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Datacenter Standards, Best Practices, and Success Stories

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Title: Datacenter Standards, Best Practices, and Success Stories


1
Datacenter Standards,Best Practices, and
Success Stories
Prof. Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman President Emeritus
of the Computer Association of ThailandCEO of
the College of Internet Distance
Education Assumption University of Thailand
www.charm.au.edu
charm_at_ksc.au.edu
Invited Talk for Datacenter Satellite Conference
Exhibition Series Auckland, Bangkok, Beijing,
Hyderabad, Kuala Lumpur, Melbourne, and Osaka
organized thru VDO Conference by Pacific and
Strategy Holding Ptc. Ltd. For Bangkok at Westin
Sukhumvit Hotel, July 16, 2009
2
Datacenter Standards, Best Practices, and
Success Stories.
1. Introduction 2. Datacenter Standards 3. Datacen
ter Best Practices 4. Green Datacenter 5. Datacent
er Success Stories 6. Concluding Remarks
2
3
1. Introduction.
  • As of the year 2009, most organizations depend
    on computer network and the Internet.
  • Most organizations cannot continue operating
    without computer network.

3
4
Introduction (Cont.)
  • Therefore, most organizations need backup for
    their computer network which may be in the form
    of datacenter.
  • According to Wikipedia, a data center or
    datacenter or datacentre or server farm is a
    facility to house computer systems and
    associated components, such as telecommunications
    and storage systems.

4
5
Introduction (Cont.)
  • A datacenter generally includes Redundant or
    backup power supplies Redundant data
    communications connections Environmental
    controls and security devices

5
6
Introduction (Cont.)
  • During the 1980s, microcomputers were used in
    most organizationsbecause of their low cost and
    ease of operation.
  • The word datacenter appeared in the 1990s,
    when more powerful microcomputers called
    servers were used to replace mainframe, and
    intalled in old mainframe room.

6
7
Introduction (Cont.)
  • During the 2000s, organizations needed nonstop
    operation and 24/7 presence on the Internet, and
    so datacenters became more popular.
  • As a matter of fact, they were called Internet
    DataCenters or IDC
  • In 2009, datacenter may also be operated by
    datacenter service providers.

7
8
2. Datacenter Standards.
  • A well-known datacenter standard is TIA-942 (TIA
    Telecommunication Industry Association)
  • For more information see www.adc.com/Library/Liter
    ature/102264AE.pdf

8
9
ANSI/TIA-942
  • TIA-942 is the first standard to specifically
    address datacenter infrastructure.
  • TIA-942 includes guidelines on a wide range of
    subjects.
  • Provides a flexible and manageable structured
    cabling system using standard media.

9
10
ANSI/TIA-942 (Cont.)
  • Later, ANSI (American National Standards
    Institute) also approved TIA-942.
  • TIA-942 became ANSI/TIA-942 Telecommunications
    Infrastructure for Data Center.

10
11
ANSI/TIA-942 (Cont.)
11
12
ANSI/TIA-942 (Cont.)
  • The requirements of ANSI/TIA-942 covers the
    following.2.1 Site Space and Layout2.2 Cabling
    Infrastructure2.3 Tiered Reliability2.4
    Environmental Consideration

12
13
2.1 Site Space and Layout
  • The datacenter should be designed with plenty of
    flexible White Space, empty space that can
    accommodate future racks or cabinets.
  • For future growth, surrounding empty space
    should also be available.

13
14
Site Space and Layout (Cont.)
  • According to ANSI/TIA-942, a datacenter should
    include the following key functional
    areas. Entrance Room (ER) outside the
    computer room for better security.

14
15
Site Space and Layout (Cont.)
Main Distribution Area (MDA) location of Main
Cross-Connect (MC) such as routers and
switches. Horizontal Distribution Area (HDA)
location of Horizontal Cross-Connect (HC), such
as racks for fiber and coaxial cable.
15
16
Site Space and Layout (Cont.)
Zone Distribution Area (ZDA) location of Zone
Outlet (ZO) or Consolidation Point
(CP) Equipment Distribution Area (EDA)
location of equipment cabinets and racks.
16
17
2.2 Cabling Infrastructure
  • Horizontal Cabling Should install the highest
    capacity media available to reduce the need for
    re-cabling in the future. The maximum
    horizontal distance is 90 m. independent of
    media type. The maximum channel distance
    including equipment cords is 100 m.

