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Mega Sports Events and Community Health and Wellness: The Case for Investing in Youth

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... and those of young people, in particular, Kofi Annan, Olympic Aid Forum, 2002. ... every child's right to that experience -- the right to play', Kofi Annan, 2002. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mega Sports Events and Community Health and Wellness: The Case for Investing in Youth


1
Mega Sports Events and Community Health and
WellnessThe Case for Investing in Youth
  • PRESENTER
  • Dr. Inonge M. Kamungoma-Dada
  • BSc. HB MBChB MA APR.
  • UNFPA South Africa.
  • Email inonge_at_unfpa.org.

2
Outline
  • Overview
  • Youth defined
  • Youth and Sports development
  • Demographic Dividend
  • The Challenges
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Teenage Pregnancy
  • Gender Issues
  • Urbanization
  • Global context for youth development
  • The MDGs
  • UNFPA
  • Summary

3
Overview
  • Largest generation of adolescents in history-1.5
    billion is preparing to enter adulthood.
  • More than half of them 525 million live on less
    than 2 dollars a day
  • More than 100 million do not attend school
  • 15 million adolescent girls become mothers
    everyday
  • Among mothers under the age 20infant mortality
    rate average 100 deaths per 1,000 live births

4
What we Know..
  • Educational and health status of the youth,
    their readiness to take on adult roles and
    responsibilities and support received from
    families, communities, (including through mega
    sports events) and governments, will determine
    their future and the future of their countries,
  • UNFPA Investing in adolescents2 health and
    rights, State of the World report 2003.

5
Youth defined
  • The terms adolescents, youth, and young
    people are used differently in various societies
  • Categories are associated with different roles,
    responsibilities
  • SA National Youth Policy is directed toward young
    males and females aged from 14 to 35 years
  • Other young age categories in use
  •        i) Adolescents 10-19 years of age
  •        ii) Youth 15-25 years of age
  • iii) Young people 10-24 years of age

6
Youth and Sports development
  • There has been a growing understanding of the
    role sports can play in changing peoples lives
    for the better - and those of young people, in
    particular, Kofi Annan, Olympic Aid Forum, 2002. 
  • Development adolescent (10-19)
  • Peak performance (18-25)
  • Retirement (30- 35)
  • Skilled labour, savings and investments,
    employers

7
Youth and sports development..
  • Sports are an effective instrument for
  • Building character, tolerance and friendship
  • Delivering and promotion of youth development
    reducing poverty
  • Building democracy, conflict resolutions
  • Advocacy to young people on HIV and AIDS, drug
    abuse and alcoholism etc

8
Youth and Mega sports events
  • Adolescence is a critical passage in which young
    people gain life experience through schooling,
    job training, work experiences, community
    activities, youth groups, relationships and
    sports .
  • The Glitz and Glamour of the FIFA Soccer World
    cup allows youth to dream, hope and achieve!

9
Demographic Dividend
  • The concept of Demographic Dividend is rooted
    in the Theory of Demographic Transition.
  • Demographic transition occurs when a country has
    achieved significant decline in its birth and
    death rates, from high to low levels
  • In the transition process, only two demographic
    factors (fertility mortality) exert influence
    on population dynamics
  • The population is assumed to be closed to
    migration

10
Demographic dividend defined
  • The demographic dividend also called
    demographic gift or
  • bonus occurs when a falling birth rate changes
    the age
  • distribution of a population
  • Fertility decline
  • Decline in population growth
  • Decline in the dependency ratio (ratio of
    persons under age 15 and over 65 to those in the
    economically productive age group 15-65).
  • As a result
  • Less mouths to feed
  • Up surge in labour force or working population
    aged 15-49yrs relative to the dependants
  • If workforce is skilled, and adequate jobs
    available, there is
  • potential for workforce to increase income,
    save, invest and thus, stimulate economic growth

11
Demographic Dividend
  • The demographic dividend is delivered through
    three main mechanisms
  • a) labour supply,
  • b) savings,
  • c) human capital.
  • However, demographic dividend is not automatic.
  • Countries need to act to capitalize on it
    through appropriate policies and programmes.
  • N.B. Must seize the gift as it is a limited
    window of opportunity!

