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Marketing Livestock and Poultry

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Livestock are consigned to a commission firm to bargain with buyers for a certain fee ... disjointed and broken bones. missing parts. freezing defects ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Marketing Livestock and Poultry


1
Marketing Livestock and Poultry
  • Objective Describe the methods used to market
    livestock and poultry

2
Marketing
  • Marketing is an important aspect of any livestock
    system.
  • Definition producers exchange livestock and
    products for cash.

3
Types of Markets
  • Terminal Markets
  • Central markets on public stockyards
  • Livestock are consigned to a commission firm to
    bargain with buyers for a certain fee

4
Methods of Marketing
  • Auction Markets
  • Public bidding
  • Sell to the buyer that bids the highest

5
Cattle Auction
6
Methods of Marketing
  • Direct selling
  • No middle person
  • Producer sells straight to the buyer
  • No commission or fees

7
Methods of Marketing
  • Electronic marketing
  • auctioning on-line using computers
  • Futures marketing and hedging
  • legal document
  • calls for the delivery in the future, locking in
    a future delivery price

8
Vertical Integration
  • Definition
  • Two or more steps of production, marketing and
    processing are linked together usually by a
    contract between the producer and feed
    manufactures or between producers and processors
    including all three

9
Vertical Integration
Holly Farms, Case, Purdue
Poultry Farmer or producer
Grain producer
Hatchery
10
Vertical Integration
  • About 99 of all broilers and a very high
    percentage of turkeys, laying hens and swine are
    grown and marketed through vertical integration
    contracts

11
  • Which is the best car?

12
66 Corvette
66 Mustang
Which is the best car?
13
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14
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15
Which is the hottest guy? WHY????
16
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19
Grading Systems and Terminology for Cattle
Swine
20
Beef Cattle
  • Age Classes

21
Calves- Less than one year of age.
22
Cattle- One year or older
23
Veal calves- Less than 3 months old. Usually
weigh less than 200 lbs.
24
Slaughter calves- 3 months to 1 year.
25
Feeder calves- 6 months to 1 year
26
Terminology
  • Steer
  • Heifer
  • Cow
  • Bull
  • Stag

27
Terminology
  • Steer male castrated before reaching sexual
    maturity
  • Heifer female that has not had a calf or
    matured as a cow
  • Cow female that has had a calf

28
Terminology
  • Bull uncastrated (intact) male
  • Stag made castrated after reaching sexual
    maturity

29
Marketing Systems For Livestock and Poultry
  • Objective Define cutability, degree of lean,
    marbling, and quality features used to market
    beef and swine

30
  • Economically important traits for beef cattle
    evaluation are
  • Live weight
  • Dressing percent
  • Muscling
  • Fat thickness
  • Yield grade
  • Quality grade.

31
  • Live Weight
  • Beef Cattle have a wider range of market weights
    than other species due to differences in
    type/breed and maturity.
  • Normal Range  950- 1500 lb.  Average   1150 lb.

32
What is Cutability?
  • The term cutability describes the proportion of
    an animal which is saleable meat.
  • Dressing percentage
  • Percentage of the live animal which forms its
    carcass
  • Saleable meat yield or retail yield
  • Percentage of the carcass which is saleable meat.

33
What is Cutability?
  • No two animals are the same
  • Cutability varies widely between individual
    animals

34
High Cutability
35
High Cutability
  • Wide stance
  • Convex shoulders and hindquarters
  • Trim brisket
  • Wide over the shoulders

36
Low Cutability
  • Animals with low cutability do not look muscular,
    indicating a low ratio of muscle to bone.
  • a narrow stance, especially through the lower
    hindquarters
  • flat forearms and shoulders
  • narrow, poorly developed

37
Low Cutability
  • Animals that are overfat and have an uneven
    distribution of fat have
  • lumpy deposits of fat in the brisket flank and
    tailhead
  • a soft, spongy feel

38
Grading Meat
  • Beef and Swine are graded using
  • Quality Grades
  • The worthiness of the meat produced
  • Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor
  • Yield Grades
  • The amount of meat produced from a specific
    carcass

39
Grading Meat
  • 1. Quality Grades
  • Determined by the class or kind of animal (steer,
    heifer, cow, bull), age or maturity, firmness and
    marbling of the carcass.

40
Quality Grades
  • Prime
  • Choice
  • Select
  • Standard and Commercial
  • Utility, Cutter, and Canner

41
Grading Meat
  • Prime grade
  • Produced from young, well-fed beef cattle. It has
    abundant marbling and is generally sold in
    restaurants and hotels
  • Choice grade
  • High quality, but has less marbling than Prime

42
Grading Meat
  • Select grade
  • Very uniform in quality and normally leaner than
    the higher grades
  • Fairly tender, but, because it has less marbling,
    it may lack some of the juiciness and flavor of
    the higher grades

43
Grading Meat
  • Standard and Commercial grades
  • Frequently are sold as non-graded or as "store
    brand" meat
  • Utility, Cutter, and Canner grades
  • Are seldom, if ever, sold at retail but are used
    instead to make ground beef and processed products

44
Maturity
  • A - 9 to 30 Months
  • B - 30 to 42 Months
  • C - 42 to 72 Months
  • D - 72 to 96 Months
  • E - More Than 96 Months

45
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46
Grading Meat
  • 2. Yield grade
  • Percentage of the carcass that is boneless,
    closely trimmed retail cuts from the round, loin
    rib, and chuck
  • Grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

