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Title: Standards


1
SENG 691Q System Integration and E-Commerce
An Overview for Software EngineersWVU MS
Software Engineering Lecture 2 Instructor
Michael Evanoff (evanoffm_at_mantech-wva.com) Use
SENG 691Q in subject of ALL emails!!!
2
Reading Assignments
  • Chapters 1 - 5 in the e-Business 2.0 book

3
Some takeaways from reading assignment
  • Understand the importance of the term
    Enterprise
  • Applications, Architectures, Computing, Culture,
    Management, etc.
  • Trends driving E-Business Architecture
  • Velocity of business, enterprise boundaries are
    disappearing, technology expectations are higher
  • Technology infrastructure is becoming more
    pervasive and ubiquitous
  • E-Business Application Architecture
  • See Figure 5.11
  • Supply Chain, CRM, ERP, EAI, etc.
  • Horizontal vs. Vertical
  • Begin understanding the important role that
    integration plays with respect to E-Business

4
Legacy to the Future
  • EDI in use by big Fortune 1000
  • See statistics 95 of Fortune 1000 use EDI today
  • The Government is a big user of EDI
  • Web Services XML are coming on like a tidal
    wave
  • Both Big Industry the Government is embracing
    XML
  • The goal is to transition smoothly from X12
    Legacy Systems to Standards-based Web Services
    XML

5
EDI Example Manufacturing Sector
This market represents about 65 of all
commercial EDI
Freight Forwarding
1st Tier Manufacturer
Wholesaler / Warehouses
6
Commercial EDI Standards For DoD Logistics
The Fed / DoD Infrastructure
the ANSI X12 environment ...
  • In step with finance, procurement,
  • civil agencies facilitates integration
  • In step with 95 of the Fortune 1000
  • companies facilitates electronic
  • partnerships with industry
  • Pre-requisite for re-engineering
  • (e.g., facilitates adopting commercial
  • practices w/COTS (Software), third party
  • log support)
  • Expand electronic commerce
  • ... (e.g.., maintenance, warehousing)

Web Enabled

Web Enabled
  • Links warfighter to commercial sector
  • Responsive to new process opportunities
  • Facilitates adoption of commercial practices

9
7
Ray Lanes Forces Shaping the EC Market
8
Lecture Two Outline
  • Overview of tonights lecture
  • Importance of Standards
  • Pre-Web Standards related to EC
  • Web Standards for EC
  • Open Source Standards for EC
  • Categorizing Web EC Standards
  • Industry Associations EC Standards
  • E-Business Standards Efforts
  • Critical Success Factors for Web EC Maturation

9
1. Importance of Standards
10
Standards
  • Standards provide a vendor-neutral boundary layer
    between the business systems used by each party
    in a given trading partner community.
  • To achieve interoperability, EC standards, as a
    minimum, must address secure connectivity, data
    semantics, data syntax, document format,
    transmission control protocol, etc.

11
EC Standards
  • Typically, a pair of trading partners or an
    entire trading community (including online
    consumer community) will agree upon the
    applicable standards and document them in some
    form of agreement.
  • Alternatively, as in the case of online browsers,
    the standards may be industry defined.
  • The standards universe for Electronic Commerce
    ranges from the purely technical transmission
    standards, such as TCP/IP, to those designed to
    address the business content of the EC
    transaction, such as EDI and XML.

12
e-Business Business Process Constructs
choreography
Design, Develop, Execute, Manage, Evaluate
workflow
Layer 5 - Layer 4 - Layer 3 - Layer 2 -
Layer 1 -
(metamodel)
Application(s)
Pervasive Technical Infrastructure
metadata
raw data
13
Traditional EDI vs. Next Generation e-Busines
Intelligent Business Information
Syntax
Semantics
Integration




TraditionalEDI
  • ICs
  • DEDs
  • ISO 9735
  • X12.6,x
  • Mapper / Translator
  • XML
  • Schemas
  • OWL, RDF
  • Repository
  • Namespace
  • BizCodes
  • Core Components
  • XSLT, DOM, Links,JDBC, Agents, APIs,
    middleware, etc.

Web EC
Plus Transport, Routing, Security too!
XML RPC SOAP UDDI MOF, XMI CWMI APIs
14
e-Business System Core Service Layers
  • Interoperability Services
  • Data translation, transformation, workflow, etc.
  • Validation Services
  • Content, syntax, etc.
  • Security Services
  • Authorization, encryption, authentication,
    detection, etc.
  • Transport Services
  • Routing, guaranteed delivery, receive, logs,
    recovery, etc.

-- secondary functions might include business
activity monitoring, analytics, etc.
15
A Definitive Need for Standardization
Hello?
Bonjour?
XML
  • Global Standards will enable
  • Minimized the need for training personnel in use
    and maintenance of EDI standards
  • Eliminating the costs associated with
    duplication of functionality
  • Minimizing the need for multiple translation
    software, and
  • Semantic harmonization, which in turn will
    provide interoperability among different but
    interconnected applications

16
2. Pre-Web Standards Related to EC
17
Pre-Web E-Commerce Standards
  • EDI
  • X12 UN/EDIFACT
  • IETF
  • TCP/IP
  • FTP
  • SMTP, etc.
  • Automated Clearing House (ACH) Fed. Reserve
  • Banking Finance industry
  • ISO
  • Code lists
  • Data element naming conventions, etc.

