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Area Specific IMO Tools

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2. Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago (Cuba 1997) 3. Marine Area Around the Florida Keys (US 2002) ... Galapagos Archipelago (Ecuador 2005) 10/6/2006. IMO Tools ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Area Specific IMO Tools


1
Area Specific IMO Tools
2
Overview
  • Types of damage caused by ships
  • IMO What is it and what can it do for you?
  • The Toolbox
  • SOLAS ship routing/reporting
  • MARPOL
  • Special Areas/SOX Emission Control Areas (SECAs)
  • Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs)

3
Damage Caused by Ships
  • Operational discharges
  • Accidental or intentional pollution
  • Physical damage to marine life and habitats

4
Damage Caused by Ships
  • Examples of particular issues
  • Oil pollution
  • Chemicals, Garbage
  • Mystery spills
  • Anti-fouling systems
  • Aquatic nuisance species
  • Groundings
  • Collisions

5
Damage Caused by Ships
  • Specific issues pertinent to Gulf of Honduras
    States
  • Increased volume of cargo into and out of Region
    (including oil and hazmats), increased ship
    traffic, increased size of ships and deeper draft
  • Shipping important to economies of the Region
  • Prevention of collisions, groundings
  • Pollution prevention
  • Navigation safety
  • Hydrography outdated, inadequate coverage

6
IMO What is it and what can it do for you?
  • Specialized Agency of the United Nations
  • Motto Safe, secure and efficient shipping on
    clean oceans
  • Law of the Sea Convention and IMO
  • Competent international organization (see,
    e.g., Article 211)
  • Maintain the balance between protection of the
    environment and navigation rights

7
IMO
  • Participation
  • 166 Member States
  • Large tonnage States (Panama 21, Liberia 9,
    Bahamas 6, Malta 5, Cyprus 4)
  • Regional blocks (GULAC, EU)
  • Observers
  • Industry
  • E-NGOs

8
IMO
  • Structure
  • Assembly, Council, 4 Committees, 11 Subcommittees
  • Working Groups, Drafting Groups, Correspondence
    Groups
  • Secretariat functions
  • Does not develop policy
  • Experts to assist and facilitate work of Member
    Governments
  • Depositary for conventions
  • MARPOL
  • COLREGs
  • SOLAS
  • AFS OPRC
  • Ballast Water Managemt
  • SUA STCW
  • London Convention
  • CLC FUND
  • Load Lines
  • Codes, Guidelines, Circulars, Resolutions

9
IMO
  • Maritime Safety preeminent importance
  • Environmental Protection
  • Focus pollution
  • Biological concerns with aquatic nuisance species
    transferred through ballast water
  • Individual animal issues
  • Ship strikes of right whales

10
The Toolbox
  • Existing measures are the focus of this
    presentation
  • Others may be developed in the future, depending
    on identified need
  • Examples of tools developed in recent past No
    Anchoring Areas, SOX Emission Control Areas,
    Ballast Water Management Areas

11
The Toolbox
  • Existing
  • SOLAS Chapter V/Reg 10 Ship routing
  • e.g., areas to be avoided, traffic separation
    schemes, no anchoring areas
  • SOLAS Chapter V/Reg 11 Mandatory Ship Reporting
  • MARPOL Special Areas, SOX Emission Control
    Areas
  • Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas

12
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • IMO Ships Routing Guide
  • Part A General Provisions on Ships Routing
    (GPSR)
  • Parts B-F adopted ships routing systems
  • Part G adopted mandatory ship reporting and
    routing systems
  • Part H archipelagic sealanes

13
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • Ships routing and reporting systems contribute
    to the safety of life at sea, the safety and
    efficiency of navigation, and/or the protection
    of the marine environment.

14
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • IMO
  • 1. Paras 3.2.2 and 3.3 Must consider in
    adopting/amending a routing scheme whether state
    of hydrography is adequate for purpose of system
  • Para 3.4.3 Not adopt/amend where system may
    affect demand for improvement or adjustment in
    NAV aids or hydrographic surveys
  • Implementation
  • Section 9 IMO and IHOhow to chart routing
    systems doen in acordance with IHO legends,
    symbold, and notes.
  • Government actions in planning and designing a
    routing system
  • Para 5.2.7 Should take into account aids to NAV,
    hydrographic surveys, charts in the area
  • Para 5.7.2 Should consult with authorities
    responsible for NAV aids, hydro surveys, nautical
    pubs
  • Para 6.7 State of hydrographic surveys w/n
    limits of routing syst and approaches should be
    such that full info on existing depths of water
    and hazards to nav is available to nautical
    charting authorities.

15
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • Recommended route
  • Recommended track
  • Precautionary area
  • Area to be avoided
  • No anchoring area
  • Established direction of traffic flow
  • Recommended direction of traffic flow
  • Traffic separation scheme
  • Separation zone or line
  • Traffic lane
  • Roundabout
  • Inshore traffic zone
  • Archipelagic sealanes
  • Two-way route

16
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • Traffic separation scheme (TSS) A routing
    system aimed at the separation of opposing
    streams of traffic by appropriate means and by
    the establishment of traffic lanes. GPSR, 2.1.2
  • COLREGs Rule 10 applies for traffic within the TSS

17
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • Area to be avoided (ATBA) A routing measure
    comprising an area within defined limits in which
    either navigation is particularly hazardous or it
    is exceptionally important to avoid casualties
    and which should be avoided by all ships, or
    certain classes of ships. GPSR, 2.1.12

18
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • No Anchoring Area (NAA) A routing measure
    comprising an area within defined limits where
    anchoring is hazardous or could result in
    unacceptable damage to the marine environment.
    Anchoring in a no anchoring area should be
    avoided by all ships or certain classes of ships,
    except in case of immediate danger to the ship or
    the persons on board. GPSR 2.1.14

19
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • Recommended track A route which has been
    specially examined to ensure so far as possible
    that it is free of dangers and along which ships
    are advised to navigate. GPSR, 2.1.9.