47
Which will yield more meat?
48
Notice steer is still carrying muscle, but is
beginning to show a small amount of fat
49
Notice steer has more fat and less muscle than
the top grades.
50
Notice lack of muscle definition and evidence of
fat cover.
51
Notice how full the brisket looks, thats full of
fat, and the rest of the body is carrying a lot
of fat.
52
Grading Meat
  • 3. Marbling
  • Intermingling of fat among the muscle fiber
  • Measured in the ribeye between the 12th and 13th
    rib

53
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54
  • The degree of marbling is measured when a carcass
    is ribbed or split between the 12th and 13th ribs

55
  • 9 degrees of marbling, they are listed from the
    least amount to the highest.
  • Practically Devoid (lowest degree)
  • Traces
  • Slight
  • Small
  • Modest
  • Moderate
  • Slightly abundant
  • Moderately abundant
  • Abundant (highest degree)

56
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57
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58
Slight
59
Modest
60
Moderate
61
Slightly abundant
62
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63
Muscling A good indication of total carcass
muscle is the ribeye.     
64
Feeder Cattle Grades Feeder cattle grades are
affected by frame size, muscle thickness and
thriftiness
  • Large Medium Small
  • Framed Framed Framed

65
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66
Grading Meat
  • Swine
  • Quality grade is determined by quality of lean
    meat and yield.
  • Yield is evaluated by thickness of backfat and
    degree of muscling.
  • Degrees of muscling are thick, average and thin.

67
Backfat
68
Pop Quiz
  • 1) Name the two types of grading for cutability
  • 2) What are the degrees of muscling in swine?
  • 3) What places highest, Choice, Select, or
    Commercial?
  • 4) Where is marbling assessed on each carcass?
  • 5) How are quality grades determined?

69
Cuts of Beef and Swine
  • Objective
  • Identify the wholesale and retail cuts of beef
    and swine

70
Cuts of Beef
  • Wholesale
  • High value
  • loin, rib, rump, round
  • Low Value
  • chuck, brisket, flank, plate or shank

71
Wholesale Cuts of Beef
Turn to page 64
72
Cuts of Beef
  • Retail
  • High Value
  • ribeye from the rib
  • tenderloin from the loin
  • sirloin from the loin
  • rump from the rump
  • T-bone form the loin

73
T-Bone
74
Ribeye
75
Tenderloin
76
Cuts of Beef
Ribeye
Tenderloin
Sirloin
T-Bone
Ground Beef
Stew Beef
77
Cuts of Pork
  • Wholesale
  • High Value
  • loin, ham, picnic shoulder, Boston shoulder or
    butt
  • Low Value
  • spareribs or belly, feet, jowl, backfat,
    spareribs or side, bacon

78
Wholesale Cuts of Pork
79
Cuts of Pork
  • Retail
  • High Value
  • ham, loin, tenderloin, pork chops, Boston butt,
    picnic ham (shoulder)
  • Low Value
  • hocks, spareribs, belly, bacon, jowl, fatback

80
Cuts of Pork
81
Cuts of Pork
Pork Chops
Boston Butt
Picnic Shoulder
Country Ham
The Ham, Loin, Picnic Shoulder and Boston Butt
make up 75 of the retail value of the carcass
82
Poultry Carcass Evaluation
  • Objective Define terminology used in poultry
    carcass selection and evaluation

83
Why Grade Poultry Carcasses?
  • To insure quality before it is sold
  • Prevent the selling of an unwholesome product
  • Did you know?
  • Grading is voluntary and paid for by the meat
    packer?

84
Grading Poultry Carcasses
  • USDA Grades indicate quality not sanitation
  • Ready-to-cook means that certain parts have been
    removed
  • head
  • feet and feathers
  • blood
  • viscera (soft internal organs)

85
What are the Grades?
  • Poultry Carcass Grades
  • Grade A
  • Sold in stores
  • Grade B
  • Often not a grade sold in stores
  • Grade C
  • Usually used for processing into other food
    products

86
Evaluation Factors
Poultry carcasses are graded on the following
factors
  • conformation
  • fleshing
  • fat covering
  • exposed flesh
  • discoloration
  • disjointed and broken bones
  • missing parts
  • freezing defects

87
What Grade is this?
Grade A No Defects
88
What Grade is this?
B Grade Back is cut out halfway between the base
of the tail and the hip joints
89
What Grade is this?
C Grade. More than 1/3 of flesh exposed on breast
90
What Grade is this?
B Grade. Parts of wing removed beyond the second
joint
91
What Grade is this?
C Grade. Entire wing removed
92
What Grade is this?
C Grade. Over 1/3 of the drumstick flesh is
exposed
93
What Grade is this?
C Grade Trimmed more than halfway between base of
tail and hip joints
94
Animal Welfare and Rights
  • Objective Define animal welfare and rights issues

95
Animal Welfare
  • Humane treatment of animals
  • Most animal producers and researchers believe in
    animal welfare
  • support animal nutrition
  • oppose cruel treatment

96
Animal Welfare
  • Scientific information should be the basis for
    decisions, laws, and regulations related to
    animal welfare
  • It is difficult to assess animal comfort because
    they do not talk and there are no universally
    accepted measures to use

97
Animal Rights
  • Animal should not be used by humans
  • The issues of animal welfare and animal rights
    date back thousands of years to the ancient Greeks

98
Welfare vs Rights
Welfare
Rights
  • No use whatsoever
  • Radical activities including violence
  • Usually vegetarians
  • Involves good treatment of animals
  • Less radical
  • Supported by most animal producers and
    researchers
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