18
Pre-Web Standards
  • www.ansi.org American National Standards
    Institute
  • www.x12.org ANSI ASC X12 Committee
  • American National Standards Institute Accredited
    Standards Committee X12. X12 is an Accredited
    Standards Committee operating under the
    procedures of the American National Standards
    Institute. ASC X12 develops, maintains,
    interprets, publishes and promotes the proper use
    of Electronic Data Interchange standards.

19
Pre-Web (and Post-Web) Standards
  • www.disa.org Data Interchange Standards
    Association
  • Data Interchange Standards Association the
    secretariat and educational arm for ASC X12,
    entry point for U.S. participation with the
    UN/EDIFACT standard, and manager for a number of
    industry e-business organizations.

20
Pre-Web (and Post-Web) Standards
  • www.uncefact.org -- United Nations Centre for
    Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business
  • United Nations Centere for Trade Facilitation and
    Electronic Business
  • www.iso.ch International Organization for
    Standardization
  • Worldwide federation of national standards bodies
    from some 130 countries, one from each country

21
Examples of some ISO standards used in E-Business
  • ISO 639. Code for the representation of names of
    languages.
  • ISO 4217. Codes for the representation of
    currencies and funds.
  • ISO 8601. Data elements and interchange formats
    -- Information interchange -- Representation of
    dates and times.
  • ISO 6709. Standard representation of latitude,
    longitude and altitude, for geographic point
    locations.
  • ISO 3166. English country names and code elements.

22
Internet Engineering Task Force
  • www.ietf.org --
  • Internet Engineering Task Force is an open
    international community of network designers,
    operators, vendors, and researchers concerned
    with the evolution of the Internet architecture
    and the smooth operation of the Internet.

23
Some IETF Standardsused in E-Business
  • TCP/IP
  • Transmission Communication Protocol / Internet
    Protocol
  • MIME
  • Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
  • SMTP
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  • FTP
  • File Transfer Protocol
  • Etc.

24
Electronic Payments Standards
  • http//www.nacha.org -- The Electronic Payments
    Association
  • a not-for-profit trade association that develops
    operating rules and business practices for the
    Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network and for
    other areas of electronic payments, which include
    Internet commerce, electronic bill payment and
    presentment (EBPP), financial electronic data
    interchange (EDI), international payments,
    electronic checks, electronic benefits transfer
    (EBT) and student lending. Also promote the use
    of electronic payment products and services, such
    as Direct Deposit and Direct Payment

-- National ACH Association (NACHA)
25
Electronic Payments Standards
  • Fedwire
  • The Federal Reserve Banks operate the Fedwire
    electronic funds transfer, bonds, treasury bills,
    mortgages, and securities services.
  • Institutions that maintain a reserve or clearing
    account with a Federal Reserve Bank may use
    Fedwire to send payments to, or receive payments
    from, other account holders directly. These
    payments are primarily for the settlement of
    interbank purchases and sales of fed funds the
    purchase, sale, and financing of securities
    transactions the disbursement of loan proceeds
    or the repayment of loans and the settlement of
    real estate transactions.

26
Object Management Group
  • OMG
  • http//www.omg.org
  • The OMG was formed to create a component-based
    software marketplace by hastening the
    introduction of standardized object software. The
    organization's charter includes the establishment
    of industry guidelines and detailed object
    management specifications to provide a common
    framework for application development.
    Conformance to these specifications will make it
    possible to develop a heterogeneous computing
    environment across all major hardware platforms
    and operating systems.
  • See XMI, UML, Corba/Java binding

27
Product / ServiceIdentification Standards
  • International Article Numbering Association
  • http//www.ean-int.org
  • Working with the development of a set of
    standards enabling the efficient management of
    global, multi-industry supply chains by uniquely
    identifying products, shipping units, assets,
    locations and services. It facilitates electronic
    commerce processes including full tracking and
    traceability.
  • The International Article Numbering Association,
    which in cooperation with the UCC administers the
    UCC/EAN system. The UCC/EAN system consists of
    product and serialized identification codes,
    Application Identifiers, and associated symbols
    for recognition.

-- EAN European Article Numbering Association
28
Product / ServiceIdentification Standards
  • Uniform Code Council
  • http//www.uc-council.org/
  • The mission of the Uniform Code Council, Inc., is
    to take a global leadership role in establishing
    and promoting multi-industry standards for
    product identification and related electronic
    communication. 
  • The goal is to enhance supply chain management
    thus contributing added value to the customer.

29
Trading PartnerIdentification Standards
  • Dun Bradstreet
  • http//www.dnb.com/
  • DUNS Number Name Services are based on Dun and
    Bradstreet's Data Universal Numbering System
    (DUNS Number).
  • The DUNS Number is an internationally recognized
    nine-digit company identifier used for EDI and
    electronic commerce.
  • Note the Government sometimes uses a DUNS 4
    number

30
EAN/UCC vs. DUNS
  • The EAN/UCC and Dun Bradstreet are competitors
    in this business of assigning company numbers for
    building location codes. DB operates world-wide,
    assigning unique DUNS numbers to all legal
    entities, whereas you have to join the EAN or UCC
    before an EAN company prefix will be assigned.
    Therefore, the DUNS4 assignment might be more
    convenient for some companies.

