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Beyond the IED: Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism and the Education of Military Officers

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Title: Beyond the IED: Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism and the Education of Military Officers


1
Beyond the IED Future Trends in the Study of
Terrorism and the Education of Military Officers
Dr. James JF Forest Director of Terrorism
Studies U.S. Military Academy
2
Beyond the IED Future Trends in the Study of
Terrorism and the Education of Military Officers
Agenda 1) The Two Professions 2) Education and
the Study of Terrorism at West Point 3) Future
Trends in the Study of Terrorism 4) Implications
for the Education of Military Officers 5)
Conclusion
3
1. The Two Professions
Academic Profession
Military Profession
4
1. The Two Professions
  • The Academic Profession
  • The Key Profession the profession that
    educates other professions
  • Global similarities in the conduct of academic
    work
  • Considerable autonomy, academic freedom
  • Highly respected special place in society
  • Stronger loyalty to disciplinary affiliations
    than institutions
  • Benefit of time to think deep thoughts, explore
    questions of great complexity
  • Expectations from society in exchange for this
    benefit (teach, publish)

AB95-5.PPT //
5
1. The Two Professions
  • The Military Profession
  • Neither a public service agency nor a private
    sector enterprise
  • Demands aptitude for leadership leading soldiers
    in combat and peacekeeping missions
  • Highly respected special place in society
  • Standard Operating Procedures, doctrines,
  • Intense loyalty, patriotism, service to the nation

AB95-5.PPT //
6
1. The Two Professions
  • Important Differences
  • Academic Profession Military Profession
  • Explore new intellectual territories Standard
    operating procedures
  • Informal peer review/governance Formal ranking
    promotion system
  • Adherence to disciplines, theories Implementers
    of national policy
  • Training for research, teaching Training for
    war, national defense

AB95-5.PPT //
7
1. The Two Professions
  • Common Themes
  • In a profession, members are intrinsically
    motivated by their expert knowledge and dedicated
    to its application
  • In a profession, members are given a considerable
    amount of latitude with respect to making
    decisions about how to achieve pre-defined goals
    and objectives
  • The Academic Profession
  • maximizing student learning
  • contributing to a field of study
  • The Military Profession
  • managing the employment of violence to achieve
    political goals
  • And yet, both professions are in a battle to
    retain their traditional autonomy against the
    onslaught of an increasingly invasive bureaucracy

AB95-5.PPT //
8
1. The Two Professions
  • Collaboration
  • Security studies, terrorism studies, etc. vital
    collaboration between academic and military
    professionals
  • The success we have had in the War on Terror is
    largely due to a mix of operational capabilities
    and intellectual capacity
  • Thucydides The nation that makes a great
    distinction between its scholars and its warriors
    will have its thinking done by cowards and its
    fighting done by fools.
  • It is vital to link the scholars and the
    warriors places like NSSC at Univ. of Haifa and
    the CTC at West Point serve this purpose

AB95-5.PPT //
9
2. Education of Military Officers at West Point
10
Leader Development
OfficershipDevelopmentStandards
Army Strategic Vision
Commissioned Officers Junior Grade
11
The Academic Program Component
Multidisciplinary Academic Program Goals to Meet
Army Needs Expected Student Outcomes Learning
Models and Curriculum to Achieve these Outcomes
Cadet Leader Development System
Academic Program
Senior Military Academy LeadershipGeneral
CommitteeCurriculum Committee Assessment
Steering CommitteeFaculty Goal TeamsCourse
DirectorsInstructors
COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM
12
The West Point Curriculum
Army Officer
Bachelor of Science Degree
10 - 13 Electives for a Major
4 Military Science 4 Physical Education
1 Philosophy/Ethics 2 Foreign Language 3 Social
Sciences 2 Leadership 3 English 4 History 1 Law
3 Engineering Science/Design 2 Information
Technology 1 Terrain Analysis 2 Chemistry 2
Physics 4 Math
The Core Curriculum
16 Courses Humanities and Social Science
14 Courses Math, Science, Engineering
For cadets enrolled in non-ABET accredited
majors only
13
The West Point Core Curriculum
Year in School
Comp
History
Psych
Chem
Coll Math
1
Lit
History
IT1
Chem
Calculus I
For Lang
Pol
Sci
Philosophy
Physics
Calculus II
2
For Lang
Econ
Phys Geog
Physics
Prob
/Stats
Engineering Sequence 1
Elective for Major
Intl
Rel
IT2

