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Training, Public Speaking and Professional Electronic Presentations

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Title: Training, Public Speaking and Professional Electronic Presentations


1
Training, Public Speaking and Professional
Electronic Presentations
  • National Council of University Research
    Administrators
  • Region IV Workshop 2008

2
Faculty
  • Sarah E. Starr
  • Director, Office of Funding and Research
    Development
  • The Ohio State University Research Foundation
  • Jeffrey Ritchie Grants Management
    Analyst Aurora Health Care

3
Workshop Agenda
  • Ice Breaker
  • Creating and Structuring a Presentation
  • Interactive Activity
  • Effective Public Speaking Instruction
  • Break
  • How to Train the Trainers Instruction
  • Developing Confidence and Handling Nervousness
  • Questions and Discussion

4
Creating and Structuring a Professional
Presentation
5
Introductory Activity
6
Creating the Presentation
  • Features of any Presentation
  • Specific Purpose
  • Structure
  • Supporting Materials

7
Creating Specific Purpose
  • Key Questions to Ask
  • Who is my Audience?
  • What do they bring to the Presentation?
  • What should they bring from the Presentation?

8
Structuring Your Presentation
  • Every presentation has the following
  • Introduction
  • Main Points
  • Conclusion

9
Creating an Introduction
  • The Introduction consists of three objectives
  • Get the attention and interest of the audience
  • Reveal the topic of the presentation
  • Establish the credibility of the speaker

10
Get Their Attention
  • State the importance of the topic
  • Question the audience
  • Begin with a quotation
  • Tell a story

11
Reveal The Topic
  • Listeners need help in sorting out a speakers
    ideas
  • Helps the audience know what to listen for
  • Allows you to define complicated terms clearly

12
Establish Your Credibility
  • The 60-Second Job Interview
  • Tell about yourself
  • Explain your relevant experience
  • Convey your interest in the topic

13
Creating Main Points
  • Presentations typically have 2-3 Main Points
  • If more than that, your audience may be confused
  • Not all Main Points are created equal!
  • Cluster similar or related sub-points

14
Creating Main Points
  • Keep Main Points separate
  • Use the same pattern of wording
  • Balance time devoted to each point
  • Time spent on each Main Point depends on the
    amount of supporting materials

15
Structuring Main Points
  • Order is extremely important for both clarity and
    persuasiveness
  • There are different kinds of order
  • Chronological time pattern
  • Spatial directional pattern
  • Causal cause-effect relationship
  • Topical divided into subtopics

16
The Conclusion
  • Closing remarks reinforce the Main Points
  • The conclusion always has two major functions
  • Lets the audience know the presentation is ending
  • Reinforces the understanding of the central idea
  • Do not be abrupt

17
Reinforce the Central Idea
  • Summarize by restating the Main Points
  • End with a quotation
  • Make a dramatic statement
  • Refer back to the introduction

18
Methods to Signal the End
  • Simple statements
  • In conclusion . . . or Before we wrap up…
  • Ask for questions
  • Is there anything that I havent covered?
  • Thank your audience
  • Youve been great
  • Leave
  • Dont have multiple conclusions!

19
Creating Supporting Materials
  • Alone, main points are only assertions
  • Supporting materials give meaning
  • Supporting materials relate to critical thinking
  • Research to find supporting materials

20
Most people are more deeply influenced by one
clear, vivid, personal example than by an
abundance of statistical data.
  • Eliot Aronson, Social Psychologist

21
Creating Examples
  • Illustrate a point
  • Use brief examples or specific instances
  • Pull listeners into the presentation
  • Tell a story vividly and dramatically
  • Explain hypothetical examples
  • Create a real world situation

22
Using Statistics
  • Quantify subjective material
  • Give ideas numerical precision
  • Add credibility to the presentation
  • Identify sources of statistical data

23
Misusing Statistics
  • Use statistics sparingly
  • Too many bore and confuse
  • Explain statistics
  • Interpret data for the listeners