31
3. Web Standards for EC
32
Web EC Standards
  • Enabling Standards
  • HTTP, CGI
  • XML Family, HTML
  • Web Services
  • Java servlets, applets, translets,
    applications, and enterprise component modules
  • Open Source
  • We will discuss this today in part four of this
    brief
  • Business Application Frameworks
  • See next slide

33
Fusion of Pre-Web and Web Standards
34
WHO IS DOING WHAT?Standards Activities Directly
Related to XML
  • International Standards Bodies
  • ISO/IEC JTC1
  • ISO TC184/SC4
  • ISO TC 154
  • ISO MOU/MG
  • UN/CEFACT EWG
  • Consortia
  • W3C
  • OASIS
  • OMG
  • ebXML
  • XML.org
  • OAG
  • RosettaNet
  • BizTalk

XML Standards Activities
35
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
  • The World Wide Web Consortium is the main
    standards body (non-accredited) for the
    World-Wide Web. W3C was created by the
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
    during October 1994. Netscape Communications
    Corporation was a founding member. The
    Consortium is operated by MIT Laboratory for
    Computer Science (LCS) and The French National
    Institute for Research in Computer Science and
    Control (INRIA), in collaboration with CERN where
    the Web originated.

36
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
  • W3C is funded by industrial members and with
    support from DARPA and the European Commission
    but its products are freely available to all.
    Organizations may apply for membership to the
    Consortium individual membership isn't offered.
    The director is Tim Berners-Lee who invented the
    World-Wide Web at the Center for European
    Particle Research (CERN).
  • --See next slide

37
W3C Members (Over 300)
Motorola
  • ABN-AMRO Bank
  • Access
  • Access Company Limited
  • Acuity
  • Adobe Systems Inc.
  • AGF.SI
  • Agfa Division, Bayer Corp.
  • Agile Software
  • Agranat Systems, Inc.
  • Alcatel Alsthom Recherche
  • Alfa-Omega Foundation
  • Aliaron, Inc.
  • Alis Technologies, Inc.
  • Allaire Corporation
  • America Online, Inc.
  • American Express
  • AND Data Ltd
  • AND-USA, Inc.
  • APACS

Commissariat a LÉnergie Atomique (CEA) Compaq
Computer Corporation Computer Answer Line Concur
Technologies Corel Corporation Corporation for
National Research Initiatives (CNRI) Council for
the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils
(CCL) Crystaliz, Inc. CSIRO Australia CyberCash,
Inc. Daewoo Electronics Company Data Channel Data
Interchange Standards Association, Inc.
(DISA) Data Research Associates, Inc. Datafusion,
Inc. Datalogics, Incorporated Defense Information
Systems Agency (DISA) Department of
Communications, Information Technology and the
Arts Deutsche Telekom - Online Service GmbH
(T-Online) DFN Verein Digital Vision Laboratories
Corporation Direct Marketing Association,
Inc. Distributed Systems Technology Centre (DSTC
Pty Ltd) DoubleClick E-centre UK Eastman Kodak
Company EC Cubed, Inc. École Nationale Supérieure
dInformatique et de Mathématiques Appliquées
(ENSIMAG) University of Edinburgh (HCRC Language
Technology Group) EEIG/ERCIM Electricité de
France Electronic Network Consortium ENEL Engage
Technologies Enigma ENN Corporation Entrust
Technologies, Inc. Epicentric, Inc. Eprise
Corporation ERICSSON Ernst Young LLP ETNOTEAM
S.p.A. EUnet International BV Excosoft Federal
Geographic Data Committee Fermi National
Accelerator Laboratory FIZ Karlsruhe
(FachInformationsZentrum) Forschungszentrum
Informatik (FZI) Foundation for Research and
Technology (FORTH) France Telecom Fraunhofer
IGD Fretwell-Downing Data Systems Ltd. FSTC
(Financial Services Technology Consortium) Fujitsu
Limited Fulcrum Technologies, Inc. GE
Information Services, Inc. GEMPLUS General Magic,
Inc. GEO Interactive Media Group Ltd. George
Washington University Geoworks GlobeID Software
MindQuake Interactive, Inc. MITRE
Corporation Mitsubishi Electric
Corporation Motorola MTA SZTAKI NASA Ames
Research Center National Chiao Tung
University National Security Agency
(NSA) National University of Singapore NCompass
Labs, Inc. NCR NEC Corporation NETAWAY Netscape
Communications NetStudio Corporation Network
Computer, Inc. (NCI) Network Solutions University
of New South Wales NHS (National Health Service,
UK) Nippon Telegraph Telephone Corp.
(NTT) NOKIA Corporation Nortel Novell, Inc. NTT
Data Corporation NTT Mobile Communications
Network, Inc. (NTT DoCoMo) OReilly Associates,
Inc. Organization for the Advancement of
Structured Information Standards (OASIS) Object
Design Object Management Group, Inc. (OMG) Object
Services and Consulting, Inc. OCLC (Online
Computer Library Center, Inc.) OmniMark
Technologies Corporation ONION S.p.A. The Open
Group Open Market, Inc. Open Software Associates,
Inc. Open Text Corporation Oracle
Corporation Pacific Softworks Paradigm
Development Corporation Partners HealthCare
System, Inc. Pencom Web Works Perspecta,
Inc. Pervasive Software Philips Electronic
N.V. Phoenix Technologies Ltd. Poet Software
Corporation PointCast Incorporated Pretty Good
Privacy, Inc. The Productivity Works,
Inc. Qualcomm Inc. Quark, Inc. Rapid Logic,
Inc. Raptor Systems, Inc. RealNetworks Reed
Elsevier Reuters Limited Rivcom Riverland Holding
NV/SA Royal Melbourne Institute of
Technology Royal National Institute for the Blind
(RNIB) S.W.I.F.T. sc SAIC/Bellcore
Sandpiper Networks, Inc. SAP AG SBC Technology
Resources Security Dynamics Technologies,
Inc. Segue Software Sema Group Sharp
Corporation SICS Sitara Networks,
Inc. Snap SoftQuad Software, Inc. Software
AG Software Publishers Association
(SPA) Sonnetech, Ltd. Sony Corporation University
of Southampton Speech Works International,
Inc. Spyglass, Inc. Sqribe Technologies StarBurst
Communications Strategic Interactive Group Stuart
McIntosh Sun Microsystems, Inc. surfCONTROL SURFne
t bv Swedish Institute for Systems Development
(SISU) Sybase, Inc. Synth-Bank Tandem Computers,
a division of Compaq Technische Universitat
Graz Teknema Corporation Telecom Colombia Telecom
Italia Texcel Group The Thomson
Corporation TIAA-CREF TNO Multimedia and
Telecommunications Toshiba Corporation Toyota
Motor Corporation Trilogy Technologies,
Inc. TRUSTe 2Bridge Software UKERNA UNI.C United
States Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) Unwired Planet UWI.Com Veon, Inc. VeriSign,
Inc. Verity, Inc. Victor Data Systems Co.,
Ltd. Vignette Corporation Visio Corporation VTT
Information Technology Wall Data
Incorporated Waterloo Maple webMethods,
Inc. WebTV Networks Inc. WinWriters Wolfram
Research, Inc. worldweb WWW - KR Xerox
Corporation Xionics Document Technologies, Inc.
Sony
Intel
IBM
DISA
  • GMD National Research Center for Information
    Technology
  • Graphic Communications Association
  • Grenoble Network Initiative
  • Groove Networks, Inc.
  • Groupe ESC Grenoble
  • GTW Associates
  • Harlequin Inc.
  • Health Level Seven, Inc.
  • The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • Helsinki Telephone Corporation
  • Hewlett Packard Company
  • Hitachi, Ltd.
  • Hong Kong Jockey Club
  • Hong Kong Productivity Council
  • Hong Kong University of Science Technology
  • HTML Writers Guild, Inc.
  • Hyperwave Information Management, Ges. m.b.H.
  • IBERDROLA S.A.
  • IBM Corporation