17
18
Horizontal Cabling Distances (Cont.)
The maximum backbone fiber optic cabling is
300 m. The horizontal copper cabling is 100 m.
18
19
Cabling Infrastructure (Cont.)
  • Computer Room Entrance Room Requirementssuch
    as Minimum clear height of 2.6m/8.5
    ft Minimum door size 1m/3ft wide 2.13/7ft high

19
20
2.3 Tiered Reliability
  • The ANSI/TIA-942 includes 4 levels, each
    specifying details Architectural Security
    Electrical Mechanical Telecommunication

20
21
Tiered Reliability (Cont.)
  • Tier descriptions include information on Raised
    floor heights Watts per square foot Points of
    failure

21
22
Tiered Reliability (Cont.)
  • Tier 1 Basic 99.671 Availability Single
    path for power and cooling distribution Optioned
    raised floor, UPS, generator Takes 3 months to
    implement Annual downtime of 28.8 hours Must
    be shut down completely for preventive
    maintenance

22
23
Tiered Reliability (Cont.)
  • Tier 2 Redundant Components 99.741
    Availability Less susceptible to disruption
    from both planned and unplanned
    activity Single path for power and cooling
    distribution Includes raised floor, UPS, and
    generator

23
24
Tiered 2 (Cont.)
Takes 3 to 6 months to implement Annual
downtime of 22.0 hours Maintenance of power
path and other parts of the infrastructure
require a processing shutdown
24
25
Tiered Reliability (Cont.)
  • Tier 3 Concurrently Maintainable 99.982
    Availability Enables planned activity without
    disrupting computer hardware operation but
    unplanned events will still cause
    disruption Multiple power and cooling
    distribution paths but with only one path active

25
26
Tiered 3 (Cont.)
Takes 15 to 20 months to implement Annual
downtime of 16.0 hours Includes raised floor
and sufficient capacity and distribution to
carry load on one path while performing
maintenance on the other
26
27
Tiered Reliability (Cont.)
  • Tier 4 Fault Tolerant 99.995
    Availability Planned activity does not disrupt
    critical load and data center can sustain at
    least one worst-case unplanned event with no
    critical load impact

27
28
Tiered 4 (Cont.)
Multiple active power and cooling distribution
paths includes redundant components, i.e. 2
UPS each with N1 redundancy Takes 15 to 20
months to implement Annual downtime of 0.4 hours
28
29
2.4 Environmental Consideration
  • Several environmental considerations exist within
    the ANSI/TIA-942 datacenter standard that
    are Fire suppression Humidity
    levels Operating temperatures Architectural
    Electrical (power) Mechanical system
    specifications

29
30
3. Datacenter Best Practices.
3.1 Microsofts Environmentally Sustainable
Datacenters 3.2 IRIDE Environmentally Friendly
Datacenter 3.3 Merger Acquisition-Driven
Datacenter 3.4 Datacenter Assessment and Design
30
31
3.1 Microsofts Environmentally Sustainable
Datacenters.
  • Microsoft prepared top ten best business
    practices for environmentally sustainable
    datacenters.

31
32
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • 1. Provide incentives that support primary
    goals.
  • Microsoft provides specific incentives to reward
    managers for improving the efficiency of their
    operations, using metrics such as Power Usage
    Effectiveness (PUE).

32
33
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • Incentives help achieve results in short time if
    apply properly. Datacenter manager rewarded for
    efficiency and not uptime. Incentives given
    for low energy usage.

33
34
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • 2. Focus on effective resource utilization.
  • Using resources effectively.
  • Utilizing existing datacenter infrastructure.

34
35
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • 3. Use virtualization to improve server
    utilization and increase operational efficiency.
  • Migrating application from physical to virtual
    machines.
  • Encourage cloud operating system which use
    virtualization.

