned a reprieve.

11
The House of the Ceii
  • Written into plaster walls
  • Far more abbreviated
  • Slightly different rubric
  • Name
  • Letter L lib, libr, libe
  • Numeral
  • V if winner
  • opponent's (loser's) fate?

12
CIL iv 8055
  • OCE?NVS L XIII V. ?R?CINTVS L IIII.
  • Oceanus l(iber) (victoriarum) XIII v(icit).
    Aracintus l(iber) (victoriarum) IIII (missus
    est).
  • Oceanus, of free status, victorious 13 times,
    won. Aracintus, of free status, victorious 4
    times, earned a reprieve.

13
CIL iv 8056
  • SEVERVS L XIII. ?LB?NVS SC L XIX V.
  • Severus l(iber) (victoriarum) XIII (missus
    est). Albanus sc(aeva) l(iber) (victoriarum) XIX
    v(icit).
  • Severus, of free status, victorious 13 times,
    earned a reprieve. Albanus, left-hander, of free
    status, victorious 19 times, won.
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