Novell
National Labs
ATT
Cisco
Compaq
Microsoft
Netscape
Apple
Lotus
Corel
Oracle
Boeing
Sun
Sybase
NSA
HP
Xerox
Kodak
Adobe
GE
38
XML Specifications
  • The core specification is subset of the Standard
    Generalized Markup Language (ISO standard 8879)
  • The XML series of related technical
    specifications
  • Provide a syntax for identifying, exchanging, and
    displaying data
  • Are designed for data exchanges using web
    transfer protocols between connection nodes - and
    the originator/receiver of the data

39
XML Specifications
  • The Technical Specifications -
  • Are developed by the World Wide Web Consortium
    (W3C)
  • Issued as W3C recommendations
  • Not submitted to accredited standards bodies

40
Web Internet Standards Bodies
  • The Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  • The Document Object Model (DOM),
  • XSL Transformations (XSLT)
  • The XML Path Language (XPath)
  • Namespaces in XML
  • XML HyperText Markup Language (XHTML)
  • EDIINT, SMTP, FTP, etc.

41
XML Business Standards
  • The developing XML business standards provide
    metadata containers
  • These business standards provide the following
    capabilities
  • Define format
  • Define content
  • Define how information will be exchanged

42
Some additional XML Specs
  • Schema Working Group
  • XML Schemas
  • Core Working Group
  • XML 1.1, Canonical XML, XML Base, XML InfoSet,
    XInclude, XML Fragment Interchange
  • Linking Working Group
  • XLink, XPointer
  • Query Working Group
  • XML Query
  • XML Signature

43
4. Open Source Standards for EC
44
Open Source StandardsThe source code is in the
public domain
  • Star Office
  • http//www.openoffice.org
  • Java Community Process
  • http//jcp.org/en/home/index
  • Apache Software Foundation
  • http//www.apache.org/
  • Mozilla.Org
  • http//www.mozilla.org/
  • Linux - http//www.linux.org

45
Microsoft.NET
  • API for programmatic access to Microsofts
    emerging Web Services, which include the
    following
  • UDDI
  • SOAP
  • Mobile Computing
  • Palm Computing
  • E-Commerce
  • etc.