12
Labour Supply and the Demographic Dividend
  • The demographic transition affects labor supply
    through
  • a) size of the labour force,
  • b) increase in the labour force participation
    incl. women
  • c) labour productivity.
  • Potential labour force is not an effective labour
    force
  • Much depends on the extent on investments in
    education, health, labour force skills and female
    participation

13
SA Projected labour force
14
Demographic Transition in South Africa
  • Among the white population the transition from
    high to low fertility has been completed.
  • The Asian and the Coloured population, with TFR
    of 2.5 in 1998, have almost completed their
    fertility transition.
  • The black population (79 of the tot.pop), the
    level of TFR 3.1 in 1998.
  • However, among the non-urban African population,
    the TFR was 4.0 in 1998.
  • Rather unequal demographic experience among the
    racial groups - adopt slightly different
    strategies to tap the dividends of demographic
    transition in the population.

15
South Africa Demographic Dividend
  • Children under the age of 15 are expected to
    increase from 11.6 million (40 of total
    population) in 1980 to 21 million (38) in 2005.
  • The potential economically active population (age
    group 15-64) from 17 million (56) to about 30
    million (54) over this period.
  • Unfortunately, the country may not be able to
    take advantage of this demographic dividend, as
    the formal economy is unlikely to be able to
    provide employment for the new labour market
    entrants.
  • In 1999, for example, only 8.4 of the new
    entrants could be accommodated, resulting in
    widespread unemployment, and unemployment rate
    stands at 25.5
  • The African population is still experiencing
    demographic transition, a comprehensive programme
    of education and skills development is urgently
    required to capture the dividend.
  • Sports could play a critical contributory role in
    development

16
South Africa Fertility Transition
  • .

17
The SA Population Pyramid
18
Implications for Demographic Dividend for South
Africa
  • South Africa is about to reap from the
    Demographic Dividend
  • Depends on what policies and programmes are in
    place to capitalize on the large population of
    young people in the working age Group.
  • Sports, through the FIFA Soccer World Cup
    presents an opportunity for young people through
    sports development, employment and
    entrepreneurship opportunities.

19
Human Capital Formation Policies for Youth
  • For the demographic dividend to materialize,
    there must be in place a conducive policy
    environment, including
  • Access of youth to reproductive health services
    and facilities
  • Reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence
  • Reduction in teenage pregnancies
  • Addressing gender inequalities
  • High quality education and appropriate skills
    development for the youth.
  • Second chances for out of school youth

20
The challenges
  • ..I am someone who benefited in my youth -- and
    still does benefit -- from the wonderfully
    formative experience of sport and who believes
    in every childs right to that experience -- the
    right to play, Kofi Annan, 2002.
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Teenage Pregnancy
  • Gender disparities
  • Urbanisation

21
HIV and AIDS
  • AIDS now a disease of the young, 15-24 account
    for half of the 5 million new cases of HIV
    infection worldwide each year.
  • More than 6,000 young people become infected
    with HIV everyday
  • In Sub-Saharan Africa, 63 of those who were HIV
    positive in 2003 were between the ages of 15-24
  • Feminization of HIV infection with ratios of new
    female to male infection in young people as high
    as 8 to 1 (SA)
  • The overwhelming majority of AIDS orphans live in
    Africa.