24
Visual Examples
  • Round off complicated statistics
  • Use visual aids to clarify statistical trends

25
Activity Time!
26
Creating an Electronic Presentation
27
Electronic Presentations
  • Benefits of Electronic Presentations
  • Simple
  • Portable
  • Impressive
  • Creative

28
Preparing Electronic Presentations
  • Fonts and Text
  • Use textual cues consistently
  • (Keep font changes to a MIMIMUM)
  • Use bullets and other non-text as cues
  • Dont let the technology be distracting

29
Preparing Electronic Presentations
  • Backgrounds and Graphics
  • Backgrounds should be consistent
  • Graphics should be small, unobtrusive
  • Both should enhance the presentation

30
Preparing Electronic Presentations
  • Using Special Effects
  • Transitions
  • Sound/Visual Effects
  • Video

31
Preparing Electronic Presentations
  • Things Gone Wrong!
  • Bad Color Schemes (Can you read me now?)
  • Indecipherable Graphs Charts
  • Reading vs. Speaking

32
Delivering Electronic Presentations
  • Before Your Presentation
  • Read and Spell Check (twice)
  • Run through it in front of a practice audience
  • The presentation doesnt deliver itself!
  • Have back-up options. Why!?

33
Delivering Electronic Presentations
  • Things gone horribly wrong…
  • Power Failure
  • Equipment Failure
  • I thought you brought the hand-outs!

34
Fundamentals of Public Speaking
35
Goals of the Presentation
  • Reasons for public speaking
  • Information
  • Persuasion
  • Training

36
The Informative Presentation
  • Judged by three general criteria
  • Is the information communicated accurately?
  • Is the information communicated clearly?
  • Is the information made meaningful and
    interesting to the audience?

37
Subjects of Informative Presentations
  • About objects
  • Tangible, visible, and stable
  • About processes
  • How to
  • About events
  • Occurrence or happening
  • About concepts
  • Beliefs, theories, ideas, principles, etc.

38
Guidelines for Informative Presentations
  • Do not overestimate what the audience knows
  • Relate the subject directly to the audience
  • Do not be too technical
  • Avoid abstractions

39
The Persuasive Presentation
  • Goals of the persuasive presentation
  • Defending an idea
  • Selling a program
  • Refuting an opponent
  • Inspiring people

40
Subjects of Persuasive Presentations
  • Questions of fact
  • Persuading the audience to accept a view of the
    facts
  • Questions of value
  • Justifying the speakers opinion on value
    judgments
  • Questions of policy
  • Persuading people to a specific course of action

41
The Target Audience
  • A speaker will seldom be able to persuade all
    members of the audience
  • The message must be tailored to the audience
  • A speaker must decide which portion of the
    audience that is most desirable to reach
  • Persuasion is complex

42
Methods of Persuasion
  • How are audiences persuaded?
  • They perceived the speaker as being credible
  • They are won over by the speakers evidence
  • They are convinced by the speakers reasoning
  • Their emotions are touched by the speakers ideas
    or language

43
Talk is cheap.
44
Public Speaking and Conversation
  • The average adult spends 30 of waking time in
    conversation
  • Conversation and public speaking both require
    clear communication
  • You spend much of your life practicing the art of
    conversation
  • Conversation and public speaking require similar
    skills

45
Skills Gained by Conversation
  • Logical organization of thoughts
  • Tailoring the message to the audience
  • Telling a story for maximum impact
  • Adapting to listener feedback

46
Differences from Conversation
  • Public speaking is more highly structured
  • Public speaking requires more formal language
  • Public speaking requires different methods of
    delivery

47
Critical Thinking and Public Speaking
  • Public speaking requires
  • Sound logic
  • Organized ideas
  • Effective thinking
  • Clear expression
  • Accurate language

48
The Process of Public Speaking
  • Speaker
  • Message
  • Channel
  • Listener
  • Feedback
  • Interference
  • Situation

49
The Speaker
  • Knowledge of subject
  • Preparation of material
  • Personal credibility
  • Sensitivity to audience
  • Manner of speaking
  • Enthusiasm for speaking

50
The Message
  • The Message belongs to the Presenter
  • The goal is to deliver the intended Message
  • Messages must be organized so listeners can follow

51
The Message
  • A presenter is sending multiple messages
  • Presentation
  • Body language
  • Appearance
  • Tone of voice
  • Gestures
  • Facial expression
  • Eye contact

52
The Channel
  • The channel is the means by which a message is
    communicated.
  • One-on-one conversation is the most direct
    channel for an individual.
  • Public speaking is the most direct channel for
    groups of individuals.