46
5. Categorizing Web EC Standards
47
Bill Joys - The Emerging Six Webs
  • 1. Near Web - The most familiar Web we interact
    with from our desktop.
  • 2. Pocket Web Like Wireless Application
    Protocol for an information appliance like the
    Palm.
  • 3. Entertainment Web Television combined with
    Web experience.
  • 4. The Voice Web - Any device with a built-in
    chip that can respond to your voice (phone today
    / radio soon).
  • 5. The EC Web - The Web that automates
    behind-the-scenes business transactions.
  • 6. The Device Web - The Web with different
    devices that let each other know their
    capabilities, and interact accordingly.

Human in the loop
48
Web E-Commerce Standards
  • Describing data / information
  • Presenting data
  • Linking data
  • Processing Data
  • APIs / Data models
  • Identification Standards
  • Security Standards
  • Industry Specific Business Standards

49
Emerging e-Business FrameworkStandardization
Areas
Registries
Security
Repositories
Transport Routing
Services
Content Definition
Integration
e-Business Standardization Activities
50
6. Industry Associations EC Standards
51
Industry Associations
  • Sometimes referred to as Industry Trade Group or
    Trade Association, is generally a public
    relations organization founded and funded by
    corporations that operate in a specific industry.
  • Its purpose is generally to support and promote
    the industry through outreach and support
    activities to facilitate collaboration between
    companies, and to support standardization.
  • E-Business conventions and requirements trickle
    down from Top-tier to lower tier E-Business
    partners
  • Associations may offer other services, such as
    producing conferences, networking, offering
    training classes / educational materials, etc.
  • Many associations are non-profit organizations
    governed by bylaws and directed by officers who
    are also members.

52
Specific Industries
  • Automotive
  • Aviation
  • Banking and Finance
  • Communications
  • Consulting
  • Electronics
  • Energy Utilities
  • Government (Defense, Federal, State, Local)

53
Specific Industries continued...
  • Healthcare
  • Insurance
  • Petroleum
  • Publishing
  • Raw Materials
  • Retail
  • Software
  • Transportation

54
EIA Electronics Industry Association
  • EIDX (www.eia.org)
  • The Electronic Industries Alliance is a
    federation of Associations and Sectors operating
    in the most competitive yet innovative industry
    in existence. They are the critical players in
    their industries. Each has their own members,
    their own mission, their own autonomy. United
    under EIA, they form the premier high technology
    organization in the world.
  • EIA connects them, not only offering digital age
    companies membership in leading associations -
    but also provides the unique benefits of a true
    cross-sector alliance.
  • EIA is a complete resource, and a powerful,
    unified voice to expand and advance the
    electronics industries.

55
AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION (AIA)
  • The AIA (www.aia-aerospace.org)
  • The Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) of
    America, Inc., based in Washington, DC, is the
    premier trade association representing the
    nation's manufacturers of commercial, military,
    and business aircraft, helicopters, aircraft
    engines, missiles, spacecraft, materiels, and
    related components and equipment.

56
Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG)
  • www.aiag.org
  • The Automotive Industry Action Group is a
    globally recognized organization founded in 1982
    by a group of visionary managers from
    DaimlerChrysler, Ford, and General Motors.
  • The purpose To provide an open forum where
    members cooperate in developing and promoting
    solutions that enhance the prosperity of the
    automotive industry.
  • AIAGs focus is to continuously improve business
    processes and practices involving trading
    partners throughout the supply chain.
  • (see also www.gmsupplier.com)

57
AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (ATA)
  • http//www.air-transport.org
  • The purpose of the ATA is to support and assist
    its members by promoting the air transport
    industry and the safety, cost effectiveness, and
    technological advancement of its operations
    advocating common industry positions before state
    and local governments conducting designated
    industry-wide programs and assuring governmental
    and public understanding of all aspects of air
    transport.

58
Electronic Payments Association
  • www.nacha.org
  • NACHA is a not-for-profit trade association that
    develops operating rules and business practices
    for the Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network
    and for other areas of electronic payments.  
  • NACHA activities and initiatives facilitate the
    adoption of electronic payments in the areas of
    Internet commerce, electronic bill payment and
    presentment (EBPP), financial electronic data
    interchange (EDI), international payments,
    electronic checks, electronic benefits transfer
    (EBT) and student lending. 
  • We also promote the use of electronic payment
    products and services, such as Direct Deposit and
    Direct Payment.

59
Insurance Industry Association
  • Insurance Industry
  • http//www.acord.org/about_frame.htm
  • The Association for Cooperative Operations
    Research and Development, is the insurance
    industry's nonprofit standards developer, a
    resource for information about object technology,
    EDI, XML and electronic commerce in the United
    States and abroad.

60
American Trucking Association
  • Trucking Association
  • http//www.trucking.org/
  • The American Trucking Associations is the
    national trade association of the trucking
    industry. Our mission is to serve the united
    interests of the 9.3 million people and
    423,000-plus companies involved in trucking, and
    to educate public officials at all levels of
    government about the essential nature of our
    business.

61
Government Perspectives
  • U.S. Government Policy
  • United States Electronic Commerce Policy Page
  • http//www.whitehouse.gov/omb/egov/
  • See the 2003 E-Government Strategyhttp//www.whi
    tehouse.gov/omb/egov/2003egov_strat.pdf
  • Federal Office of Electronic Government and
    Technology
  • http//www.estrategy.gov/

62
International Development
  • World Customs Organization (WCO)
  • http//www.wcoomd.org/
  • The WCO RECOMMENDS that Members of the Council
    and all members of the United Nations
    Organization or its specialized agencies, and
    Customs or Economic Unions should apply the
    UN/EDIFACT rules as defined in the Annex to this
    Recommendation, and future updated versions of
    these rules for the preparation of electronic
    messages to be interchanged between Customs
    administrations and between Customs
    administrations and other trade users.