35
36
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • Key benefits of virtualization.
  • Reduction in capital expenditures.
  • Decrease in real estate, power, and cooling
    costs.
  • Faster time to market for new products
  • and services.
  • Reduction in outage and maintenance windows.

36
37
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • 4. Drive quality up through compliance.
  • There are many regulatory and security standards.
  • Compliance must be strictly enforced.

37
38
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • 5. Embrace change management.
  • Standardized procedures for the request,
    approval, coordination and execution of changes
    can greatly reduce the number and severity of
    unplanned outages.
  • If not well managed, poorly planned changes may
    cause disastrous results.

38
39
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • Other features that change management process
    should include
  • Documented policies around communication
  • and timeline requirements.
  • Standard templates for requesting,
  • communicating, and reviewing changes.
  • Post-implementation review, including cases
    where things went well.

39
40
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • 6. Invest in understanding the application
    workload and behavior.
  • Require hardware engineering.
  • Credible and competent in-house expertise.
  • Provide meaningful feedback to vendors.
  • To evaluate new hardware properly Optimizing
    request for proposal (RFP) process for
    servers Experiment new technology.

40
41
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • 7. Right-size server platforms to meet
    application requirements.
  • A major initiative in Microsoft datacenters
    involves right-sizing the platform.

41
42
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • There are two forms
  • (1) Work closely with server manufacturers to
    optimize their designs and remove items that
    are not used. Focus on high efficiency power
    supplies and advanced power management
    features.

42
43
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
(2) Being disciplined about developing the exact
specifications for servers to meet the needs,
and then not buying machines that exceed
specifications.
43
44
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • 8. Evaluate and test servers for performance,
    power,
  • and total cost of ownership.
  • Test on short list candidate servers to calculate
  • total cost of ownership.
  • Not rely on benchmark data, which may not be
    applicable to needs and environment.

44
45
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • 9. Converge on as small a number of
    stock-keeping units (SKUs) as possible.
  • Narrowing the number of SKUs allows Microsoft to
    make larger volume buys, thereby cutting capital
    costs.

45
46
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • 10. Take advantage of competitive bids from
    multiple manufacturers to foster innovation
    and reduce costs.
  • Microsoft encourages to analyze proposals from
    multiple companies that puts most of the weight
    on price, power, and performance.

46
47
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • Competition among multiple manufacturers to
    drive innovation and provide the most energy
    efficient lowest cost.

47
48
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • Microsofts Global Foundation Services team was
    taking significant steps in four areas important
    to environmental sustainability
  • Using recycled resources whenever practical
  • Using renewable resources whenever available
  • Reducing waste in operations
  • Taking part in industry environmental groups

48
49
Microsofts Practices (Cont.)
  • Microsoft announced in March 2009 that it was
    taking a proactive corporate approach to reduce
    its carbon emissions per unit of revenue by at
    least 30 percent.

49
50
3.2 IRIDE Environmentally Friendly Datacenter.
  • Producing electrical power thermal energy from
    renewable sources (Hydroelectric).
  • Two hundred virtual machines on only fifteen
    physical machines and cost savings up to 70
    percent.
  • Reduce the number of physical servers and
    improve flexibility.

50
51
IRIDE (Cont.)
  • Using Intel Xeon processors with four cores to
    meet the need for balance and modularity.
  • Intel Xenon also provide high performance and
    energy efficiency.
  • Intel Multi-core technology has brought several
    important improvements for IRIDE.

51
52
3.3 Merger Acquisition-Driven Datacenter.
  • Business Challenge An Insurance holding
    company needed to move the IT assets it had
    acquired into its own data center. According
    to the terms of the acquisitions, it had to
    meet a tight deadline in doing so or must pay
    penalty.

