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New Wars and Ethnic Conflict

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historic ethnic competition between the Masalit/Fur and Arabs ... Highlights brutality of conflicts. Global dimension of area conflicts. Rwanda as a new' war ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Wars and Ethnic Conflict


1
New Wars and Ethnic Conflict
  • PI3036 International Security
  • Week 8

2
New Wars and Ethnic Conflict
  • Sudan, Darfur Region
  • Circumstances-
  • recent drought, dwindling resources
  • historic ethnic competition between the
    Masalit/Fur and Arabs
  • 1999 clashes which saw Arabs killed

3
New Wars and Ethnic Conflict
  • Rwanda/Burundi (1994/1996-)
  • Circumstances-
  • Historic tensions between Tutsi 14 and Hutu 85
    (Rwanda)
  • Assassination of presidents in crash
  • Radical army exiled in Uganda

4
New Wars and Ethnic Conflict
  • Kosovo (1999-)
  • Circumstances-
  • 10 years of conflict in former Yugoslavia
  • Serbian ultra-nationalist in power
  • ethnically cleansing Kosovo by Yugoslav troops

5
New Wars and Ethnic Conflict
  • East Timor (1975-1999?)
  • Circumstances-
  • 1975 Indonesian invasion after Portugal leave
  • Super Power politics
  • Ethnic violence on eve of independence

6
New Wars and Ethnic Conflict Questions
  • What are old wars?
  • According to Mary Kaldor, what are new wars?
  • What are their causes and effects?
  • What should be the response of international
    community?
  • Does the new war hypothesis help us understand
    security today?

7
What are old wars?
  • Kaldor defines an Old War as
  • Conflict over territory and sovereignty
  • Conflict between states.
  • Conflict had rules
  • Conflict was exclusive
  • Examples Napoleonic Wars, Crimean War, First
    World War, Second World War, Falklands War

8
What are new wars?
  • New Wars are a result of the fragmentation and
    integration, homogenisation and diversification
    that followed the end of the Cold War.

9
(No Transcript)
10
Why new wars?
  • Causes
  • End of the Cold War
  • Globalisation
  • Weak or failed states
  • Employment of technology

11
What are new wars?
  • Defining new wars
  • Not ideological, but identity conflicts
  • Non-Combatants as targets
  • Inclusive conflict
  • Role of Media

12
What are new wars?
  • Tactics of New Warriors
  • Ethnic Cleansing
  • Solidification of identities
  • Criminality of conflict
  • Privatisation of non-state actors

13
What should be the response of international
community?
  • Cosmopolitanism or neo-colonialism?
  • a new kind of soldier-cum-policeman
  • Rapid reaction
  • Peace-keepers as the norm
  • Can we trust the powers-that-be to prevent
    conflict, when it may not be in their interest?

14
Does the new war hypothesis help us understand
security today?
  • Problems
  • Neo-colonialism?
  • Categorisation?
  • New wars?
  • However
  • Highlights brutality of conflicts
  • Global dimension of area conflicts

15
Rwanda as a new war
  • Rwanda/Burundi (1994/1996-)
  • Circumstances-
  • Historic tensions between Tutsi 14 and Hutu 85
    (Rwanda)
  • Assassination of presidents in crash
  • Radical army exiled in Uganda

16
New Wars and Ethnic Conflict Questions
  • What are old wars?
  • According to Mary Kaldor, what are new wars?
  • What are their causes and effects?
  • What should be the response of international
    community?
  • Does the new war hypothesis help us understand
    security today?
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