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Turning Swords Into Plowshares Promoting Human Security and Tolerance in the Context of Terrorism in

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Title: Turning Swords Into Plowshares Promoting Human Security and Tolerance in the Context of Terrorism in


1
Turning Swords Into
Plowshares Promoting Human Security and Tolerance
in the Context of Terrorism in South Asia
  • Badrinath Rao
  • Kettering University
  • Flint, Michigan
  • USA

2
The Scourge of Terrorism in India
  • In the last 15 years, India has been repeatedly
    attacked by Pakistan sponsored terrorist
    networks.
  • Targets include places of worship, trains,
    hotels, public spaces, etc.
  • Thousands have died. Thousands more have been
    injured.

3
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Mumbai bomb blasts in March, 1993
  • 13 car bombs were exploded in different places in
    Mumbai.
  • 257 dead, 713 wounded.
  • ISI and Dawood Ibrahim were involved.

4
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Attack on Indias Parliament in Dec, 2001.
  • Random shooting by LeT and JeM militants.
  • 7 killed (including five militants) and 12
    injured.

5
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Hijacking of Indian Airlines plane to Kandahar in
    Dec, 1999.
  • Indian Airlines flight IC 814 from Kathmandu to
    Delhi was hijacked.
  • 1 passenger stabbed
  • 3 JeM militants released from Indian custody.

6
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Bomb blast on Mumbais local train on 11 July,
    2006.
  • 7 bombs were placed in pressure cookers which
    exploded over 11 minutes.
  • 209 dead, 700 injured
  • LeT and SIMI handiwork

7
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Attack on Akshardham temple in Gandhinagar on
    Sept 25, 2002
  • 2 terrorists killed 29 devotees and wounded 79.
  • Attack on Sankat Mochan temple in Varanasi, 2006
  • 15 dead, 60 injured

8
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Bomb blasts in Indian Embassy in Kabul on July 7,
    2008.
  • Suicide car bombing
  • 58 dead and 141 injured.

9
Escalating Hostilities Between India and Pakistan
  • Mumbai terror attacks on November 26, 2008.
  • 8 places were attacked by Pak terrorists.
  • 173 killed and 308 wounded.

10
Other Forms of Terrorism
  • Economic terrorism
  • Promoting illicit drug trade and narcotics
    smuggling
  • Offering enticements to alienated sections of the
    Indian Muslim community to subvert from within.
  • Covert support to other secessionist movements in
    India

11
Indias Response
  • Diplomacy
  • International pressure
  • Covert operations
  • Open threats
  • Back channel diplomacy

12
Indias Response
  • Banning Muslim terrorist groups
  • Draconian laws which overwhelmingly target
    Muslims
  • Harassment of innocent Muslim civilians
  • More repression and human rights abuses in Kashmir

13
The Current Thinking of Indian Elites
  • Firm, determined response
  • Direct engagement of the enemy
  • Surgical strikes against Pakistan
  • An all-out, decisive war to teach Pakistan a
    lesson

14
The Pakistani Story
  • Denial of any role in acts of terrorism
  • Attributing terrorism to non-state actors
  • Arguing that it is part of a freedom struggle
    in Kashmir
  • Terrorism as a spontaneous response to the
    ill-treatment of Muslims in India
  • Retaliation against the machinations of RAW in
    Pakistan

15
Stalemate in Indo-Pak Ties
  • Profound mutual distrust and recrimination
  • Growing demands for war and retaliation
  • Increased spending on security and defence
    related matters

16
Domestic Implications of the War Rhetoric
  • Rise of Hindu and Islamic fundamentalisms
  • Attacks on Muslims in India. Scapegoating of
    minorities.
  • Alienation of the minorities
  • Alarming erosion of civil liberties, secular
    ethos, and social inclusion.

17
Domestic Implications of the War Rhetoric
  • Increasing Hindu militancy resulting in bomb
    blasts targeting Muslims
  • The increased popularity of the Taliban in
    Pakistan
  • Patronizing terror networks could backfire in
    Pakistan

18
The Way Ahead Moving From State Security to Human
Security
  • Recognize the ground realities
  • Promote human security
  • Vigorously pursue MDGs
  • Emphasize secular, skills-based education

19
The Way Ahead Moving From State Security to Human
Security
  • Boost civic, not religious, nationalism
  • Underscore social inclusion and tolerance
  • Stress the common civilizational ties that bind
    India and Pakistan

20
The Way Ahead Moving From State Security to Human
Security
  • Provide aid in exchange for firm assurances on
    curbing terrorism
  • Rally international opinion against state
    sponsored terrorism
  • Most important, promote bilateral trade and
    commerce
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