53
The Listener
  • Everything a speaker says is filtered through the
    listeners frame of reference
  • Knowledge
  • Experience
  • Goals
  • Values
  • Attitudes

54
An Audience of Listeners
  • Each listener has a different frame of reference
  • The speaker must be audience-centered
  • The speaker must speak with the audience
    constantly in mind
  • A presenter must make the audience feel that
    their ideas and thoughts are important

55
Feedback
  • Public speaking involves two-way communication
  • Listeners send back messages to the speaker
  • Feedback is an important element in for both the
    speaker and the listeners

56
Interference
  • Interference is anything that impedes the
    communication of a message
  • Interference can come from any source
  • The solution to dealing with interference is to
    find many ways to hold the attention of the
    listeners

57
The Situation
  • The situation is the time and place in which the
    presentation occurs
  • Certain occasions require certain kinds of
    presentations
  • Physical setting is very important
  • Adjusting the situation of a presentation is
    simply doing conversation on a larger scale

58
Analyzing the Audience
  • The goal of the presentation is to gain a desired
    response from the listeners
  • What does the speaker want them to know, believe
    or do as a result of the presentation?
  • What is the most effective way to compose and
    present the presentation to accomplish the goals?

59
Psychology of an Audience
  • Why are you here?
  • Why is this important to you?
  • Why is this important, in general?
  • Listeners hear and judge everything based on what
    they think is important
  • Relate the message to show how it is important to
    them

60
Adapting to the Audience
  • Identify the major characteristics of the
    audience
  • Adapting the ideas to the audience
  • Keep the audience constantly in mind in
    preparing a presentation
  • Anticipate the needs of the audience

61
Delivery
  • Good delivery
  • Does not call attention to itself
  • Conveys the speakers ideas clearly,
    interestingly and without distraction
  • Combines formality with the best attributes of
    conversation

62
Speakers Voice Characteristics
  • Volume
  • Pitch
  • Rate
  • Vocal variety
  • Pronunciation
  • Articulation

63
Volume
  • Too loud Overbearing
  • Too soft Huh?
  • Pitch is the highness and lowness of ones voice
  • Variations in pitch reveal questions, statements
    and keep speaker from being monotone

64
Rate
  • Too slow Boring
  • Too fast Huh?
  • Dont be afraid to pause (without um and er)
  • Practice before a friendly audience

65
Vocal Variety
  • Flat, unchanging voice leads to a flat
    presentation
  • Follow instincts in changing rate, pitch, volume
    to reflect feelings
  • Variety is the spice of life!

66
Pronunciation
  • Every word has three aspects read, written, and
    spoken
  • The problem lies when a speaker does not know the
    correct pronunciation of a word
  • Rehearse prior to delivery

67
Articulation
  • Articulation and pronunciation are not identical
  • Sloppy articulation fails to form sounds
    distinctly
  • Often a result of rushing through a presentation
  • Rehearse before delivery to detect articulation
    problems in a presentation

68
Nonverbal Communication
  • Personal appearance
  • Bodily action
  • Gestures
  • Eye contact

69
Summary
  • Public speaking experience begins with
    conversation
  • Public speaking requires critical thinking
  • A good speaker is audience-centered
  • There are different goals of a presentation and
    each should be focused on the goal

70
The Training Presentation Training the Trainers
71
Climate
72
Rapport
  • Before the course
  • Phone or meet learners individually
  • Send out a pre-course survey to find out what
    issues they wish to address
  • Send a welcoming letter to each participant and
    to their supervisor
  • Make a list of things you would like the learners
    to say about you after a course

73
Rapport
  • During the course, make the learners feel
  • Welcome
  • Safe
  • Comfortable
  • Important
  • Competent
  • Understood
  • Responsible

74
Activity Time
  • Your age.
  • Multiply by 2.
  • Add five.
  • Multiply by 50.
  • Subtract 365.
  • Add any loose change in your pocket or purse
    under 1.00.
  • Add 115.
  • The result Your Age Your Loose Change!

