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Egypt

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Title: Egypt


1
Egypt
  • Ancient Civilizations

By Mrs. Sanders
2
Historical Overview
  • Ancient Egypt was the birthplace of one of the
    Worlds greatest civilizations. It was far more
    advanced than European tribes of the same time
    period, who were still in the Stone Age.
  • Located in the northeast corner of Africa, Egypt
    grew to be an important civilization for over
    three hundred years because of the Nile River.
  • Egypt was originally divided into two kingdoms
    Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.

3
Pharaoh
  • Pharaoh was believed by the Egyptians to be the
    supreme ruler chosen by the gods to lead his
    people. They believed that when a man became a
    pharaoh, he also became a god. To keep the
    bloodline of the gods pure, pharaohs often
    married their sisters, mothers, and cousins.

4
A Biblical Overview of Egypt
  • Joseph, son of Jacob and Rachel, was the favorite
    child. His father made him a coat of many colors.
    His brothers were jealous of him. They were
    going to kill him, but sold him as a slave. He
    found favor with the Pharaoh Potiphar. He
    interpreted dreams for the Pharaoh. Josephs
    brothers came to Egypt to buy grain where they
    ran into Joseph. They did not recognize him. He
    tested them and revealed his identity. He
    forgave them for sending him away. He said it
    was God who sent him to Egypt to save peoples
    lives.
  • When a new Pharaoh ruled Egypt, he was worried
    that the Israelites would rise up against him.
    He decided that every baby boy should be thrown
    into the Nile River. One woman was determined to
    save her son. She kept the baby boy hidden for
    three months, then she put him in a basket she
    had made and let him float down the river. The
    Pharaohs daughter found the baby boy and called
    him Moses, which means pulled out or the water.
  • Moses was commanded by God to ask the Pharaoh to
    release the people of Egypt. He obeyed Gods
    command and asked Pharaoh to let his people go.
    God knew that Pharaoh would deny the command and
    he did. God sent ten plagues to Egypt to curse
    the land.

5
Major Time Periods of Egypt
  • The Old Kingdom
  • When the pharaohs built
  • the pyramids
  • The Middle Kingdom
  • When training and military explorers were sent
    out to expand Egypts boundaries
  • The New Kingdom
  • Ending with Queen Cleopatra losing her land to
    Augustus Caesar and Rome

6
Achievements
  • Pyramids
  • There were about 80 along the banks of the Nile
    River.
  • The largest is the Great Pyramid, built by King
    Khufu in about 2600 B.C.
  • It stands about 481 feet high and covers 13
    acres.
  • The pyramids functioned as huge burial tombs for
    the Egyptians dead pharaohs and queens.
  • Ship-building
  • They used the Nile River like a highway to
    transport people and goods to foreign lands.
  • The first ships were made out of bundles of
    papyrus reeds tied together to make a canoe-like
    vessel.
  • As the ship trade flourished, the hulls of the
    ships were made of cedar, and oars and sails were
    added for greater speed.
  • Hieroglyphics
  • These were pictures and symbols that served as
    one of the first written languages in the world.
  • Calendar
  • Calendars were developed in 4241 B.C. with 365
    days in a year.
  • It was based on the flooding of the Nile River.
  • New Years was on June 1, not January 1!

7
Vocabulary
  • cartouche a tablet with a border, used as a
    nameplate
  • hieroglyphics a sophisticated system of
    pictures and symbols used in ancient Egypt to
    communicate information
  • Nile River river that runs through Egypt
  • Ankh a symbol for life after death
  • pyramids burial place for kings
  • Pharaoh Ruler of Egypt
  • necropolis the place of the burial tombs for
    the kings and the wealthy
  • papyrus type of plant paper was made from

8
Daily Life of Workers
  • The poor worked long hours for goods that they
    could exchange in the marketplace for the
    products they needed.
  • Agriculture was a major trade and many workers
    were farmers.
  • Boys learned a trade from their fathers, and
    girls were taught to care for the home and family
    by their mothers.
  • Women and girls wore straight, sheath-like
    dresses of rough, unbleached linen.
  • Men and boys wore short cloth kilts.
  • Their homes were usually one-story made out of
    sun-dried brick. There would be a basement and
    four rooms. They had little furniture. Stairs
    led to the flat rooftop so that the family could
    enjoy the cool night air after the sun went down.