20
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • Two-way route A route within defined limits
    inside which two way traffic is established,
    aimed at providing safe passage of ships through
    waters where navigation is difficult or
    dangerous. GPSR, 2.1.7.

21
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • SOLAS, Chapter V/Reg. 11 and MSC.43(64)
  • Reporting versus routing
  • Less burdensome on industry, thus may be more
    acceptable
  • No change in movement of ship
  • Info gathering tool
  • Need is for contact w/mariner
  • More burden on proposing State to develop system,
    no cost to mariners

22
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • Define
  • Objectives
  • Area and participating ships
  • Information requested
  • Limited to info essential to accomplish
    objectives
  • Generally limited to ships name, call sign, IMO
    no., and position
  • If justified, info such as movement through
    system, speed, general categories of hazardous
    cargo, destination

23
The Toolbox Ship Routing Reporting
  • Shore-Based Authority
  • VTS, satellite
  • Shall have capability of interaction and assist
    ships with information
  • Concerns of cost, proper equipment

24
The Toolbox Special Areas SOX Emission
Control Areas
  • MARPOL
  • Special Areas
  • Annex I Oil
  • Annex II Noxious Liquid Substance
  • Annex V Garbage
  • A.927 Annex I only
  • SOX Emission Control Areas
  • Annex VI, App. III

25
The Toolbox Special Areas SOX Emission
Control Areas
  • Special Areas are certain sea areas in which, for
    recognized technical reasons relating to their
    oceanographical and ecological conditions and to
    the particular character of ship traffic, the
    adoption of special mandatory methods for the
    prevention of marine pollution is required
  • Under MARPOL, Special Areas are provided with a
    higher level of protection than other areas of
    the sea

26
The Toolbox Special Areas SOX Emission
Control Areas
  • WARNING!!
  • Must show that basic MARPOL requirements do not
    provide adequate protection
  • Designation does not enter into force unless
    there are adequate reception facilities in the
    area
  • Problems gathering data to justify
  • Expensive

27
The Toolbox Special Areas SOX Emission
Control Areas
  • Objective prevent, reduce, and control ships
    SOX air emissions and their attendant adverse
    impacts on land and sea areas
  • Specific info that must be provided includes
    action taken on land to address land-based
    sources of SOX emissions
  • If approved, ships must use fuel with only a 1.5
    sulfur content

28
The Toolbox Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas
(PSSAs)
  • To be designated as a PSSA, an area must
  • Have certain characteristics (ecological,
    socio-economic, scientific),
  • Be vulnerable to damage by international maritime
    traffic, and
  • Have protective measures adopted by IMO to
    address the identified vulnerability

29
The Toolbox PSSAs
  • History
  • 1991 PSSA Guidelines adopted
  • Revisions
  • A.885(21)(1999)
  • A.927(22)(2001)
  • A.982(24)(2005)

30
The Toolbox PSSAs
  • IMO-designated PSSAs
  • 1. Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait (AUS/PNG
    1990 and 2005)
  • 2. Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago (Cuba 1997)
  • 3. Marine Area Around the Florida Keys (US 2002)
  • 4. Malpelo Island (Colombia 2002)
  • 5. Wadden Sea (Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands
    2002)
  • Paracas National Reserve (Peru 2003)
  • Western European Waters (Belgium, France,
    Ireland, Portugal, Spain, UK 2004),
  • Baltic Sea Area (Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
    Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden 2005),
  • Canary Islands (Spain 2005)
  • Galapagos Archipelago (Ecuador 2005)

31
The Toolbox PSSAs
  • Element One Ecologic, Socio-Economic, or
    Scientific Criteria
  • Uniqueness Social or economic
  • Critical Habitat Cultural Heritage
  • Dependency Human dependency
  • Representativeness Research
  • Diversity Baseline or Monitoring
  • Productivity Education
  • Spawning/Breeding Grounds
  • Naturalness Fragility
  • Integrity Bio-geographic
  • Only one of these characteristics are necessary
    for designation!!

32
The Toolbox PSSAs
  • Element Two Vulnerability to damage by
    international maritime traffic
  • Document damage or threats of damage
  • Talk to mariners, fishermen, NGOs
  • Clearly identify the problem in detail

33
The Toolbox PSSAs
  • Element Three Identification of Associated
    Protective Measures
  • Tailor measures to address the threat linkage
    issue, incident history
  • Impact on traffic
  • Ships to which measure applies
  • Hours/Routes
  • Number of ships, types of ships, traffic
    patterns, aids to navigation

34
The Toolbox PSSAs
  • Element Three
  • Clearly identify the legal basis for the measure
  • Three options
  • (1) existing IMO instruments, or
  • (2) amendment to existing IMO instrument or
    creation of a new instrument, or
  • (3) UNCLOS (e.g., port State, Articles 21, 22,
    42, 43, 211(6)

35
The Toolbox PSSAs
  • PSSA proposals may only be submitted by Member
    Governments
  • Always bear in mind maritime safety and impact on
    shipping traffic
  • Must submit draft of application for protective
    measure at same time as PSSA proposal itself

36
The Toolbox PSSAs
  • There is no legal significance to PSSA
    designation in and of itself. The legal
    significance is derived from the measure because
    it results in a change to ship operations.

37
  • Thank You!
  • Lindy.S.Johnson_at_NOAA.GOV
  • 202-482-1400
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