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Training of Trainer:

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Title: Training of Trainer:


1
Training of Trainer Capacity Building of Indian
Automotive Companies
Light House, Convention Centre, India Habitat
Centre, New Delhi 29th September 1st October,
2004
2
Program of Activities
Day 1 (0930 1700) 0900 0930
Registration 0930 0940 Welcome Address 0940
0950 Launch of the ToT programme European
Union 0950 1100 Overview of EU India Network
for Sustainability 1100 1110 Coffee
Break 1110 1300 Overview of European Buyers
Requirements on technological, quality,
environmental and social issues 1300
1400 Lunch Break 1400 1530 Overview of
training purpose, objective and content 1530
1540 Coffee Break 1540 1700 Introduction to
methodological skills of trainers
3
Program of Activities
Day 2 (0900 1700) 0900 1015 Overview of
Training Process 1015 1100 Overview of
Designing and developing training 1100
1110 Coffee Break 1110 1300 Overview of
Delivering Training 1300 1400 Lunch
Break 1400 1445 Overview of Developing
Training Manuals 1445 1530 Overview of
Evaluating Training 1530 1540 Coffee
Break 1540 1630 Overview of Administering and
Follow-up of Training 1630 1700 Overview of
Marketing and Sale of Training
4
Program of Activities
Day 3 (0900 1700) 0900 1015 Introduction to
International Systems, Standards and
Certifications for global market and
sustainable entrepreneurship 1015
1100 Introduction to Environmental Management
System 1100 1110 Coffee Break 1110
1200 Introduction to Occupational Health Safety
1200 1300 Introduction to Social
Accountability 1300 1400 Lunch Break 1400
1530 Introduction to Integrated Product Policy
and Environment 1530 1540 Coffee Break 1540
1700 Introduction to Sustainability for
International Markets
5
EINS Project Background
6
What is EINS?
  • EU-India Network for Sustainability Dialogue
    Management Training European in the Automotive
    Industry
  • Aim
  • To make your company a company of choice for your
    stakeholders
  • The EINS initiative an strategic alliance of
    partners in international capacity building
    aims at enhancing the capabilities of the Indian
    automotive component industry to adopt and
    implement environmental, social and quality
    standards for competitiveness and productivity
    gains.

7
Four reasons to participate
  • The EINS Initiative will enable you and your
    managers to
  • Improve your market position and your stakeholder
    value
  • Enable your company to achieve greater
    competitiveness in the global market
  • Enhance the capabilities of your company to
    manage the local and global opportunities,
    challenges and requirements
  • Enable your company to balance the environmental,
    social, and economic capital.

8
Target Group and Milestones
  • 240 small and medium sized enterprises of the
    automotive components industry
  • 100 Stakeholders in the Industry
  • Delhi and Chennai
  • conduct an assessment
  • train local intermediaries, consultants,
    industry, and other stakeholders
  • establish an EU-India Network on Sustainability
    Management
  • conduct a best practice roundtable
  • develop a brochure
  • design a web portal on sustainability

9
Schedule
  • Phase 1 Conduct Research
  • Phase 1 Release assessment report
  • Phase 2 Public brochure, Public website
  • Phase 2 First and second stakeholder meeting
  • Phase 3 Training course implementation
  • Phase 4 Exposure
  • cross section interim meeting
  • cross section submit interim report
  • cross section final meeting
  • cross section submit final report

10
Activities
  • Phase 1 Planning Assessment
  • Phase 2 Promotion Stakeholder Meetings
  • Phase 3 Training Capacity Building
  • Phase 4 First and second stakeholder meeting
  • Phase 5 Post Project Sustainability
  • Cross section tasks
  • Publications and other outputs

11
Partners
InWEnt - Internationale Weiterbildung und
Entwicklung GmbH Division Sustainable Market
Economy Weyerstraße 78-83 50676 Cologne,
Germany www.inwent.org
Confederation of Indian
Industry India
Habitat Centre 4th Floor, Core 4a, Lodi Road
New Delhi 110 003, India www.ciionline.org
12
Partners
Adelphi Researchhttp//www.adelphi-research.org/
AREC Austria Recycling http//www.arecon.at
IHK Ltd. http//www.ihk-gmbh.de
13
European Automotive Company Requirements
14
  • The Extended Enterprise Supply Chain

