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Quality and Safety of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

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Transportation at high temperatures asparagus deteriorates ... are required for durian, longan, babycorn and asparagus to improve productivity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Quality and Safety of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables


1
Quality and Safety of Fresh Fruits and
Vegetables
  • Mary Kenny
  • Food Quality and Standards Service (ESNS), FAO

2
Outline
  • Food quality/safety fruit and vegetables
  • Supporting Environment responsibilities
  • Results of FAO project in Thailand
  • FAO resource tools

3
Overview GAP
  • FAO definition GAP addresses economic,
    environmental and social sustainability of
    agriculture, and leads to food safety and quality
    (FAO, 2003)

4
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables- integrated concept
  • Quality
  • Taste
  • Texture
  • Colour
  • Convenience
  • Appearance
  • Post harvest shelf life
  • FOOD SAFETY
  • Food Safety Concerns
  • Pathogens from environment
  • Chemicals related to agricultural inputs
  • Aflatoxins - inadequate storage conditions

5

Hazards and associated risk in fruits and
vegetables
  • Are consumed as fresh products (raw product, not
    pre-cooked)
  • New exotic products coming into the market.
  • Increasing participation in the global trade.
  • Advance techniques for detection of contaminants
    in this type of products.

6
Food borne Disease Outbreaks Associated with
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
USA 1990-1997 6 of food outbreaks were
associated to FFV
USA 1973-1979 2 of food outbreaks were
associated to FFV
Increase in consumption patterns results in
increase of food-borne disease outbreaks
associated to FFV
7
CHEMICAL HAZARDS ARE ALSO VERY IMPORTANT
  • Pesticide residues have adverse effects on human
    health in the long run. They have less dramatic
    effects that those associated with
    microbiological contamination.
  • Can cause cancer and birth defects and damage or
    interfere with the nervous, endocrine,
    reproductive and immune systems in mammals.
  • Cause intoxications.

8
Detentions- reasons?
  • presence of non-authorised pesticides
  • exceed pesticide MRLs
  • inadequate labelling and packaging
  • contaminants exceeding regulatory levels
  • microbiological contamination
  • lack of nutritional information

9
  • 2. Supporting Environment for Good Agricultural
    Practices
  • (including hygienic practices)!!

10
Why a Government Framework for GAPs?
  • Consumer health protection
  • Boost export
  • Support small and medium sized businesses
    (advocacy/information role)
  • Independent assessment
  • Unscrupulous producers/traders
  • Country reputation
  • Involve industry and academia
  • Link to international arena

11
However, must be an effective framework..........
  • An integrated, and science based food control
    system
  • Determine priorities for consumer protection and
    economic development
  • Better coherence where multiple agencies are
    involved
  • Prevent confusion and duplication of efforts
  • Clear role of private sector (laboratories, third
    party certification, consultants, training,
    research, food producer associations)
  • Stakeholder dialogue

12
......influenced by the global environment
  • International trade food safety requirements
  • Importing country requirements
  • Role of science
  • WTO Agreements
  • Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement(SPS)
    Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)
  • Codex Alimentarius reference standards

13
Relevant Codex standards
  • Code of hygienic practice for FFV
  • Recommended International Code of Practice for
    packaging and transport of tropical fresh fruits
    and vegetables
  • General principles of food hygiene/HACCP
  • Approved MRLs to prevent the misuse of pesticides
    and promote the use of approved pesticides, etc.

14
Food industry/producer role
  • Responsible for supplying safe and wholesome
    products
  • Consumer information regarding product
    characteristics and associated cost and benefits
    (transparent and clear information)
  • Knowledge of trading environment
  • Implement GAPs, GHPs, HACCP (pre- and post
    harvest)

15
Why quality assurance programmes (GAP, GHP,
HACCP)?
  • Consumer protection
  • Prevention (less end-product testing)
  • Reduce food losses
  • Reduce inspection/certification
  • Systematic documented programme
  • Sufficient record keeping traceability