22
Teenage Pregnancy
  • Worldwide every year, 14 million adolescent
    girls aged 15 to 19 give birth.
  • Highest rates of adolescent fertility are found
    in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
  • Urban and rural girls aged 15 - 19 from the
    poorest groups are three times more likely than
    their better-off peers to give birth in
    adolescence
  • Girls aged 15 to 19 account for at least
    one-fourth of the estimated 20 million unsafe
    abortions performed each year
  • Statistics in South Africa indicate that one in
    three girls has had a child by age 20

23
Teenage pregnancy and Dividend Policy
  • Need for a multi-sectoral approach which
    considers reproductive and sexual health issues
    as one aspect of personal development,
  • Link to other health, family planning and social
    services including employment, gender based
    violence, education and livelihoods programmes.
  • Include positive involvement of boys and men as
    partners in the struggle for equality and
    reproductive health
  • Sports presents opportunities for girls

24
Investment in Girls education
  • Through sports scholarships
  • Educated mothers increase human capital through
    influence on the health, education and nutrition
    of their children
  • Contributes to economic growth and reduces
    poverty leading to improvement on familys
    economic prospects
  • Improves reproductive health including HIV
    prevention

25
Urbanization
  • More that half the human population, 3.3 billion
    people, will be living in urban areas by 2008,
    growing to 5 billion by 2030.
  • Majority of these people will be poor.
  • About 60 of all urban dwellers will be under the
    age of 18 by 2030.
  • Proliferation of street children and homeless
    orphans
  • Investing in young people could bring about a
    demographic bonus and break the cycle of poverty
    which their parents are caught in.
  • A rights based approach to poverty reduction will
    ensure the full participation of youth in
    policies and plans.
  • Great opportunities provided through sports

26
The Global perspective
  • International Conference on Population and
    Development 1994 in Cairo, 179 countries (SA)
    agreed that
  • population and development are inextricably
    linked,
  • empowering girls and women
  • meeting people's needs for education and health,
    including reproductive health
  • are necessary for both individual advancement
    and balanced development.
  • MDGs
  • reflect a broad consensus in the international
    community.
  • Most MDGs speak to young people
  • Sports contributes to the attainments of all MDGs
    esp 1-6

27
The reality
  • Poverty is influenced by and influences
    population dynamics, such as population growth,
    age structure, and rural-urban distribution.
  • Population dynamics have a critical impact on a
    countrys development prospects and specifically
    on prospects for raising the living standard of
    the poor and marginalized
  • The global context challenges us to link
    population and development in a human rights
    based approach. It is imperative that they are
    addressed
  • MDGs spells out the agenda, and sets clear
    targets for us to attain
  • Population and sexual and reproductive health
    issues, including gender, HIV and AIDS ,
    environment all need to be addressed in
    development
  • ASRH is an essential component of young peoples
    ability to become well adjusted, healthy,
    responsible and productive members of society

28
UNFPA on Youth..
  • Keys
  • Supportive policy making that applies the lens of
    population structure and poverty dynamics
    analysis
  • Gender sensitive life skills based SRH Education
  • Sexual and reproductive health services HIV
    prevention
  • Young Peoples leadership and participation.

29
UNFPA
  • Lead in the UN family on HIV prevention
  • Scaling up efforts on prevention including
    attention to gender inequalities and liking HIV
    to SRH
  • Special focus on young people and vulnerable
    populations
  • Information
  • Life skills
  • Youth friendly services
  • A safe and supportive environment
  • Sports and in particular mega sports events
    provide a perfect opportunity for advocacy and
    dissemination of key messages to address youth
    SRH issues.

30
In summary
  • Investing in the health and rights of youth will
    yield large benefits for generations to come.
  • Reducing poverty requires progress in addressing
    adolescent reproductive needs including HIV
    prevention, gender and teenage pregnancy.
  • Need to plan to reap from the potential
    demographic dividend from the large number of
    working age youth
  • Need to put in programmes in place for vulnerable
    youth
  • Innovative ways to address youth issues,
    including through sports critical for the
    development of youth, both for their own personal
    development and for the future of their countries

31
Food for thought
  • How can FIFA Soccer World Cup 2010 contribute to
    addressing the issues of youth their players
    and potential players to ensure a healthy,
    motivated, empowered, skilled pool of soccer
    stars for the many world cups still to be held?
  • What legacy in terms of SRH will the hosting of
    the FIFA Soccer World Cup leave for our young
    people in 2010?

32
  • Thank you !
  • UNFPA- because everyone counts!
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