Subassembly Supplier
Assembly Plant
Delighted Customer
Raw Material Supplier
Component Supplier
Dealer
Maximized value at minimized cost
15
Supply Chain Example
Dealerships
Communication Flow
Volvo
Great Cars
(Tier 1) Dana Corp.
Axles
(Tier 2) Impact Forge
Forgings
Material Flow (On-Time Delivery)
(Tier 3) Mac Steel Northstar Steel
Steel
16
Enablers of the Extended Enterprise
17
Reasons for Global Purchasing
  • Flexibility and Agility
  • Asset Reduction
  • Single Point of Contact
  • Total Cost Reductions
  • Visibility
  • Systems Capabilities
  • Improved Service
  • Process Change
  • Collaboration
  • Delayed Capital Expense

18
What are some supply chain priorities?
  • Consistency
  • Reliability
  • Relationship
  • Technological capability
  • Flexibility
  • Price
  • Service
  • Finances

19
Potential Problem
  • Cultural Issues
  • Long Lead Times
  • Additional Inventories
  • Lower Quality
  • Social and Labor Problems
  • Higher costs of doing business
  • High Opacity

20
General Supplier Requirements to overcome problems
Country Requirements
Company Requirements
21
Volvo General Supplier Requirements
QUALITY Zero Defect Attitude, aim for QS9000 /
TS 16949 / AS 9100, TQM Philosophy, Attend to
Field Problems, PPM Agreement and compliance
PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Prototype production
in-house, Drawings and Service Manuals for Parts
Process Assessment
LOGISTIC 100 Delivery Precision, Approved
Packaging
22
Volvo General Supplier Requirements
COST Meet the Payment Terms Fulfill the Cost
Requirements Responsibility for Warranty Cost,
Quality, Productivity Improvements Cost
Transparency
ENVIRONMENT Plan for ISO 14001 / EMAS,
Compliance with Prohibitive Material List
GENERAL Approved level in Supply Chain
Management as preferred customer, Communication
in whole chain
23
Volkswagen AG General Supplier Requirements
24
General Supplier Requirements to overcome problems
More Specific
Part
Commodity
Division
Company
Sector
ISO/TS 16949
Fundamental
ISO 9001
More Generic
25
Key trends and drivers for the supplier industry
26
Strategic and operational guidelines to master
the challenges
27
Decisions and responsibilities
28
Trend in outsourcing
29
Relevance of Management System
30
International Standards
What is a Management System? System to establish
policy and objectives and to achieve those
objectives. A management system of an
organization may include different management
systems such as quality management system, a
financial management system, or an environmental
management system
31
Management System Standards
ISO 9001
ISO 14001
ISO 17799
ISO/TS 16949
SA 8000
TL 9000
CMMI
ISO 22000
ISO 17025
OHSAS 18001
ISO 13485
32
Management System Standards
  • ISO 90012000 - Quality Management Systems
  • ISO/TS 16949 - QMS for the Automotive Industry
  • ISO 134852003 - QMS for medical device
    suppliers that addresses most of the legal
    requirements.
  • TL 9000 - QMS for the telecommunications
    industry
  • AS 9100 - Quality Systems Aerospace Model for
    Quality Assurance in Design, Development,
    Production, Installation and Servicing
  • ISO 14001 - Environmental Management System
  • OHSAS 18001 - Occupational Health and Safety
    Management Systems

33
Management System Standards
  • ISO 22000 - Food Safety Management System
  • SA 8000 - Standard for Social Accountability in
    the workplace
  • CMMI - Capability Maturity Model Integrated
    (Software Process
  • Improvement)
  • ISO 17799 - Information Security Management
    Systems
  • ISO 17025 - Competence of testing calibration
    laboratories
  • ISO 170242003 - Establishes an
    International benchmark for organizations
  • managing the certification of persons