9
Daily life of the Wealthy
  • Men were busy all day as merchants, trading along
    the Nile River.
  • Others supervised the daily workings of gigantic
    farms.
  • Many of the wealthiest and most powerful men in
    Egypt were priests.
  • Boys were taught to read and write.
  • Women could own land, run businesses, testify in
    court, and bring charges against men.
  • Women oversaw the running of the households and
    gave the servants instructions for daily menus
    and child care.
  • Children were allowed much playtime. Girls
    practiced singing and dancing. Boys wrestled and
    played army.
  • Women and girls wore straight dresses of
    beautiful lined and a lot of jewelry. At parties,
    they wore cones of incense on their heads that
    melted slowly giving off a pleasant smell.
  • Men and boys wore linen kilts
  • Both men and women wore eye make-up made from
    black ashes.
  • Their homes were brick and wood containing many
    rooms, as well as walled garden and a shrine for
    a favorite god.

10
Life after Death
  • The ancient Egyptians believed in an afterlife of
    beauty, peace, and contentment.
  • Since most of their lives were filled with hard
    work, they looked forward to death as a release
    from this lifetime.
  • They believed their souls would need to use their
    bodies again, so the Egyptians invented a process
    to embalm their bodies called mummification.
  • Wealthy could afford better mummification than
    the poor

11
Steps in Mummification
  • After the body was washed and covered with
    scented oils, the liver and kidneys were removed
    and placed in jars that would be put in the
    coffin later.
  • The brains were removed carefully, but the heart
    was left in the body because they believed it was
    the mind and would be needed immediately in the
    next life.
  • Then the body was wrapped in either linen or
    rough cotton strips and a sticky tar-like mixture
    was poured over the cloth strips forming a
    protective outer covering for the body.
  • When the mixture hardened, the mummy was placed
    in a wooden coffin, which was carved and painted
    to resemble a person.
  • Then the mummy was laid in its tomb, along with
    many objects the Egyptians thought it would need
    for daily use in the next lifetime, such as
    tools, jewelry, furniture, religious statues, and
    food.

12
Painting and Sculpture
  • Egyptians reached a highly advanced level of
    sculpture. Beautiful figures sculpted from wood,
    ivory, bronze, gold, and turquoise have been
    found in tombs.
  • One of the most famous sculptures in the world is
    the head of Queen Nefertiti.
  • Another famous work of art is the Great Sphinx, a
    huge statue of a mans head on a lions body,
    which guards the pyramids near Giza.

13
King Tut
  • Tutankhamen, or King Tut, for short was called
    The Boy King.
  • He became pharaoh when he was nine years old.
    During the year 1350 B.C.
  • He lived in a beautiful palace in the city of
    Thebes. He had servants who did everything for
    him. They believed him to be a god.
  • A typical day for him began in the audience
    chamber of his palace, where he sat on a throne
    of gold, silver, and jewels, and wore a heavy
    gold headpiece shaped like a flame. Ambassadors
    from foreign countries came to bow before him and
    bring him riches. Egyptians came to him to
    settle their disputes. He led his people in a
    three-hour a day worship ceremony. He had a
    formal dinner in the evening, then visited with
    his wife, Ankheshamen, who was two years younger
    than he.
  • King Tut died when he was only nineteen years
    old. No one really knows if he died from an
    accident, illness, or his enemies. His burial
    chamber was found by Britain's Howard Carter in
    1922. The treasures of King Tuts tomb can be
    seen today in Cairo, Egypt.

14
Questions to Review
  • Egypt is located in which continent?
  • What is the famous river in Egypt?
  • What were the name of the three period of times
    into which Egypt was divided?
  • What happened to Egypt when Pharaoh wouldnt obey
    Gods command?
  • Name the four most remembered accomplishments
    from the Egyptians.
  • Discuss at least three likenesses and differences
    between the workers and the wealthy.
  • Briefly name the steps of mummification. You may
    list them.
  • Name two famous works of art by the Egyptians.
  • How old was King Tut when he became Pharaoh?
  • Who discovered his tomb and where is it located?
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