63
International Development
  • United Nations Commission on International Trade
    Law - STANDARDIZATION POLICIES
  • http//www.unece.org/
  • Trade Facilitation Web Sites
  • http//www.unece.org/trade/
  • World Trade Organization
  • http//www.wto.org/
  • World Bank / IMF
  • Controlled by the G7 group of seven
    industrial countries

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7. E-Business Standards Efforts
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ebXML
  • electronic business XML (www.ebXML.org)
  • a joint effort of UN/CEFACT and OASIS with the
    collaboration of cross-industry electronic
    business experts and e-commerce initiatives to
    establish a suite of specifications to enable a
    standardized global framework the business
    specifications for the exchange of electronic
    business data using XML.
  • The group began work in November of 1999 and has
    a self imposed goal of 18 months to deliver a
    suite of technical specifications
  • The group will turn these specs over to an
    accredited stds body

-- Organization for the Advancement of Structured
Information Standards
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ebXML Industry Support
  • Industry Associations represented
  • AIAG (auto)
  • Aviation Industry
  • OTA (travel)
  • Government
  • Food
  • Finance
  • Banking
  • etc.

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ebXML Government Participation
  • U.S. Government
  • EC Program Office
  • NIST (Natl Institute for Standards Testing)
  • Military Transport Materiel Command (MTMC)
  • DOD Contractor Support
  • ManTech Mike Evanoff
  • LMI
  • MITRE

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ebXML Stds Bodies Represented
  • ISO
  • International Organization for Standardization
  • http//www.iso.ch/
  • CEN ISSS
  • The European Committee for Standardization
    Information Society Standardization System
  • http//www.cenorm.be/
  • ANSI X12 / DISA
  • Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) X12
  • http//www.disa.org/

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ebXML Stds Bodies Represented
  • UN/CEFACT
  • UN Centre for Trade Facilitation and E-Business
  • http//www.unece.org/cefact/
  • W3C and IETF (non-accredited)
  • See XML/EDI Standardization An Industry Profile
    Report
  • http//www.w3.org
  • http//www.ietf.org
  • OMG
  • Object Management Group
  • http//www.omg.org/

70
RosettaNetwww.rosettanet.org
  • RosettaNet is an independent, self-funded,
    non-profit consortium dedicated to the
    development and deployment of standard electronic
    business interfaces. These standards form a
    common eBusiness language, aligning processes
    between supply chain partners on a global basis.
  • RosettaNets main thrust has been initially to
    integrate the supply chain for the Personal
    Computer Hardware supply chain, although they
    plan to expand into other supply chains
  • Many leading manufacturers in the PC Hardware
    supply chain are using the RosettaNet approach to
    e-business integration using XML

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BizTalk http//www.microsoft.com/biztalk/
  • Microsofts attempt to take over the XML/EDI and
    e-Business exchange marketplace
  • BizTalk includes
  • BizTalk Framework
  • BizTalk Tools and Server
  • Targeting providing a complete solution for both
    traditional EDI (X12 EDIFACT) and XML business
    integration

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  • eCo Framework (1/2)http//eco.commerce.net
  • eCo Interoperability Framework consists of the
    Architecture and the Semantic Recommendation
    which define 7 layers of information allowing
    prospective trading partners to learn the
    requirements for interoperating by simply
    browsing the structured document on the Trading
    Partners website.
  • The Architecture defines the way businesses
    describe themselves and their commerce services,
    as well as the markets or trading communities to
    which they belong.
  • The Semantic Recommendations describe best
    practices for developing XML based e-commerce
    documents. The recommendations also define a set
    of XML building blocks and document definitions
    that will let future XML specifications to
    interoperate easily with existing ones.
  • Through this information, Trading Partners can
    locate the system, understand what it is for,
    recognize what markets it participates in,
    identify protocols the system uses to
    communicate, discover what documents the system
    uses to conduct business, and learn how to
    interoperate with the system.

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  • eCo Framework (2/2)
  • An initiative of CommerceNet, an industry
    consortium with over 500 members, with Commerce
    One as the primary corporate sponsor. It does
    not require implementing new standards for a
    company's e-commerce systems, nor does it compete
    with transaction protocols or business semantic
    languages.
  • Participation by CommerceNet and Commerce One is
    partly funded by a grant from U.S. Department of
    Commerce (NIST) Advanced Technology Program
    Advanced Technology Program.
  • The eCo Specification was designed by industry
    for industry
  • Public release of eCo Interoperability
    Specification working draft was made May 1999
    with Public release of final Specifications in
    August 1999.

