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Asian Business Aviation Conference

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Very little airports/airlines/individuals can do to affect the threat, therefore ... Monitoring Equipment at Frontier Inspection Counters ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Asian Business Aviation Conference


1
  • Asian Business AviationConference Exhibition
  • ABACE 2005
  • Shanghai, China
  • August 9 -11, 2005
  • Security How Much Is Enough?

2
Asian Business Aviation Conference
ExhibitionABACE 2005
  • Todays Panelists
  • John L. Sullivan
  • The Business Case For Corporate Aviation
    Security
  • Richard Hancock
  • Security Climate In Asia For Global Business and
    General Aviation
  • Robert F. Valente
  • Global Threats and Travel Planning

3
The World You Operate In
  • Terrorism
  • War and Other Military Activity
  • Political Instability
  • Civil Disturbance
  • Anti-Western Sentiment
  • Corruption
  • Natural Disaster
  • International Relations
  • Infectious Disease

4
  • What global threats/issues impact corporate
    flight operations?
  • What do travel warnings really mean?
  • Politics and threat

5
War On Terror
  • Security situation in Iraq/Afghanistan/Saudi
    Arabia is non-permissive
  • Anti-American sentiment particularly high in
    countries with large Muslim populations

6
War On Terror
  • Predominantly Muslim Countries
  • Gulf Littoral Nations
  • North and East Africa (Egypt, Lybia, Algeria,
    Morocco, Tanzania, etc.)
  • Indonesia
  • West Asia (Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria)
  • South Asia (Pakistan, Bangladesh, India)
  • Central Asia (the stans)
  • Parts of Russia, China, Philippines
  • Fastest Growing Religion in USA

7
War On Terror
  • Countries with large diasporas with anti-American
    sentiment may present a threat profile similar to
    predominantly Muslim countries

8
Infectious Disease
  • SARS
  • Monkey Pox
  • Avian Flu
  • Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever
  • Tsunami aftermath

9
Security Implications of Infectious Disease
  • Destabilizing economic effect
  • Airspace closure
  • Quarantine procedures
  • Incidental contact at FBO/airport
  • Create power vacuums (Tsunami) for nascent
    terrorist groups to operate in

10
Avian Flu SARS Lessons Learned?
  • Crisis Management Decision Points need to be
    established NOW
  • Designation of essential expat staff and travel
    or projects considered business-essential must
    occur NOW

11
Natural Disasters Asian Tsunami
12
Tsunami Lessons Learned
  • Notification Cascade
  • Travel Tracking
  • Post-Incident Contact Trees
  • Infectious Disease Exposure Issues
  • Political Instability and Nascent Anti-Western
    Movements

13
What Do State Department Travel Warnings Mean?
  • Worldwide threat
  • Regional threat
  • Country-specific threat
  • Event-specific threat

14
Pan Am 103 And Double Standards
  • Aftermath of Pan Am 103 Terrorist threat
    information must be provided to public at large
    if
  • Timely
  • Specific
  • Corroborated
  • NO DOUBLE STANDARDS

15
Travel Warnings
  • What they mean to the USG
  • (Escalation)
  • Stand fast
  • Voluntary departure
  • Ordered departure
  • Post closure

16
Case Study Politics and Threat
  • Economic sanctions dropped against India/Pakistan
    as a result of cooperation in War of Terror
  • June 2002 Travel warnings imposed with same
    effect as economic sanctions
  • Many political observers felt that the security
    situation did not actually change but warnings
    replaced sanctions as a form of political
    currency

17
  • Aviation Security Concerns in a Rapidly Expanding
    Region

18
Current Environment Threats Risks
Threats to General Aviation
19
Aviation Environment Threats Risks
Why Is General Aviation an Attractive Target?
  • High profile/ commercial value/ prestigious
  • Vulnerable due to high passenger traffic levels
  • Incident may force a government reaction, e.g.
    change of government policy,
  • Can be used as WMD maximum casualties

20
Aviation Environment Threats Risks
  • Air travel has expanded to more destinations
    within China and elsewhere in the region
  • More passengers are traveling (1.6 Billion)
  • More airlines setting up, especially low cost
    airlines
  • More airports are being built
  • Bigger aircraft (A380) are coming on line
  • More air cargo is being delivered

21
Aviation Environment Threats Risks
  • Traditional Threats
  • Hijacking of aircraft
  • Sabotage of aircraft (on ground in-flight)
  • Sabotage of airports and navigation aids
  • Terrorist attack at airports (terminal concourse,
    check-in, passenger and baggage search areas)
  • Attacks against off-airport locations (crew
    accommodation, ticket offices, cargo facilities)

