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Thomas Jefferson and His Presidency

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The Democratic-Republicans took control of Congress ... Creation of a democratic non-aristocratic government. Total defeat of Federalists by 1816 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thomas Jefferson and His Presidency


1
Thomas Jefferson and His Presidency
2
Election of 1800
  • Thomas Jefferson became president
  • The Democratic-Republicans took control of
    Congress
  • The Twelfth Amendment was added to the
    Constitution
  • Pres and VP run as a ticket
  • "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists."

3
Election of 1800
  • Referred to as constituting another revolution
  • the party in power stepped down after losing the
    election
  • Changes made
  • Size of the military reduced
  • Number of Federal employees increased
  • Amount of national debt reduced
  • Alien and Sedition Acts repealed

4
TOUSSAINT L OUVERTURE
  • LEADS A SLAVE REVOLT AGAINST THE FRENCH
  • NAPOLEON SENDS 20,000 TROOPS
  • YELLOW FEVER AND LOUVERTURES ARMY DEFEAT THE
    FRENCH
  • DAMN SUGAR, DAMN COFFEE, DAMN COLONIES

5
Louisiana Purchase
  • Jeffersons purchase of Louisiana had its origins
    in his desire to
  • Give the United States control over the
    Mississippi River
  • acquire a port to provide an outlet for western
    crops
  • hoped to preserve an agricultural (agrarian)
    society by making abundant lands available to
    future generations
  • to prevent war with France over control of the
    Louisiana Territory and secure American commerce

6
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • IN 1800 NAPOLEON GAINS CONTROL OF NEW ORLEANS
    FROM SPAIN.
  • WITHDRAWS THE RIGHT OF DEPOSIT IN1802

7
JEFFERSON WANTS NEW ORLEANS
  • JEFFERSON SENDS JAMES MONROE ROBERT LIVINGSTON
    TO PARIS.
  • THEY ARE TO BUY NEW ORLEANS- CAN PAY AS MUCH AS
    10 MILLION

8
MORE
  • IF THE FRENCH REFUSE MONROE IS TO FORM AN
    ALLIANCE WITH BRITAIN AGAINST FRANCE.

9
NAPOLEON OFFERS TO SELL ALL OF LOUISIANA
  • PRICE 15 MILLION DOLLARS FOR ALL THE LAND
    BETWEEN THE MISSISSIPPI THE ROCKY MTS.
  • LIVINGSTON SIGNS THE DEAL APRIL 30, 1803
  • 828,000 SQ MILES (3CENTS AN ACRE.

10
JEFFERSONS PRINCIPLES GET IN THE WAY.
  • JEFFERSON IS A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST.
  • MUST USE IMPLIED POWERS TO JUSTIFY THE DEAL.
  • FEDERALIST ATTACK JEFFERSON FOR STRETCHING THE
    CONSTITUTION.

11
Louisiana Purchase cont
  • Bought the land from Napoleon
  • 15 million
  • As a strict constructionist, the Constitution
    did not authorize the President to negotiate
    treaties incorporating huge new expanses of land
    into the union.

12
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13
Louisiana Yet Again
  • Jefferson reluctantly submitted the treaties to
    the Senate while privately admitting the purchase
    as unconstitutional.
  • Senate promptly ratified the treaty
  • Land-hungry Americans jubilantly supported the
    purchase
  • Federalist opposition (typical of "loyal
    opposition" up to the present)
  • Ironically argued for strict construction
    President did not have power to purchase LA.
  • Ironically claimed LA would cost too much
    especially when balancing budget was a goal
  • Real reason worried that western lands would be
    loyal to Jeffersons Republicans..

14
Embargo Act 1807
  • Forbade export of all goods from U.S.
  • Jefferson got Congress to hastily pass the act
  • Reasoned that a U.S. embargo would force Britain
    France to respect its rights.
  • Loose construction of the Constitution
  • Congress' power to "regulate commerce" meant it
    could stop exports.
  • Undermined Jeffersons states rights philosophy
  • Embargo Act was a disaster to the U.S. economy
  • Non Intercourse Act (ended Embargo Act)
  • Formally reopened trade with all nations of the
    world except France and Britain
  • Remained U.S. policy until War of 1812.

15
Jeffersons Legacy
  • Expansion became prime goal
  • Creation of a democratic non-aristocratic
    government
  • Total defeat of Federalists by 1816
  • Jefferson kept the country out of a damaging
    European war
  • War of 1812 not until late in Madisons first
    term.

16
JEFFERSONS FOREIGN POLICY
  • 1801 TO 1809

17
JEFFERSON VS THE PASHA OF TRIPOLI
  • JEFFERSON OPPOSED LARGE ARMIES AND NAVIES
  • A THREAT TO THE GOVERNMENT
  • AND EXPENSIVE

18
MORE
  • 2500 MEN IN THE ARMY
  • BUILT JEFFS TO DEFEND THE COAST. SMALL BOATS W
    1 GUN.

19
1801 PASHA DECLARES WAR ON U.S.
  • HOW WOULD JEFFERSON RESPOND?
  • SENDS MARINES TO THE SHORES OF TRIPOLI
  • 1805 WAR ENDS - WE PAY 60,000 IN RANSOM.
  • BUT SHOWED WE WOULD FIGHT.

20
JEFFERSONS NAVAL POLICY LEADS TO WEAKNESS.
  • JEFFS ARE TOO SMALL TO BE USEFUL
  • WHEN THE WAR OF 1812 COMES WE MUST BUILD REAL
    SHIPS TO CONTEND WITH THE BRITISH.

21
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE IS JEFFERSONS GREATEST
ACHIEVEMENT AS PRESIDENT.
22
CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEAL
  • DOUBLED THE SIZE OF THE UNITED STATES.
  • GAINED A RICH RIVER VALLEY
  • SECURED NEW ORLEANS AND THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER.
  • JEFFERSON CALLED IT THE VALLEY OF DEMOCRACY.

23
LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION 1804-1806
  • ASCEND THE MISSOURI RIVER AND CROSS TO THE
    PACIFIC
  • SURVEY THE AREA AND ESTABLISH RELATIONS WITH THE
    INDIANS
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