16
Farm to Fork
  • Control at the most effective point

17
..........or in other words
Private sector input/ application
Inspectorate
GAP standards/ guidelines
Certificate
Scientific research
Laboratory Analysis
Training/ advisory services
18
3. FAO Thailand Project TCP/THA/2903
  • Strengthening Compliance with the SPS
    Requirements for Expanded Exports of Fresh and
    Processed Fruits and Vegetables
  • National collaborator Department of
    Agriculture, Post Harvest Technology and Product
    Processing Research and Development Office, DOA

19
Project activities
  • Components
  • GAP
  • Food Quality Assurance and HACCP
  • Food Inspection and Certification
  • Laboratory Food Analysis (ongoing)
  • Information Systems (ongoing)

20
Examples of Specific GAP practices???
  • Sprinkler irrigation replace with drip?
  • Pruning- large fruit trees 4/5m tall
    (durian/longan), difficult to spray
  • Pesticide program poor spray practices,
    differing maturity times
  • Poor composting of animal manure
  • Poor handling post-harvest, (removal of babycorn
    wrapper leaves on road side)
  • Transportation at high temperatures asparagus
    deteriorates
  • Cost of pesticide analysis all exports analysed
  • Thai Q-system does not cover collecting house
  • Use of two systemic fungicides (benomyl and
    ridomil) for fruit dipping

21
GAP - Recommendations
  • Collecting house be granted the Q GAP certificate
    with the farmers supplying the information
    required for traceability and auditing
  • Reduce pesticide testing when there is a reliable
    system for GAP in place
  • Maintain ongoing extension programme by DOAE -
    target farmers who lack awareness
  • GAPs should include food quality and safety
    issues and sound agronomic practices

22
GAP - Recommendations
  • Thai farmers should be trained in ThaiGAP, but
    when appropriate be made aware of additional GAP
    requirements of importing countries
  • Better coordination of GAP training courses and
    initiatives
  • Increased research on improving agronomic
    practices are required for durian, longan,
    babycorn and asparagus to improve productivity
  • Need to develop an electronic audit trail (rather
    than paper)

23
Inspection and Certification Recommendations
  • One program for inspection of fresh and processed
    products
  • - common establishment inspection checklist
  • - annual workplan for inspection
  • - link to GAPs and HACCP requirements
  • - provide information on application for various
    export product certificates
  • - Sampling, analysis and certification
    procedures
  • - Harmonize food inspection across Ministries
  • - Inspection manual to be prepared (in process)

24
Inspection and certification - Recommendations
  • Continue to strengthen the Thai Q certificate
    system raise awareness
  • DOA could provide training and information to
    exporters on WTO rules
  • Training programme for the DOA inspectors
  • Strengthen networking with the other departments
    and bureaus in DOA

25
4. FAO resources/tools
Budapest
Rome
Cairo
Tunis
Barbados
Bangkok
Accra
Santiago
Harare
Apia
26
  • PFL Project 857 Improving the Q S of FFV in
    Latin America and Caribbean Countries (32
    Countries).

Training Package
  • Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (3 languages,
    hardcopy and CD-Rom)- validated through
    sub-regional workshops
  • Power point presentations for lecturers-
    (CD-Rom)
  • Photo Gallery (from course field visits)-
    (CD-Rom)
  • Reference documents
  • Recommended readings
  • Activities
  • Handouts
  • Complete documents (Fully displayed)
  • Internet links

27
Information sharing-FFV Quality and Safety
Database
http//www.fao.org/es/esn/food/foodandfood_fruits_
en.stm
28
(No Transcript)
29
FAO/WHO Guidelines
  • Assuring food safety
  • and quality Guidelines
  • for strengthening
  • national food control
  • systems

30
Conclusions
  • Thai GAP programme and Q system at developmental
    stage
  • Many national initiatives to build upon
  • Food quality/safety has many players -
    partnership is key
  • Stress hygiene emerging microbiology problem
  • Food quality/safety is one aspect of GAPs
  • Transfer to domestic market

31
Thank you!
  • Mary Kenny, Nutrition Officer, Food Quality and
    Standard Service Mary.Kenny_at_fao.org
  • Food and Nutrition Division, FAO, Rome, Italy
  • www.fao.org/es/esn
  • Newsletter www.fao.org/es/esn/fsqu_en.stm
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