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Dada and Surrealism

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Title: Dada and Surrealism


1
Dada and Surrealism
2
DADA
  • Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that
    began in Zurich Switzerland during the First
    World War and peaked from 1916 to 1922.
  • The movement involved visual arts , poetry,
    literature, art manifestoes, theater and graphic
    design. The movement follows anti-war politics
    through rejection of the prevailing standards in
    art through anti-art cultural work.
  • Dada was an informal international movement, with
    participants in Europe and North America. The
    beginnings of Dada correspond to the outbreak of
    World War I. For many participants, the movement
    was a protest against the bourgeois nationalist
    and colonist interests which many Dadaists
    believed were the root cause of the war, and
    against the cultural and intellectual conformity
    in art and more broadly in society that
    corresponded to the war.
  • According to its proponents, Dada was not art, it
    was anti-art." For everything that art stood
    for, Dada was to represent the opposite. Where
    art was concerned with traditional aesthetics,
    Dada ignored aesthetics. If art was to appeal to
    sensibilities, Dada was intended to offend.
    Through their rejection of traditional culture
    and aesthetics the Dadaists hoped to destroy
    traditional culture and aesthetics.

3
DADA (contd)
  • Dada movement was born in neutral Switzerland in
    1916 from group of artist who wanted to show
    their anti-war position. Hugo Ball, Emmy
    Henning, Tristan Tzara, Jean Arp, Marcel Janco
    , Richard Huelsenbeck, Sophie Tauber along with
    others immigrants living in Switzerland during
    the war created Dada movement. They were
    performing in Cabaret Voltaire. After the end of
    the war these artist came back in their countries
    spreading Dada outside Switzerland.
  • In the cities pf Berlin , Cologne , Paris ,
    Zurich Dadaists gathered together maintained
    Dada style of art. Groups as well published
    magazines and works oriented in the movement
    style. With greater importance and magnitude were
    cities of Zurich and New York, to lessen degree
    Berlin. However Dada face was not the same in
    each of these place, sometimes there were
    differences. European Dada and New York Dada were
    not the same. New York Dada lacked the
    disillusionment of European Dada and was instead
    driven by a sense of irony and humor. Moreover
    Dada in Berlin was used in political and social
    way and there artist were not so anti-art.

4
Dada and Theatre
  • Tristan Tzara - was an avant-garde poet,
    essayist and performance-artist. Also active as a
    journalist, playwright, literary and art critic,
    composer and film director. He created several
    plays , some of them are
  • The Gas Heart use peculiar verbal strategy and
    is build on a dialogue between characters called
    Ear, Mouth, Eye, Nose, Neck, and Eyebrow. They
    seem unwilling to actually communicate to each
    other and their reliance on proverbs and
    idiotisms willingly creates confusion between
    metaphorical and literal speech. The play ends
    with a dance performance that recalls similar
    devices used by the proto Dadaist Alfred Jarry.
  • Handkerchief of Clouds - the play was written in
    1924 and explores the relation between perception
    , subconscious and memory. Largely through
    exchanges between commentators who act as third
    parties, the text presents the tribulations of
    a love triangle (a poet, a bored woman, and her
    banker husband, whose character traits borrow the
    clichés of conventional drama), and in part
    reproduces settings and lines from Hamlet.Tzara
    mocks classical theater, which demands from
    characters to be inspiring, believable, and to
    function as a whole Handkerchief of
    Cloudsrequires actors in the role of commentators
    to address each other by their real names,and
    their lines include dismissive comments on the
    play itself, while the protagonist, who in the
    end dies, is not assigned any name.

5
Founders of Dada
  • Richard Huelsenbeck, Tristan Tzara, Jean Arp,
    Marcel Janco and Sophie Tauber-Arp.

6
Dada apart from theatre
7
Cabaret Voltaire
8
Surrealism
  • Surrealism is cultural movement that began
    in early 1920s. Surrealist works feature the
    element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions
    and absurd logic. Surrealist artists and writers
    regard their work as an expression of the
    philosophical movement first and foremost, with
    the works being an artifact.
  • Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities
    of World War I and the most important center of
    the movement was Paris. From the 1920s on, the
    movement spread around the globe, eventually
    affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and
    music, of many countries and languages, as well
    as political thought and practice, and philosophy
    and social theory. Leading figure in Surrealism
    movement was Andre Breton. Under Breton's
    direction, surrealism became a European movement
    that influenced all domains of art, and called
    into question the origin of human understanding
    and human perceptions of things and events.

9
Surrealism
  • In The Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques),
    a collaboration with Soupault, he put the
    principle of automatic writing into practice. He
    published the Surrealist Manifesto in 1924, and
    was editor of La Revolution Surrealist from 1924.
    A group coalesced around him Philippe
    Sopault,Louis Aragon,Paul Eluard, and others

10
Surrealism and Theatre
  • Surrealist theater depicts the subconscious
    experience, moody tone and disjointed structure,
    sometimes imposing a unifying idea Surrealists
    reject Western Theater traditions. Antonin Arnaud
    for example thought theater should be mystical
    and religious experience. Endeavouring to create
    a new theatrical form that would be immediate and
    direct, linking the unconscious minds of
    performers and spectators, a sort of ritual
    event, Artaud created the Theater of Cruelty
    where emotions, feelings, and the metaphysical
    were expressed not through text or dialogue but
    physically, creating a mythological, archetypal,
    allegorical vision, closely related to the world
    of dreams. These sentiment lead to creation of
    the Theater of Absurd .

11
Theater of Cruelty
  • Theater of Cruelty is concept of Antonin Arnaud.
    According to him the theater is not possible
    without cruelty as basis and cruelty have to be
    the root of every spectacle. The term cruelty
    does not mean to use sadism or causing pain but
    rather a violent, physical determination to
    shatter the false reality which, he said, "lies
    like a shroud over our percept perceptions.
    Cruelty not in a sense of being violent, but the
    cruelty it takes for actors to completely strip
    away their masks and show an audience a truth
    that they do not want to see. He believed that
    text had been a tyrant over meaning, and
    advocated, instead, for a theatre made up of a
    unique language that lay halfway between thought
    and gesture. Artaud described the spiritual in
    physical terms, and believed that all expression
    is physical expression in space.

12
Theater of Absurd
  • Though the label "Theatre of the Absurd" covers
    a wide variety of playwrights with differing
    styles, they do have some common stylistic
    precursors.The mode of most absurd plays is
    tragicomedy similarly to first play writer who
    used tragicomedy- William Shakespeare. Though
    layered with a significant amount of tragedy, the
    Theatre of Absurd echoes other great forms of
    comedic performance from Commedia dell arte to
    Vaudeville. As an experimental form of theatre,
    Theatre of the Absurd employs techniques borrowed
    from earlier innovators. Writers and techniques
    frequently mentioned in relation to the Theatre
    of the Absurd include the 19th century nonsense
    poets, Lewis Carroll and Edward Lear.
  • Theatre of Absurd. Some of the famous play
    writers are Jean Genet, Jean Tardieu, Boris
    Vien and others

13
Surrealism apart from theatre
14
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15
THE END
  • Thank You
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