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Taking the public with us: Waste and Health Impact Assessment

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Title: Taking the public with us: Waste and Health Impact Assessment


1
Taking the public with us Waste and Health
Impact Assessment
Dr Salim Vohra peter brett associates
2
What is health?
  • Since I came to the White House
  • I got two hearing aids,
  • a colon operation,
  • skin cancer, a prostate operation
  • and I was shot.
  • The damn thing is,
  • I never felt better in my life.
  • Ronald Reagan, actor and US president

3
History of waste regulation in the UK
  • In the beginning there was very little waste
  • Then came the industrial revolution and waste
    both domestic and industrial became a social and
    political priority
  • Public Health Act 1848 began the process of waste
    regulation in the UK
  • In 1907, an amendment to the Public Health Act
    extended refuse collection to include trade
    refuse
  • Public Health Act 1936 rules that the
    accumulation of waste which is prejudicial to
    health, is a Statutory Nuisance with local
    authorities gaining the power to prosecute
    offenders.

4
Chronology of waste regulation in the UK
  • In 1947, the Town and Country Planning Act gave
    local authorities planning powers over new waste
    management sites.
  • In 1971 abandoned cyanide waste, knowledge that
    waste disposal drivers took bribes and dumped
    hazardous waste illegally leads to
  • the Deposit of Poisonous Waste Act 1972 and
  • the Control of Pollution Act 1974.
  • In the 1980s and 1990s increasing public concern
    over waste disposal led to the passing of
  • the Environmental Protection Act in 1990 and
  • a range of European Directives are passed the
    Hazardous Waste Directive, the IPPC Directive,
    the Landfill Directive and the Waste Incineration
    Directive.

5
Determinants of health
housing conditions
housing tenure
employment status
sexual behaviour
disability
smoking
ethnicity
alcohol
family relationships
working condition
personality
leisure activities
genetic factors
medication
income
diet
personal transport
illegal substances
sex
age
education
noise
soil quality
smell
water quality
public environmental health services
community participation
social support
air quality
social contact
peer pressure
civic design
fear of crime anti-social behaviour
land use planning
natural hazards
discrimination
natural resources
crime anti-social behaviour
fear of discrimination
green space
waste management
research technological development
community facilities
childcare
job creation
business activity
voluntary charity groups
leisure facilities
distribution of incomes
health social care services
housing
availability and quality of employment
availability and quality of training
education training
shops and banking services
advice services
public transport
Adapted from Rapid Health Impact Assessment a
guide to research by Amanda Harris, 2002
6
What is health impact assessment (HIA)?
  • Identifies and assesses positive and negative
    health and wellbeing impacts
  • Enhances positive impacts and mitigates negative
    impacts
  • Works within an explicit democratic, equitable,
    sustainable and ethical use of evidence value
    framework
  • Uses a range of structured and evaluated sources
    of evidence that includes
  • public and professional views and experiences
  • and public health, toxicological and medical
    knowledge
  • Focus on inequalities, the differential effects
    of potential impacts on disadvantaged communities

7
Stages of HIA
  • Screening
  • Scoping
  • Baseline and community profile
  • Stakeholder involvement
  • Evidence and analysis
  • Mitigation and enhancement
  • Health impact statement
  • Follow-up

8
HIA vs Environmental Impact Assessment
9
Waste strategy HIAs
  • Health impact assessment on the South East Wales
    Regional Waste Plan, 2003
  • HIA investigated the potential health impacts of
    a range of waste facilities
  • public perceptions of health impacts of waste and
    waste facilities
  • and carried out a WISARD life cycle assessment
  • Health impact assessment of the London municipal
    waste strategy, 2001
  • Review of the research evidence on the health
    effects of waste and a half-day appraisal
    workshop involving forty key stakeholders from
    across London

10
Waste facility HIAs
  • Health impact assessment of the third line
    extension of the Eastcroft energy from waste
    facility, 2005
  • HIA was part of the environmental impact
    assessment
  • HIA was a narrower health risk assessment of the
    potential health impacts of the emissions from
    the proposed extension of the facility
  • but this formed part of an overall process where
    early discussions with Nottingham City Council
    were initiated and the local community consulted
    six months before a planning submission was made
  • Health impact assessment of the Parkwood landfill
    site, 2002-05
  • Comprehensive epidemiological HIA of the negative
    health impacts on residents living near the
    landfill and included a perceived health status
    survey of local residents

11
HIA conceptual framework
low emotion CONCERN SPECTRUM high
emotion
direct concerns
process concerns
symbolic concerns
Direct environmental, social and economic
concerns traffic air pollution noise degrade/
blight area smell future operation health no
community benefits leakage house prices
Planning and siting process concerns not enough
information more time for consultation inadequate
impact assessment how site chosen and others
considered Breaching of planning rules conflicts
of interest
Power, values and identity concerns powerful
stakeholders are dishonest, selfish, imposing,
and disrespectful of locals utilitarian,
libertarian vs. egalitarian notions of
justice Stigmatisation of locals and
neighbourhood as rubbish
12
Value of HIA for waste plans and projects
  • Provides timely, locally relevant and community
    credible health impact information and analysis
    for the waste planning process
  • Improves the health and wellbeing aspects of
    waste project design, construction and operation
  • Increases community support and reduces community
    concerns during waste facility siting and
    planning by proactively dealing with and
    reassuring communities about waste-related health
    concerns
  • Enhances reputation by feeding into a
    sustainability and corporate social
    responsibility ethos
  • Provides cost-effective added value

13
Find me and the waste team at Stand T55A David
Atherton Len Arnot Laura Edderington Gerard
Edwards Philip Hunter Paul Jeffery Andy
ODea Mark Parkin Mike Rigby Michelle
Spruth Salim Vohra Philip Wright Robert Wheatley
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