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PS2001 Psychology Practical

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Participants primed' with a face (Black or White), then presented with a word ... Affective Priming = facilitation to respond to a stimulus after seeing an ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PS2001 Psychology Practical


1
PS2001Psychology Practical
  • Explicit and Implicit StereotypesDo we know
    what we measure?
  • Dr. Gug Calvini

2
Some Implicit measures
  • Bogus Pipeline technique (indirect)
  • Bona Fide Pipeline technique
  • Fazio, Jackson, Dunton Williams (1995)
  • Implicit Association Test (IAT)
  • Greenwald, McGhee Schwartz (1998)
  • Affective priming paradigms
  • Wittenbrink, Park Judd (1997)
  • Fazio (2001)

3
Assumption
  • If two concepts are associated, then thinking
    about one should lead to think about the other
  • Seeing one makes us faster to respond to the other

4
  • Prejudceif Teacher is associated with
    negative, then seeing a Teacher should make you
    think about negative things (e.g. boring,
    pompous, evil, etc.)
  • Stereotypeif Student is associated with
    laziness, then seeing a student should make you
    faster to respond to lazy-related information
    (e.g. pub, TV, messy flat)

5
The Bona Fide Pipeline
  • Do implicit stereotypes prejudice predict
    behaviour? - (associations)
  • Fazio, Jackson, Dunton Williams (1995)

6
The Bona Fide Pipeline
  • Two measures of prejudice
  • Explicit attitudes towards African-Americans
    (MRS)
  • Implicit attitudes towards African-Americans
  • Judgments
  • Rodney King verdict, LA riots responsibility
    (conscious judgment)
  • Behaviour
  • Interaction with Black confederate (unconscious
    behaviour)

7
Implicit Attitude Measure
  • If Black is associated with negative, then
    being shown a Black face should make you faster
    to respond to negative adjectives

8
Implicit Attitude Measure
  • Participants primed with a face (Black or
    White), then presented with a word (positive or
    negative)
  • Test Time to identify good vs. bad words when
    preceded by Black vs. White face (Reaction Times)
  • Implicit prejudice faster to identify
    negative words after Black faces
  • Baseline time taken to identify words as good or
    bad with no face

9
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10
scab
11
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12
flower
13
Facilitation by exposure to faces(Whites)
14
Fazio, Jackson, Dunton Williams (1995)
15
Predicting Judgments Behaviour

16
The Bona Fide Pipeline
  • Implicit measure scores predicted
  • Behaviour towards Black experimenter
  • Explicit measure (questionnaire) not predictive
  • Substantial variation across Whites
  • Some scored very negative towards Blacks, others
    quite positive (level of prejudice)

17
The Bona Fide Pipeline
  • Behaviour towards out-groups depends on
  • Implicit prejudice
  • Explicit prejudice
  • Motivation to control prejudice

18
Implicit Prejudice
Explicit beliefs
Motivation?
Ability?
Implicit beliefs
19
Implicit Association Test (IAT)
  • Investigates strength of association between 2
    concepts (categories, dimensions)
  • Greenwald, McGhee Schwartz (1998)
  • Dimension A can be consistent or inconsistent
    with dimension B
  • If A B are inconsistent, people should be
    slower to associate them together

20
Example
  • POSITIVE vs. NEGATIVE
  • Love
  • Abuse
  • Peace
  • Crash
  • Freedom
  • Murder
  • Health
  • Filth
  • TEACHER vs. STUDENT
  • Beer
  • Lecture
  • TV
  • Science
  • Top-up fees
  • Geek
  • LUSHradio
  • Conference

21
POSITIVE NEGATIVE
PEACE
22
POSITIVE NEGATIVE
ABUSE
23
TEACHER STUDENT
GEEK
24
TEACHER STUDENT
LUSHRADIO
25
TEACHER STUDENTPOSITIVE NEGATIVE
GEEK
26
STUDENT TEACHERPOSITIVE NEGATIVE
GEEK
27
Implicit Association Test
  • Incompatible 1st
  • Positive vs. Negative
  • Insect vs. Flower
  • Positive/Insect vs. Negative/Flower
  • Flower vs. Insect
  • Positive/Flower vs. Negative/Insect
  • Compatible 1st
  • Positive vs. Negative
  • Flower vs. Insect
  • Positive/Flower vs. Negative/Insect
  • Insect vs. Flower
  • Positive/Insect vs. Negative/Flower

28
Implicit Association Test
  • Incompatible 1st
  • Positive vs. Negative
  • Teacher vs. Student
  • Positive/Teacher vs. Negative/Student
  • Student vs. Teacher
  • Positive/Student vs. Negative/Teacher
  • Compatible 1st
  • Positive vs. Negative
  • Student vs. Teacher
  • Positive/Student vs. Negative/Teacher
  • Teacher vs. Student
  • Positive/Teacher vs. Negative/Student

29
Typical IAT Effect
30
IAT Effects
  • Automatic preferences (evaluative associations)
  • Age
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • Political leaders
  • Sexual orientation
  • Religion
  • Weight
  • Disabilities
  • Automatic beliefs (stereotypic associations)
  • Gender science
  • Gender career-orientation
  • Race weapons

31
Affective Priming
  • Priming increased ability to respond to a
    stimulus after seeing a related stimulus
    (facilitation)
  • e.g., see BIRD, faster to respond to ROBIN
  • Affective Priming facilitation to respond to a
    stimulus after seeing an evaluatively related
    stimulus
  • e.g., see VOMIT, faster to respond to SCAB (and
    slower to respond to FLOWER)

32
Affective Priming Prejudice
  • If one has a negative attitude towards Group X,
    exposure to Group X should facilitate responses
    to negative stimuli
  • Perdue, Gurtman, Dovidio Tyler (1990)
  • Primed with Us or Them
  • Judge words as positive or negative (e.g.,
    sunshine, warfare)
  • ?US facilitated positive responses, THEM
    facilitated negative responses

33
Priming Racial Prejudice
  • Wittenbrink, Judd Park (1997)
  • Affective priming paradigm as implicit prejudice
    measure
  • Primes racial category labels BLACK and WHITE
  • Targets positive negative stereotypic traits
    of African-Americans White Americans

34
Priming Racial Prejudice
35
References
  • Fazio, R. H. (2001). On the automatic activation
    of associated evaluations An overview. Cognition
    and Emotion, 15, 115-141.
  • Fazio, R. H. , Jackson, J. R., Dunton, B. C.,
    Williams, C. J. (1995). Variability in automatic
    activation as an unobstrusive measure of racial
    attitudes A bona fide pipeline? Journal of
    Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1013-1027.
  • Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., Schwartz, J. L.
    K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in
    implicit cognition The implicit association
    test. Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 74, 1464-1480.
  • Perdue, C. W., Gurtman, M. B.,(1990). Evidence of
    the automaticity of ageism. Journal of
    Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 199-216.
  • Perdue, C. W., Dovidio, J. F., Gurtman, M. B.,
    Tyler, R. B. (1990). Us and Them Social
    categorization and the process of intergroup
    bias. Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 59, 475-486.
  • Wittenbrink, B., Judd, C. M., Park, B. (1997).
    Evidence for racial prejudice at the implicit
    level and its relationship with questionnaire
    measures. Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 72, 262-274.
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