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Organization for the Advancement of Structured
Information Standards (1/2)
http//www.oasis-open.org/
  • A nonprofit, international consortium dedicated
    to accelerating the adoption of
    product-independent formats based on public
    standards including SGML, XML, Web Services, SOA,
    and many other key areas.
  • Members of OASIS are providers, users and
    specialists of the technologies that make
    structured information standards work in practice
    and there are more than 100 member organizations
    dedicated in supporting the application of XML
    including
  • Boeing Aircraft Microsoft NIST Dun
    Bradstreet IBM Corporation
  • Sabre Oracle Corporation Sun Microsystems Inform
    ix Software
  • Provides an open forum where members discuss
    market needs and directions and recommend
    guidelines for product interoperability. The
    consortium creates, receives, coordinates, and
    disseminates information describing
    methodologies, technologies and standards
    implementations.
  • OASIS complements the work of standards bodies,
    focusing on making them easy to adopt, practical
    to use and seeks to help achieve supportive
    industry consensus.

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OASIS (2/2)
  • The XML Conformance Subcommittee or Working
    Group - a joint development effort between OASIS
    and NIST (National Institute of Standards
    Technology) where XML vendors, content providers
    and users can discuss issues pertinent to XML
    conformance.
  • OASIS recently advised the North Atlantic Treaty
    Organization (NATO) on the impact of XML on
    information technology development and its
    potential for NATOs information systems.
  • Sponsors the XML Cover Pages - widely regarded
    as the most comprehensive online reference work
    for XML and its parent, SGML.
  • Joined with UN/CEFACT - The United Nations body
    for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business in
    development of the ebXML, the vendor-neutral
    Electronic Business XML Initiative to establish a
    global technical and semantic framework that will
    enable XML to be used in a consistent manner for
    the exchange of electronic business data.
  • Advisable for anyone with XML prospective goals
    to closely watch, listen and learn from leading
    edge technological organizations such as OASIS
    and its sponsoring members.

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XML.ORG
http//www.xml.org/
  • XML.ORG is an industry web portal / repository
    designed to provide a credible source of
    accurate, timely information about the
    application of XML in industrial and commercial
    settings and to serve as a reference repository
    for XML specifications such as vocabularies,
    DTDs, schemas, and namespaces.

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XML Common Business Library - xCBL (1/3)
http//www.xcbl.org
xCBL 2.0 is the first open XML specification for
the cross-industry exchange of business documents
such as product descriptions, purchase orders,
invoices, and shipping schedules. xCBL version
2.0 is a set of XML building blocks created to
provide the schema document framework that is
needed for robust, reusable XML document exchange
in e-commerce and quick development of XML
applications. Some of these building blocks come
from well established international standards
such as xCBL 2.0 has a goal to harmonize
these standards as much as possible. Veo Systems,
acquired by Commerce One (1999) was chosen in
September of 1997 by the U.S. Governments
Advanced Technology Program (ATP) of the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to
conduct research and development on XML
foundations for e-commerce. Commerce Ones
XML-based Common Business Library is an
innovative framework for enabling
interoperability among online trading
communities. The ATP has been partly funding the
underlying xCBL research since 1997 because we
believed in its potential to have a major impact
on e-commerce and the nations economy. -
Shirley Hurwitz, Program Mgr., ATP
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xCBL (2/3)
  • xCBL 2.0 relates to other commerce
    specifications
  • It is not a single standard, rather a collection
    of common business elements that underlie all EDI
    and Internet commerce products
  • Developed and modeled after EDI semantics such
    as X12 and UN/EDIFACT in order to preserve and
    extend the EDI investments of trading partners
  • xCBL 2.0 will use the joint IETF/W3C digital
    signature standard to protect and insure the
    integrity of xCBL documents and data
  • Reusable components speed the implementation of
    standards
  • Facilitates standards interoperability by
    providing a common semantic framework
  • xCBL 2.0, not a proprietary effort, provides a
    transition path for companies wanting to move
    from EDI systems to open Internet-based commerce
    systems.
  • It is noteworthy that Commerce Ones purpose in
    developing xCBL is to accelerate the adoption of
    XML based e-commerce. xCBL 2.0 is available free
    of charge through the registries and repositories
    operated by XML.ORG, BizTalk.Org and others, as
    well as from Commerce One.

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xCBL (3/3)
  • As a demonstration of its commitment to
    interoperability, xCBL 2.0 is available in XML
    DTD form and in two different schema languages
  • Microsofts XML Data Reduced Schema (XDR)
  • Commerce Ones Schema for Object-Oriented XML
    (SOX)
  • xCBL 2.0 was designed to model the information
    requirements of B2B e-commerce. A first step in
    this direction was the identification of a small
    set of core documents that could be used to
    conduct the majority of business transactions.
    xCBL 2.0 provides schemas to represent the
    following business documents

80
Commerce XML (cXML)http//www.cxml.org
  • Supports supplier content and catalog models
  • including buyer-managed, supplier-managed and
    Internet marketplaces.
  • Mainly backed by Ariba Microsoft

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OAG - Open Applications Group (1/4) http//www.
openapplications.org
The OAG is a non-profit consortium of leading
enterprise application software developers
focusing on best practices and process based XML
content for e-business and application
integration. As the largest publisher of XML
based content for business software
interoperability in the world, the OAG also
builds and publishes the detail specifications
necessary to use the XML content as well as
publishing a common middleware API
specification. The OAG was formed in 1995 by the
leading worldwide enterprise (ERP) software
vendors. To date nearly 50 members comprise the
OAG including
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OAG - Open Applications Group (2/4)