Leadership
Elective
3
Engineering Sequence 2
Elective for Major
Elective
Adv Comp
Elective
Elective
Elective for Major
Engineering Sequence 3
Mil Art
Law

Elective
Elective
4
Integrative Experience
Mil Art
Elective
Elective
Elective
Graduation and Commissioned as 2nd Lieutenant in
U.S. Army
14
The Academic Program Component
10 Multidisciplinary Academic Program Goals
  • Army Leaders must
  • demonstrate Creativity
  • Moral Awareness
  • Commitment to Continued
    Intellectual Development
  • Effective listening, speaking, reading, and
    writing skills
  • understand Culture
  • History
  • Patterns of Human
    Behavior
  • Mathematics and Science
  • Engineering and Technology
  • Information Technology

15
2. Education at West Point
Overall Goal
Graduates of West Point will anticipate and
respond effectively to the uncertainties of a
changing technological, social, political, and
economic world.
16
3. The Study of Terrorism at West Point
Mr. Vincent Viola (77)
GEN Wayne Downing
17
The Combating Terrorism Centerat West Point
The Department of Social Sciences
Dynamic Leaders
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Counterterrorism
Terrorism
Homeland Security
Education, Research and Policy Analysis
18
Courses we teach
3. Terrorism Education at West Point
  • Terrorism Counterterrorism
  • Advanced Terrorism Studies
  • Homeland Security Seminar
  • Intelligence and Terrorism
  • Information Warfare
  • Minor in Terrorism Studies

19
Lesson topics include
3. Terrorism Education at West Point
  • History of Terrorism
  • Case studies
  • Individual Motivations
  • Psychological and social dimensions
  • Strategic/rational choice
  • Psychological driving forces
  • Group dynamics
  • Recruitment
  • Training
  • Goals, objectives, strategies, tactics
  • Ideology and communication
  • Organizational learning aspects of terrorist
    groups

20
Lesson topics include
3. Terrorism Education at West Point
Expectations
Opportunities
  • Recent trends in terrorism
  • Madrid, Bali, London, Niger Delta
  • Local circumstances that support terrorism
  • Political, economic and social conditions before
    terrorism
  • Facilitators of terrorism
  • Financial criminal networks
  • Combating terrorism
  • U.S. National Security Strategy, CT Strategy, HS
    Strategy, etc.
  • MIDLIFE dimensions of national power
  • Strategic implications of military action

21
(No Transcript)
22
4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism
  • Comparative Studies of Terrorism and
    Counterterrorism
  • National, regional, subregional levels
  • Comparing responses to terrorism in places like
    Ireland, Spain, Israel, Turkey, Cyprus, the UK,
    Sri Lanka, etc. . . .
  • Developing typologies of terrorism and the
    response to terrorism
  • What can we learn from successes in places like
    Mozambique?
  • What common political, social contexts can we
    identify that indicate a high likelihood that a
    group will engage in terrorist activity?

23
4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism
  • Multidisciplinary Studies
  • (engaging new disciplines beyond political
    science, sociology, psychology)
  • For example
  • Business (franchises, organizational learning
    theory, mergers, etc)
  • Medicine (viruses, antibodies)
  • Education (cognitive development, knowledge
    transfer)
  • Natural Sciences (chemistry, biology, etc.)
  • Other Behavioral and Social Sciences (e.g.,
    economics)
  • Also, multidisciplinary collaboration in the
    study of terrorism

24
4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism
  • Some multidisciplinary questions that need
    answers
  • What are the vulnerabilities of a networked
    terrorist organization?
  • What are some ideological differences among key
    terrorist groups, and how can these differences
    be exploited by counterterrorists?
  • What new approaches for combating terrorism can
    be developed in an open, democratic society?
  • How can we improve the practice of
    counterterrorism?
  • How can we change the role of the media as force
    multiplier?
  • What about the mysteries of terrorism?