22
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23
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24
Aviation Environment Threats Risks
  • Statistics 2004
  • 16 Acts of Unlawful Interference in total
  • 91 persons killed
  • 8 injured
  • 4 incidents of Sabotage
  • 1 successful Hijacking
  • 4 airport attacks

25
Aviation Environment Threats Risks
  • Threat Groups
  • Terrorists
  • Criminals
  • The mentally disturbed
  • Employees (disaffected, and those with criminal
    motive)
  • Refugees
  • Other Governments

26
  • Attacks Directed Against Airports
  • Lod Airport, Tel Aviv, Israel (1972)
  • Rome, Italy (1973)
  • Paris, France (1978)
  • Manila, Philippines (1983)
  • Rome, Italy and Vienna, Austria (1985)
  • Seoul, South Korea (1986)
  • Algiers, Algeria (1992)
  • Johannesburg, South Africa (1994)
  • Heathrow Airport, England (1994)
  • Reus, Spain (1996)
  • Lahore, Pakistan (1996)
  • Colombo, Sri Lanka (2001)

27
  • Conventional Wisdom
  • Very little airports/airlines/individuals can do
    to affect the threat, therefore -
  • Personnel Technology concentrate on reducing
    the vulnerability
  • Prioritizing counter measures (cost
    effectiveness)
  • Distinguish Private and Public Space

28
Key Factors Air / Landside Segregation
Public Areas
Airline Check-In Areas
Airport Catering Services
Airport Administration and Management
Immigration
Immigration
Bag Screening
Boarding Gates
29
  • Issues Affecting Aviation Security
  • Human Factors
  • Hardware Design, Implementation and Application

30
Airport Security in Asia The Human Factor
  • Lack of Language Ability
  • Majority of Airport Staff are not highly educated
    with a poor understanding of foreign languages
  • High Turnover Rate
  • Poor pay leads to high turn-over rate. Ground
    handling agent in Guangzhou Baiyun Airport
    receive on average RMB 1500 to 2000, the position
    in Fuzhou Airport is paid on average RMB800-1200
  • Low wages increase likelihood of corruption and
    bribery. One local airline confirmed an annual
    turn-over rate of 40, recruiting between 150-200
    new staff per year
  • Background screening of staff and due-diligence
    of vendors with access to restricted areas

31
Airport Security in Asia The Human Factor
  • Poor Application of National or Regional
    Standard
  • Aviation Industry is still growing in the
    region. Whilst national standards are set, it is
    not applied to the same standard across all
    airports due to budget and personnel limitations
  • Lack Of Training
  • Majority of airport staff receive only very basic
    training. The current evolving threat represented
    by ever more sophisticated terrorist and criminal
    organizations requires constant re-assessment and
    staff security awareness training

32
Airport Security in Asia The Human Factor
  • Over-reliance On Technology
  • Whilst new technologies are being imported into
    the region at an unprecedented rate they still
    require human interaction. Younger generation
    believe technology can replace the need for an
    inquisitive mind.
  • Going By The Book
  • Traditionally the education and government system
    has encourage a strong adherence to rules, and
    set in stone procedures. Initiative and
    questioning of authority is often discouraged

33
Airport Security in Asia The Human Factor
  • A Nation of Guan Xi
  • Relationships rather than professional
    competence considered to be more important. We
    have examples of high ranking officials using
    their influence to enter restricted areas without
    proper identification. Our own staff were allowed
    air-side by simply talking to airport security
    staff who knew the driver of the ground handling
    company we were using
  • Government Response
  • Experience and training of emergency units. Do
    all airports have dedicated fire-fighting, police
    and medical teams trained to respond to a major
    natural or man-made incident.

34
Airport Security in Asia Hardware Problem
  • Airport Design
  • Whilst the larger International Airports are
    designed by architectural and engineering
    companies with specialized expertise, older
    regional airports have not had the benefit of the
    latest technology and management practices. Often
    arriving and departing passengers are processed
    on the same level and not separated by physical
    barriers
  • Misuse, Under-usage or Faulty Technology
  • We have witnessed a huge leap in the availability
    and application of modern technology major
    international airports across the region.
    Unfortunately in some cases systems have been
    introduced that do not have a local support
    infrastructure. When systems breakdown or
    malfunction it can take weeks for qualified
    technicians or spare parts to arrive

35
Improvement Since 9-11
  • More Rigorous Security Checks, but.
  • No across-the-board standards
  • Randomly applied
  • Questionable depth
  • Air Marshals
  • Unconfirmed reporting that Air Marshals are
    armed now in the region. May migrate to business
    and general aviation
  • Monitoring Equipment at Frontier Inspection
    Counters
  • CCTV monitoring and recording equipment in nearly
    all airports.
  • Activities at the counters are monitored and
    video-taped.