75
If you love working with people you could become
a trainer or a mortician.
76
Cohesiveness
  • Set people up in close physical proximity without
    overcrowding
  • Use separate tables so small groups are in
    clusters
  • Have a card on the table with suggestions about
    how to conduct themselves
  • Basic etiquette for being a good participant

77
NO NOs for PowerPoint Presentations
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vHLpjrHzgSRM
78
Cohesiveness
  • Point out that training is the time to ask
    questions, make mistakes, experiment, and try out
    new skills
  • Use an icebreaker that brings out shared
    experiences (e.g., give them five minutes to list
    things they all have in common)

79
Cohesiveness
  • Set up exercises so that the team is successful
  • Focus on team achievement rather than individual
    achievement by giving feedback to the group about
    their progress

80
Weve been through so much together and most of
it was your fault.
81
Learner Confidence and Self-Esteem
  • Ask learners to discuss each objective briefly to
    clarify meaning
  • Point out that their learning is in their own
    hands
  • Find value in peoples comments
  • Dont intervene too quickly if learners are
    struggling
  • It is better to have too few than too many
    interventions

82
Never do for the learners what they can do for
themselves.
83
Participation Involvement
  • Arrange frequent small group sessions
  • Move away from the center of the room, sit rather
    than stand, move to the back of the room to take
    emphasis off yourself
  • Relay questions back to learners
  • Be quiet when you want participation (the
    learners will fill the silence)

84
Participation Involvement
  • Give participants ten minutes at the beginning to
    ask questions about the course or the instructor
  • Get small groups to create questions together
  • Pause occasionally and ask for questions

85
During training, the learners should work harder
than the leader.
86
Classroom Layout
  • To maximize interaction, use layouts that allow
    the most eye-contact (e.g., a circle) and move
    people closer together
  • To minimize interaction, reduce eye-contact and
    spread learners apart in a larger room
  • Move learners locations to provide stimulation

87
There is no substitute for genuine lack of
preparation.
88
Efficient Use of Instructional Time
  • Develop visuals (they speed learning)
  • Minimize time on Presentation and maximize time
    for Application and Feedback
  • Always start on time and ask learners to be on
    time
  • During exercises, circulate to help with
    blockages and spur the groups on

89
Time is natures way of keeping everything from
happening at once.
90
Traits of a Good Leader
  • Listens carefully
  • Open to other ideas
  • Warm and friendly
  • Enjoys being with people
  • Tolerant of others
  • Supportive of others
  • Trusts others
  • Sense of humor
  • Decisiveness
  • Flexible

91
What gets across most is what we are rather than
what we teach.
92
Motivation
93
Four Key Factors in Motivation
  • The belief that the content is important
  • The learners want to learn
  • The course is set up for success
  • The learning is enjoyable

94
Mnemonics for Trainers
M A F I A H E I D I
95
One persons simple is another persons huh?
96
Motivational Techniques
  • Be sure the content is relevant to their jobs
  • Point out how the content to be learned fits into
    the job
  • Find out what needs and expectations the learners
    have
  • Discuss what can and cannot be met
  • Modify your plans if feasible

97
Motivational Techniques
  • Your first words should focus on the single
    biggest concern of your learners
  • Address their problems as soon as you begin
    speaking
  • Ask why they chose to attend
  • Frequently ask how things can be applied back on
    the job
  • Discuss the transfer of new skills to the
    workplace

98
A yawn is at least an honest opinion.
99
Feedback as Motivation
  • Focus on the performance rather than personal
    qualities
  • Describe what you actually observed or felt
    rather than judging
  • Make sure the learner wants feedback