The vision of the membership of the OAG is to
make plug and play business software a reality
and may best be described by visualizing the way
a laptop computer will accept a new PC Card with
comparatively little effort. Imagine if you could
buy two software applications, plug in a driver,
and then do the final configuration for your
unique requirements!
The OAG believes that with all of the
stakeholders in the IT community working together
in adopting a common, best practices based model
for interoperability, this kind of solution is
possible.
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OAG - Open Applications Group (3/4)
  • The focus of the OAG is primarily associated with
    their two specifications
  • OAGIS - Open Applications Group Integration
    Specification and the
  • OAMAS - Open Applications Group Common
    Middleware API Specification

The OAGIS contains a set of XML DTD files and
schemas which defines a set of components,
processes and interfaces for use in e-Business,
Supply Chain, Manufacturing, Financials, and
Human Resources applications. Since XML is
database neutral, operating system neutral,
language neutral, and device neutral, it is an
effective tool for defining interoperability
among disparate systems. XML is also in complete
alignment with the OAGs stated technology
strategy, which is to be technology aware, but
not technology specific. The OAGIS defines the
common business interoperability content model
and the OAMAS defines the tie from that common
business content model to a common technical
interoperability mechanism.
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OAG - Open Applications Group (4/4)
OAMAS - Open Application Middleware API
Specification The OAG and the constituency it
represents, require a common single middleware
API to connect Enterprise Business Application
software components and are interested in working
with organizations that are attempting to address
this need. The OAG recognizes that technology,
and particularly the middleware segment is a key
piece to achieve the overall goals of the
interoperability effort and are relying on
middleware transport mechanisms to provide
necessary infrastructure to enable the goal of
heterogeneous business application
interoperability. The OAG has set out to go the
farthest towards defining the digital dial tone
organizations require to do business in the
emerging e-commerce world.
85
8. Critical Success Factors for Web EC Maturation
86
Issues regarding EC Standards
  • How to deal with proliferation of competing
    standards?
  • Future proof, single vendor projects
  • How many standards should you support?
  • Leading to new breeds of tools / services
  • How do you develop a plan of action when your
    shooting at a moving target?
  • Hire high paid consultants or get educated!

87
Key Trends Events Timeline
  • Approval of XML Schemas
  • Initial ebXML development completed (May 2001)
    is currently ongoing in modules within ISO
  • ebXML handed-off to an Accredited Stds Bodies
  • Coordination, Coordination, Coordination!
  • ANSI X12, EDIFACT Working Group (EWG), OASIS, and
    ebXML. (Fusion of Frameworks)
  • UN/ECE and ANSI ASC X12 joint initiative
  • Semantic Harmonization via core components
  • Deployment of Next Generation EDI / ebXML COTS
    solutions (tools / services)
  • WEB SERVICES, SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGY, SERVICE
    ORIENTED ARCHITECTURES!!!

88
Key Trends Events Timeline
  • ebXML Update
  • Core Components / UML modeling
  • Registries and repositories
  • EWG / ANSI ASC X12 Semantic Harmonization
  • Proof of Concept RosettaNet PIP via ebXML

89
Key Trends Events Timeline
  • Universal Description Discovery Integration
  • Defines a way to publish and discover information
    about Web services i.e. specific business
    functionality exposed by a company, via the net,
    for the purpose of providing a way for another
    company or software program to use the service.
  • The core component of the UDDI project is the
    UDDI business registration, an XML file used to
    describe a business entity and its Web services
  • White Pages - address, contact, and known
    identifiers
  • Yellow Pages - industrial categorizations based
    on standard taxonomies
  • Green Pages - technical information about
    services that are exposed by the business

90
Key Trends Events Timeline
  • XML Schemas
  • W3C Recommended as of 2001
  • Other XML Development
  • XSLT, XPath, XML Digital Signatures, RDF, etc.
  • Semantic Web / SOA Web Services

91
Key Trends Events Timeline
  • COTS Tools / Services
  • Hybrid mappers and tranlsators
  • Communication Handlers
  • Emerging Application Server market
  • Emerging Registries Repositories
  • Emerging Intelligent Agent-based Applications
  • Awareness Discovery
  • Visual CASE-like tools for designing developing
    intelligent enterprise systems

92
Summary
  • It is important to embrace standards to ensure
    structure, consistency, and clarity in what you
    do
  • Commercial tools, techniques, and methodologies
  • Traditional standards bodies have had trouble
    keeping up the pace with the Internet Web
  • New standards bodies have emerged over the past
    few years that are more agile and adept
  • Although Web/Internet technology changes very
    quickly, EC standards are in a transition period

93
Emerging e-Business Timeline for Past Ten Years
Service Oriented Architectures Enterprise!
2006
Semantic Web Technologies!
2007
94
Additional Sources forEC Related Information
  • The Gartner Group
  • www.gartner.com
  • Forrester Research
  • www.forrester.com
  • META Group
  • www.metagroup.com
  • Gilbane Report Home Page
  • http//www.gilbane.com/

95
Next Lecture
  • Begin looking into XML
  • http//www.w3schools.com/xml/default.asp
  • http//java.sun.com/xml/tutorial_intro.html
  • Cover Pages (best XML news site on the Web!)
  • http//www.oasis-open.org/cover
  • Reading Assignment Chapters 1 5
  • Emphasis on Chapter 5 (and others)
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