36
The Business Case for Corporate AviationPerk or
Necessity???
  • Corporate aircraft ownership is a
    business-critical solution for thousands of
    companies committed to increasing shareholder
    value.
  • This value occurs in the areas of increased
    productivity, acceleration of business, better
    customer relationships, and in the reduction of
    and/or need to increase company infrastructure.
  • Provides competitive advantage and timely
    execution of business strategy.

37
Making the Business Case for Security
  • In the present threat environment, the private
    sector remains the first line of defense for its
    own facilities and assets
  • Businesses have multiple incentives to invest in
    security (reputation, shareholders,
    competitiveness, etc.)
  • Business is often in the best position to
    determine the immediacy of security concerns
  • Better able to assess the magnitude of security
    concerns and to devise effective responses
  • Corporate citizenship/responsibility

38
Cost Benefit and CostEffectiveness Analysis
  • Limited resources necessitate maximizing the
    benefits of security while minimizing cost
  • Risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis are
    dependant upon accurate data
  • May be cost effective to have a professional
    security consultant conduct the risk assessment
  • Security must show a Return on Investment (ROI)

39
Security Decision Making
  • Understand Terrorism
  • This new form of security risk required a better
    understanding of the Who, How and Whys of
    terrorism
  • Selecting security through risk assessment and
    risk management
  • Conducting accurate risk assessments and
    analyzing those assessment within a risk
    management framework will make for a best and
    efficient allocation of time and money
  • Recognizing the limits of business
  • Resources are finite. Security must not affect
    business operations. Business may assume some
    risk through insurance. May need to obtain
    services of a qualified security consultant to
    conduct Risk, Threat and Probability Assessments

40
Risk Management
  • Prevention
  • Focuses on preventive security including
    detection, information management and sharing of
    threat and vulnerabilities.
  • Preventive security can range from installing
    alarms, fences, access control, background checks
    and overt/covert monitoring of facilities and
    assets.

41
Business Case for Security
Drivers Linked to Risk Management
Threat AssessVulnerability AssessProbability
Assess
Meet IndustrySecurity Standards
Comply WithGovernmentSecurity Mandates
Investment in Security
ReducedCost
EnhanceRevenue
PreserveMarketShare
ManageRisk
ProtectBrand
Drivers Linked to Business Success
42
A risk assessment is a tool for measuring the
compliance of an organization with applicable
security requirements.   The standardized
methodology is based on the interrelationships of
four key factors
What is a Risk Assessment?
  • Assets - Any useful or valuable resource.
  • Threat - An event, process or act which, when
    realized has an adverse effect on one or more 
    assets

43
Vulnerability - Weakness or susceptibility of an
asset or a collection of assets to losses of
various kinds.
What is a Risk Assessment?
Safeguard -  A countermeasure, control or action
taken to decrease the existing level of
vulnerability of an asset to one or more threats. 
Risk Threat Vulnerability
44
Risk Assessment Process
  • Threat Assessment
  • Tells who is trying to inflict harm and
    the how it will be done
  • Need real time intelligence from
    government and private sources
  • Vulnerability Assessment
  • Focuses on unearthing weaknesses of the entity we
    are trying to protect.
  • Examines those weaknesses and how they could be
    exploited by someone with hostile intent.
  • Used to predict the effectiveness of additional
    security measures (security impact that a
    facility would get) to the investment in security

45
Risk Assessment Process
  • Probability Assessment
  • Analyzes the probability that a threat will
    actually occur
  • The probability assessment is significant not
    so much as an independent calculation, but as
    applies to the threat and vulnerability
    assessment process.