34
What is Integrated Management System?
  • The integrated approach that produces multiple
    business benefits.

Benefits of Management System
  • reduces your operational risks
  • raise awareness of links between your different
    activities
  • improves your operational performance

35
BALANCED
APPROACH
ENVIRONMENT
PRODUCTIVITY
HEALTH
QUALITY
SAFETY
EFFICIENCY
SECURITY
EFFECTIVENESS
FAMILY / FRIENDS
36
Benefits of Integrated Management System
INTERNAL
EXTERNAL
  • One-time certification
  • Lesser cost of Certification
  • Man days of Audits are reduce
  • Different areas are covered by external party for
    improvement
  • Better communication
  • Lesser Investment Cost
  • Less Documentation
  • Better control of the system
  • Improvement across all areas in the organization
  • Holistic approach
  • Improvement are in different areas
  • Auditing is more comprehensive
  • Process optimization can be developed through
    integrating the system

37
Implementing Integrated Management System
  • Training
  • Records Control
  • Document Control
  • Supplier Relations
  • Audits
  • Corrective and Preventive Action
  • Management Commitment
  • Management Plans
  • Continuous Improvement
  • Supplier Relations

38
Training of Trainers
39
Introduction
What is a Training?
Formal procedures which a company utilizes to
facilitate learning so that the resultant
behavior contributes to the attainment of the
companys goal objectives.
40
Introduction
4 Components of Training
  • Formal Procedures systematic intentional
    process
  • Facilitate Learning learned skills
  • Resultant Behavior after behavior directly or
    indirectly
  • Attainment of Companys Goals Objectives
    contribute to organizational effectiveness

41
Introduction
Training
Skills
  • directed toward
  • enhancing skill
  • any behavior that
  • has been learned
  • target area of
  • training

Proficiency in Performing Tasks
42
Introduction
3 Broad Classes of Skills
  • Motor Skills - refer to the manipulation of the
    physical environment based on certain patterns of
    bodily movement.
  • Cognitive Skills - relate to the acquisition of
    mental or attitudinal factors
  • Interpersonal Skills - refer to enhancing
    interactions with other people

43
Purpose of Training
Why Offer Training?
  • Your training goals should support the goals of
    your organization
  • overall purpose(s)
  • long range visions
  • broad

44
Purpose of Training
Purpose of Training is to produce change in
  • Skills
  • how to
  • Steps
  • Knowledge
  • critical thinking
  • decision making
  • Attitudes
  • ethics/values
  • behavior

45
Qualities of a Good Trainer
SINCERITY HELPFULNESS ENTHUSIASM ATTENTIVENESS
FRIENDLINESS
46
Qualities of a Good Trainer
Skills required to be a Trainer
  • Subject matter expertise
  • Design
  • instructional design
  • apply learning principles
  • Material production
  • graphics, layout, media creation
  • computer experience
  • Presentation
  • voice, personality, technical expertise

47
Qualities of a Good Trainer
Personal qualities to Look for in a Trainer
  • Self-confidence
  • Awareness of environment
  • Ability to build bridgesrelate old to new
  • Organizational skills
  • Desire to learn
  • Ability to listen
  • Sense of humor
  • Communication theatrical skills
  • Flexibility
  • Patience
  • Cool head warm heart

48
Qualities of a Good Trainer
Training or Teaching
  • Facilitator or Expert
  • Real-Life or Theoretical
  • Active or Passive
  • You do it or Watch Me
  • What would you do? or Heres how to use it.

49
Qualities of a Good Trainer
ANSI Z490.1-2001 Instructor Qualifications
  • Trainers shall have appropriate level of
    technical knowledge, skills or abilities in the
    subject they teach.
  • Trainers shall be competent in delivery
    techniques and methods appropriate to adult
    learning.
  • Trainers shall maintain their training skills by
    participating in continuing education,
    development programs, or experience related to
    their subject matter expertise delivery skills.
  • Trainers shall apply adult learning principles
    appropriate to the target audience and the
    learning objectives.