25
4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism
  • Other multidisciplinary issues that need further
    research
  • Evolutions in terrorist strategies, weapons and
    tactics
  • The dimensions of terrorism and WMD
  • Future acts of terrorist judo
  • Information warfare
  • Electronic warfare
  • Potential terrorist group alliances
  • Common ideology?
  • Complimentary goals/objectives?
  • Common enemy / common hatred of a particular
    policy?
  • Strategic sense (better potential for success by
    combining forces)?
  • Complimentary strengths? Mutual Gain?
  • 5th Generation Warfare strategic surprises of
    tomorrow?

26
5. Implications for the Education of Military
Officers
Officers must have a total grasp of the struggle,
not just the terrorist acts Why is terrorism
being used as a tactic? What are the political
goals? Part of an insurgency?
What are the political, social, economic,
cultural, information dimensions of the conflict
as well as the security and military
aspects. How do these interrelate? Training on
tactics, techniques, and procedures can be
developed but not until the leaders have the
background
27
5. Implications for the Education of Military
Officers
  • The Military Officer of tomorrow must
  • Understand terrorists strategies (particularly
    at junior officer level)
  • Maintain a high level of adaptability/flexibility
    in their response to terrorism
  • Employ the discriminate yet decisive use of
    violence
  • Understand the political objectives of military
    operations
  • Have a full appreciation of many forms of
    technology and yet avoid over-reliance on
    technology vs. real situational awareness
  • Find ways for better collection and integration
    of human intelligence

28
5. Implications for the Education of Military
Officers
  • The Military Officer of tomorrow must
  • Anticipate and respond effectively to ambiguous
    situations
  • Develop the skills of indirect leadership/influenc
    e
  • Appreciate the cultural dimensions of local
    support for insurgencies
  • Recognize and understand local historical
    grievances
  • Develop a capacity for systems thinking must
    understand the phenomena of second- and
    third-order effects
  • Be able to recognize telltale signs of chem/bio
    weapons development

29
5. Implications for the Education of Military
Officers
  • The Military Officer of tomorrow must
  • Understand the asymmetric warfare environment,
    strategy, tactics
  • Appreciate political history of any conflict to
    which they are deployed
  • Be a more effective communicator/messenger than
    the terrorists (expanded language capabilities
    are essential)
  • Understand how complex, networked, decentralized,
    loosely organized groups operate
  • Develop ways to exploit the seams within those
    networked organizations

30
5. Implications for the Education of Military
Officers
  • The Military Officer of tomorrow must
  • Organize strategic learning opportunities for
    each other their soldiers
  • Learn from other militaries experiences with
    COIN and combating terrorism, particularly
    against an adversary that adopts the strategies
    and tactics of 4GW/AW
  • Create networks among military officers of
    different countries, through which they can share
    ideas and lessons learned
  • Develop an interagency perspective
  • Gain an understanding of local law enforcement
    challenges, strategies, capabilities, etc. in any
    deployment
  • Work with the academic community to evaluate
    counterterrorism operations and identify reasons
    behind military successes and failures

31
Conclusion A Partnership of The Two
Professionsin Developing Better Responses to
Terrorism
Academics engaged in the study of terrorism have
a critical role to play in the challenges of the
future global security environment. Comparative
and multidisciplinary studies of terrorism are
needed. Academic studies of military successes
(and failures) in combating terrorism will be
particularly important in the global struggle
before us. A strategic learning partnership
between the academic and military professions is
needed. This partnership between the academic
community and the military profession must be
nurtured on a national, regional and global level.
32
WHOLE UNITED
NATIONS
NATIONAL
33
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