100
Feedback as Motivation
  • Give feedback as soon as possible
  • Give feedback only on things that learners can
    improve and control
  • Comment only on important items ignore trivial
    points

101
Honest criticism is hard to take, especially
from a relative, a friend, an acquaintance or a
stranger.
Franklin Jones
102
Group Dynamics
103
Characteristics of a Healthy Group
  • The atmosphere is informal, comfortable, relaxed
  • There is a lot of discussion in which everyone
    participates
  • The task of the group is well understood and
    accepted

104
Characteristics of a Healthy Group
  • People listen to each other
  • Every idea is given a hearing
  • People are not afraid to put forth ideas
  • People are free in expressing feelings as well as
    their ideas
  • There is disagreement this is not suppressed or
    overridden

105
Characteristics of a Healthy Group
  • Issues are examined and the group seeks to
    resolve them together
  • Most decisions are reached by a kind of consensus
    in which there is general agreement and
    willingness to go along
  • Formal voting is at a minimum

106
Characteristics of a Healthy Group
  • No one dominates in fact, leadership shifts
    depending on circumstances
  • There is little evidence of power struggles
  • The main issue is how to get the job done
  • The group is conscious about how it operates

107
Verbal Behavior
  • Task-Directed
  • Functions required in carrying out a group task.
  • Group Maintenance
  • Functions required to maintain good health of
    group.
  • Self-Oriented
  • Behaviors which contribute nothing to the group
    and may harm it.

108
Positive Non-Verbal Communication
  • Smiling
  • Nodding
  • Eye Contact
  • Relaxed Posture
  • Facing you directly
  • Unbuttoned jackets
  • Leaning forward
  • Sitting on edge of chair
  • Hands in open position
  • Legs and arms uncrossed

109
Negative Non-Verbal Communication
  • Dead expression
  • Tight lips
  • Frowning
  • Avoiding eye contact
  • Squirming
  • Doodling
  • Fidgeting
  • Hands clenched or wringing
  • Turning away
  • Stiff or slumping posture
  • Sitting or leaning back
  • Crossed legs or arms

110
Blessed is the trainer who has nothing to say
and cannot be persuaded to say it.
111
Consequences
112
Maintain/Modify Behavior
  • Is there enough participation?
  • Is participation well-balanced?
  • Do people listen to each other?
  • Are people having fun?
  • Who seems positive?
  • Who seems negative?

113
Discussion
  • Does the leader. . .
  • State the objective or purpose clearly?
  • State the time available?
  • Maintain subtle control?
  • Keep discussion on track?
  • Stay neutral during disagreements?
  • Express opinions only after the group has spoken?

114
If some instructors have a choice between
listening and talking, guess which theyll
choose?
115
After the Course
  • Phone or meet learners individually
  • Send out an evaluation form
  • Send a letter to each participant and their
    supervisor
  • Send a certificate to each participant

116
Continued Development
  • Use evaluation forms at end of sessions
  • Stay in touch with people from this course
  • Read books from the bibliography that interest
    you
  • Evaluate yourself regularly
  • Videotape your sessions and look for strengths
    and weaknesses

117
Whats New in Training
118
Shift from Training to Performance
  • Value of Training is Determined by how much
    Performance Improved Because of the Training

119
Training is where you come to practice your job.
120
Job Performance
121
Preparing for a Presentation
  • Putting All This Information To Work

122
Preparing for a Presentation
  • Get Started
  • Determine Partners
  • Develop a Timeline
  • Fine Tune
  • Practice

123
Practice is the best of all instruction.
  • Maxim 439, Publilues Syrus, First Century B.C.

124
Handling Leader Anxiety
  • Check everything
  • Dress well
  • Meet people when they arrive. Introduce yourself,
    shake hands, be friendly
  • Use icebreakers
  • Remind yourself that you are the most expert
    person in the room

125
Handling Leader Burnout
  • Causes
  • Repetition and boredom
  • Plateaus of stagnation
  • Lack of success
  • Stress
  • Loss of purpose