52
53
Insurance Holding Company (Cont.)
  • Solution Establish a parallel operating
    environment and migrate the applications and
    data Assesses all elements of the
    infrastructure, networking, backups and
    restores, security and systems monitoring,
    etc. Integrate the business unit smoothly step
    by step

53
54
Insurance Holding Company (Cont.)
  • Results The powering down of the new
    environment, relocation of the equipment,
    re-establishment of the environment in the
    buyers datacenter, successful cutover done
    over the weekend

54
55
3.4 Datacenter Assessment and Design.
  • A major book, music and home entertainment.
    datacenter was Approaching capacity Lack a
    backup generator Lack comprehensive power
    source In a tornado zone

55
56
Datacenter Assessment and Design (Cont.)
  • Solution Detailed assessment of datacenter
    strengths and weaknesses Gather information
    about history gt What the datacenter was
    designed for gt How demands had grown gt Actual
    IT utilization gt IT asset inventory

56
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Datacenter Assessment and Design (Cont.)
  • Results
  • A Tier II datacenter operational on time,
    on budget and without business interruption.

57
58
4. Green Datacenter
  • There are many examples of green datacenters4.1
    Amazon Green Datacenter 4.2 Google Green
    Datacenter4.3 Sun Green Mobile Datacenter4.4
    Fujitsu Green Datacenter4.5 Datacenter in Second
    Life

58
59
4.1 Amazon Green Datacenter
  • From www.greenm3.com dated 1 November
    2008,Datacenter Knowledge reported on
    Amazon.coms new green datacenter in Oregon, USA.

59
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Amazon Green Datacenter (Cont.)
  • The Amazon Datacenter is located on the bank of
    the Columbia River in Oregon.
  • The cost of the datacenter was at US 100 million.

60
61
Amazon Green Datacenter (Cont.)
  • It includes three buildings.
  • The first building will be 116,000 square feet.
  • The hydro electricity on Columbia River basin
    uses cheap and clean power.

61
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4.2 Google Green Datacenter
  • From www.internetnews.com dated 3 October
    2008,Google, the world largest search company
    announced how its squeeze considerable energy
    saving out of its datacenter.

62
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Google Green Datacenter (Cont.)
  • The purpose of Google was to reduce datacenter
    power costs by targeting the center, not the
    computer.

63
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Google Green Datacenter (Cont.)
  • There are five elements of Googles strategyfor
    building management Clean Energy Server
    Retirement Efficient Equipment
    Water Management Efficient datacenter

64
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Google Green Datacenter (Cont.)
  • It could save about 30 per server per year.
  • Google removes unused componentssuch as sound
    and discrete graphics.

65
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Google Green Datacenter (Cont.)
  • Evaporative cooling has been used instead of
    refrigerators.
  • Cold water Run thru the datacenter to absorb
    the heat from the computer Run down from the
    roof to the ground outside the datacenter,
    similar to at restaurant, to help let the
    heat dissipate

66
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4.3 Sun Mobile Datacenter
  • From blog.internetnews.com dated 18 September
    2008, Sun Microsystems stored the datacenter
    in a mine deep underground in Japan where the
    climate is cool

67
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Sun Mobile Datacenter (Cont.)
The datacenter consists of Sun systems densely
packed in a standard shipping container, 20x40
feet The datacenter hold 240 rack unitswhich
could be large servers such as SPARC Enterprise
M4000 and M5000 or third-party equipments
68
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Sun Mobile Datacenter (Cont.)
The datacenters contain not only the systembut
also the power and cooling necessary to operate
the system One of the most famous examples is
100 meters down an abandoned mine,relying on the
natural cool climate
69
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4.4 Fujitsu Green Datacenter
  • From www.computerweekly.com in June 2008,
    Fujitsu has launched Green Infrastructure
    Solution Service to provide specialists with
    expertise in both IT and construction to assist
    customers with planning, design, employment,
    and operation, as well as building highly
    energy-efficient datacenters or Green
    Datacenters.

70
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Fujitsu Green Datacenter (Cont.)
  • The efficient IT service aims to reduce power
    consumption and CO2 emission by as much as 50
    of the previous level, excluding power savings
    from IT product themselves.

71
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Fujitsu Green Datacenter (Cont.)
  • Fujitsu said the green datacenter is nearly
    twice as energy-efficientas previous datacenters
    it has opened.
  • The datacenter uses advanced cooling, heating,
    and IT systems to tailor power consumption to
    processing and operational needs.