46
Risk Assessment Example
  • Threat Credible intelligence that a terrorist
    group would steal a large twin engine corporate
    aircraft
  • Vulnerability Hanger has state of the art
    security and meets or exceeds NBAA Best Practices
    for Business Aviation Security but FBOs visited
    have only limited security in place

47
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48
Risk Assessment Example
  • Threat Credible intelligence that a terrorist
    group would steal a large twin engine corporate
    aircraft
  • Vulnerability Hanger has state of the art
    security and meets or exceeds NBAA Best Practices
    for Business Aviation Security but FBOs visited
    have only limited security in place
  • Probability - Some what subjective assessment of
    Risk based on vulnerability and threat assessment

49
Continuum of Threats and Probabilities
High
Nuclear device
Dirty bombin container
Plane flowninto building
Attack onnuclear plant
InfectiousAgent
Railbombing
Difficulty of Execution
Hacking intoComputer system
Oil tankerattack
Computervirus
Foodcontamination
Employeesabotage
Truck/carbomb
Bombing ofmajor bridge
Kidnapping
Low
Severity Impact
High
50
Continuum of Threats and Probabilities
High
Aircraft at home
Nuclear device
Dirty bombin container
Plane flowninto building
Attack onnuclear plant
Railbombing
Oil tankerattack
Difficulty of Execution
Aircraft awayfrom home
InfectiousAgent
Hacking intoComputer system
Computervirus
Foodcontamination
Employeesabotage
Truck/carbomb
Bombing ofmajor bridge
Kidnapping
Low
Severity Impact
High
51
Continuum of Threats and Probabilities
High
Nuclear device
Aircraft at home
Dirty bombin container
Attack onnuclear plant
Plane flowninto building
Aircraft awayfrom home
Oil tankerattack
Railbombing
Difficulty of Execution
InfectiousAgent
Computervirus
Hacking intoComputer system
Foodcontamination
Employeesabotage
Truck/carbomb
Bombing ofmajor bridge
Kidnapping
Low
Severity Impact
High
52
NBAA Best Practices for Business Aviation Security
  • People
  • Establish a Security Champion role (much like the
    Safety Champion's role)
  • Establish and maintain a communications link with
    the company security department or the equivalent

  • Flight department personnel to complete annual
    security training
  • Remain diligent to changes in emotional
    well-being and health of all crewmembers, ground
    personnel and passengers

53
  • Facilities
  • Ensure home facility perimeter security with
    effective fencing, lighting, security patrols (as
    appropriate), gates and limited access areas
  • Ensure street-side gates and doors are closed and
    locked at all times
  • Require positive access control for all external
    gates and doors
  • Close and lock hangar doors when that area is
    unattended
  • Secure all key storage areas (food and liquor,
    parts and tools, etc.)
  • Have an access control management system for keys
    and passes

54
  • Facilities
  • Confirm the identity and authority of each
    passenger, vendor and visitor prior to allowing
    access to facilities and aircraft
  • Escort all visitors on the ramp and in the hangar
    area
  • Use a government issued photo ID to verify
    identity of any visitor or vendor
  • Post emergency numbers prominently around
    facility
  • Ensure easy access to phones or "panic buttons"
    in various facility locations (break room, hangar
    bay, etc.)
  • Confirm security of destination facilities
  • Be aware of your surroundings and do not be
    complacentchallenge strangers

55
  • Aircraft
  • A flight crewmember must be present at all times
    when the aircraft is being serviced (fueling,
    catering, etc.)
  • Check lavatories, baggage compartments and all
    cavities for unauthorized people or objects prior
    to every departure
  • Use the aircraft's security system (locks and
    alarms) whenever it is unattended to prevent
    unauthorized entry

56
  • Procedures
  • Require that aviation department members
    participate in security training
  • Maintain a security information program
  • Require an accurate and accessible passenger
    manifest for all trip legs
  • Only company personnel and authorized guests,
    identified in advance, are allowed to board a
    company aircraft
  • Passengers or flight department members must
    maintain positive control of luggage

57
  • Procedures
  • Crewmembers must display photo IDs
  • Have a security plan specific to your location
    and operation
  • Develop, maintain and exercise an Emergency
    Response Plan and its associated resources
  • Positively identify all luggage and match luggage
    to specific passengers (color-coded bag tags can
    be helpful)

58
IF FOUND Call(800) 926-xxxx Or return to 123 F
irst St Anywhere, USA RETURN SHIPPING GUARANTEE
D
J Sample
IF FOUND Call(800) 926-xxxx Or return to 123 F
irst St Anywhere, USA RETURN SHIPPING GUARANTEE
D
J Sample
59
Q A
60
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61
Security Response
  • Manage risk by designing formal procedures to
    reduce damage in the shortest period of time
    after a security incident.
  • Rescue victims, secure facilities and conduct
    investigation immediately following a security
    incident.

62
Recognizing the Limits of Business
  • Resources are finite
  • Security investment should not exceed the value
    of the business
  • Security should not affect company profits or
    cause disruption to business operations
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