126
One of the symptoms of an approaching nervous
breakdown is the belief that ones work is
terribly important.
127
Dealing with Nervousness
  • Speechmaking is a common greatest fear
  • Fear is normal, acknowledge it!
  • Accept that you are not alone
  • Preparation and rehearsal reduce fear by 75
  • Proper breathing reduces fear by 15
  • Mental state accounts for only 10 of anxiety

128
There are two types of speakers those that
are nervous and those that are liars.
  • Mark Twain

129
Ten Tips to Reduce Anxiety
  • 1. Know the room become familiar with space,
    equipment, location
  • 2. Know the audience greet them as they enter,
    present to friends (no longer strangers)
  • 3. Know your material practice!
  • 4. Learn how to relax breathe slowly and do
    relaxation exercises

Lenny Laskowsi, LJL Seminars
130
Ten Tips to Reduce Anxiety
  • 5. Visualize yourself speaking imagine a
    successful presentation
  • 6. Realize people want you to succeed the
    audience wants a successful presentation
  • 7. Dont apologize for being nervous it may not
    show, so dont point it out!

Lenny Laskowsi, LJL Seminars
131
Ten Tips to Reduce Anxiety
  • 8. Concentrate on the message, not the medium
    focus on material and message distract your
    attention off of nervousness
  • 9. Turn nervousness into positive energy fear is
    energy, use it to benefit your performance
  • 10. Gain experience do it, learn from it, and
    keep doing it!

Lenny Laskowsi, LJL Seminars
132
Practice is everything.
  • Pereandes Diogenes Laertius, c 200 AD, Periander 6

133
Relaxation Exercises
  • Techniques for reducing trainers anxiety can be
    used with learners
  • Tense all muscles for a count of three, then
    relax. Repeat three or four times.
  • Breathe in deeply for a count of three, hold your
    breath for a count of twelve, breathe out for a
    count of six. Repeat three times.
  • The goal is to be relaxed but alert.

134
Review of Public Speaking
  • Public speaking skills begin through
    conversational experience
  • A speaker must be audience-centered
  • A speaker must be organized and well-prepared

135
Review of Preparing a Presentation
  • Use an outline format for both the presentation
    and the speakers notes
  • Keep the audience in mind
  • Reinforce the central idea
  • A good speaker is well-prepared

136
Review of Creating an Electronic Presentation
  • Assess the audience
  • Use the presentation outline
  • Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse
  • Do not expect the presentation to speak for the
    speaker
  • A good speaker is well-prepared

137
Review of Training
  • Climate
  • Rapport
  • Leader
  • Motivation
  • Group Dynamics
  • Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
  • Whats New in Training

138
Final words of advice
Practice makes perfect!
139
Questions??
140
Talking and eloquence are not the same thing to
speak, and to speak well are two things. A fool
may talk, but a wise man speaks.
  • Ben Johnson

141
Thank you!
142
Bibliography
  • R.R.H. Anholt, Dazzle Em With Style, New York,
    W.H. Freeman and Co., 1994
  • Jerry Wircenski, Technical Presentation Workbook
    Winning Strategies for Effective Public Speaking,
    New York, American Society of Mechanical
    Engineers Press, 1996.
  • Michael Shortland and Jane Gregory, Communicating
    Science A Handbook, New York, John Wiley and
    Sons, 1991.
  • Edward R. Tufte, The Visual Display of
    Quantitative Information, Cheshire, Conn.,
    Graphics Press, 1983.
  • R. Finn, The Art of Poster Presentation, The
    Scientist, Jan. 25, 1993, p.20.

143
Bibliography (cont.)
  • Stephen E. Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking ,
    New York McGraw-Hill, 1997.
  • David Black, The Magic of Theater Behind the
    Scenes with Todays Leading Actors, New York
    Collier, 1993.
  • Kathleen Kelley Reardon, Persuasion in Practice,
    Newbury Park Sage, 1991.
  • Langevin Learning Services, Manotick, Ontario
    Canada
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