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4.5 Datacenter in Second Life
  • From www.informationweek.comdated 14 August
    2008, IBM launched Eco Datacenter in Second
    Life.
  • Visitors who want to check out IBMs latest
    eco-datacenter have to do as an avatar in
    Linden Labs Second Life, where the facility
    exist.

73
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Datacenter in Second Life (Cont.)
  • The datacenter is used as a demonstration area
    for IBMs eco-friendly technologies and
    services.

74
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5. Datacenter Success Stories
  • There are many examples of successful
    datacenters5.1 UC Berkeley, 5.2 IBMs Boulder
    Facility5.3 BAA Inc.

75
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5.1 UC Berkeley
  • UC Berkeleys Datacenter consisting of nearly 40
    years of accumulated technology legacy while
    minimizing the impact on the more than 40,000
    members of the UC Berkeley community dependent
    on those systems.

76
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UC Berkeley (Cont.)
  • The space design process for a datacenter is
    very complex and is, in fact, the first critical
    step to ensure success.

77
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UC Berkeley (Cont.)
  • A detailed analysis of all of the systems and
    the technology trends that would impact future
    designs was necessary to design a space flexible
    enough to handle legacy systems as well as
    whatever new computers would be installed in
    future years.

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UC Berkeley (Cont.)
  • The information gained from that process was
    provides to the architects and systems planners
    to crate a leading-edge datacenter design that
    could be connected to the old datacenter via
    fiber and high-speed connections to allow for
    electronic moving where possible.

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5.2 IBMs Boulder Facility
  • IBM completed the installation of a 72,000
    square foot raised floor datacenter at the
    Boulder facility and received Silver LEED
    certification
  • LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and
    Environmental Design

80
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IBMs Boulder Facility (Cont.)
  • IBM engaged the services of Texas AM University,
    Energy Systems Laboratory, for two phases of
    commissioning work at the IBM facility.
  • Commission is the process in which mechanical
    equipment is analyzed and operating
    specifications are modified to optimize energy
    efficiency.

81
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IBMs Boulder Facility (Cont.)
  • The first survey was performed on the Central
    Utility Plant equipment.
  • Recommendations from this survey were Operate
    the backup satellite chiller plant as the
    datacenter primary cooling system instead of
    the Central Utility Plant

82
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IBMs Boulder Facility (Cont.)
Automate the chiller and the free-cooling
control systems Eliminate three way valves in
chilled water systems Improve boiler efficiency
with operational changes
83
84
IBMs Boulder Facility (Cont.)
  • In a second commission effort 70 air handlers
    were surveys and their operation specifications
    were modified to include Broadening of
    economizer controls which utilize outside air
    for free cooling Implementing static pressure
    resets for cooling airflow which is dependent
    on outside air temperature

84
85
IBMs Boulder Facility (Cont.)
Implementing static pressure night setback to
reduce airflow for overnight operations Chilled
water pump operation for start/stop control based
on required demand Control program changes
which eliminate the opportunities for
simultaneous heating and cooling
85
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5.3 BAA Inc.
  • Airport titan BAA needed to consolidate its
    databases and servers, as well as improve the IT
    environments use of space and energy.
  • Furthermore, the company needed the ability to
    add more processing power in the future without
    disrupting business critical services.

86
87
BAA Inc. (Cont.)
  • BAA hosts 141 million passengers through its
    airport in the United Kingdom. With growing
    numbers of travels and airlines using its
    facilities. The worlds largest airport operator
    strives for improve efficiency and customer
    service

87
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BAA Inc. (Cont.)
  • BAA IT staff must make the best use of space and
    save energy, which are challenges due to the
    heat generated, power required, and real estate
    consumed by numerous datacenter servers.

88
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BAA Inc. (Cont.)
  • BAA IT needed to consolidate about 80 servers
    running 135 separate Microsoft SQL Server
    database that contain departmental, parking,
    environmental, regulatory, financial, and
    security information.

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6. Concluding Remarks.
  • Datacenters are required to keep organization
    running 24/7.
  • Standards must be adopted.
  • Best practices should be followed.
  • Green datacenter should be implemented.
  • Success stories should be examined for the
    benefits of all concerned.

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Thank You
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