50
Qualities of a Good Trainer
Trainer as Leader
  • Be sure your lessons are well planned.
  • Have good knowledge of the subjects being taught.
  • Build your lessons on what the students already
    know about the subject.
  • Let the students know what you expect of them.
  • Motivate the students by telling them why need
    the information being presented.

51
Qualities of a Good Trainer
Trainer as Leader
  • Stimulate interest by using a variety of methods
    and materials wherever possible.
  • Encourage student questions and discussion.
  • Provide students with feedback and evaluation on
    how they are doing.
  • Maintain a good appearance.
  • Show enthusiasm for teaching and for the subject
    matter.

52
Qualities of a Good Trainer
Trainer as Classroom Manager
  • Select a classroom that is convenient,
    comfortable, and attractive.
  • Be sure all the students can see and hear.
  • See that the room is clean and orderly.
  • Check for proper temperature and ventilation.
  • Make sure the seats are properly arranged for the
    day's activities.

53
Qualities of a Good Trainer
Trainer as Classroom Manager
  • Check all equipment to be sure it is working and
    in good repair.
  • Be sure all materials are in proper order and
    ready to use.
  • Arrange to keep distractions and outside
    interruptions to a minimum.
  • Plan for frequent breaks.

54
The Design of Personnel Training
The seven steps of designing personnel training
are
1. Conduct training needs analysis 2. Develop
training objectives 3. Review available
training methods 4. Design/select training
methods 5. Design training evaluation
approach 6. Implement training program 7.
Measure training results
55
Training Process ADDIE
  • Analysis
  • formal/informal needs assessment
  • determine goals objectives
  • Design
  • determine the content
  • determine delivery method
  • Development
  • create the materials
  • Implement
  • deliver the content
  • Evaluation
  • results based on objectives

56
Needs Assessment Objectives
Why Need Assessment?
  • Find the gap in SKA
  • SKA Skills, Knowledge Attitude
  • Gap what they need to know what they know
  • Determine if training is the answer
  • Determine objectives of training
  • What should they do better to improve job
    performance or service to the public?

57
Needs Assessment Objectives
3 Types of Training Needs Analysis
Operation Analysis
Organizational Analysis
Person Analysis
58
Needs Assessment Objectives
Organization Analysis
  • determining where training emphasis can should
    be made within the organization
  • study of the entire organization - objectives,
    resources, allocation of resources
  • personnel audit for manpower planning
  • indicators of organizational effectiveness

59
Needs Assessment Objectives
Identification of Tasks
Standards of Performance
Operation Analysis
Determination of the behavior required of an
employee in order to perform tasks
Determination of how each task is to be Performed
60
Needs Assessment Objectives
Person Analysis
DIRECTED towards LEARNING. a) whether the
individual needs training b) what training he or
she needs FOCUSES on an INDIVIDUAL TRAINING
NEEDS!
  • a large portion of person analysis involved
    diagnosis.
  • to know not only how well people are performing
    but why they are performing at that level.

61
Needs Assessment Objectives
Tools for Person Analysis
1. Subjective Evaluation e.g. Performance
appraisals 2. Objective Records e.g. Job
performance vs. Job standards 3. Diagnostic
Achievement Test e.g. Used to determine whether
the employee has the knowledge necessary to
perform the assigned tasks.
62
Needs Assessment Objectives
Why Determine Training Needs?
  • To eliminate the grave risk of engaging in
    non-essential activities to the neglect of what
    are essential.
  • Training needs determination pinpoints objectives
    essential in evaluating training
  • programs.
  • 3. A careful analysis of needs reveals the
    employees or groups of employees for whom
    training is required.
  • 4. Provides a sound basis on which to set the
  • objectives of training.

63
Needs Assessment Objectives
Steps in Determining Training Needs
1. Determine Objectives 2. Identify data
needed 3. Design data-gathering instrument 4.
Gather data 5. Analyze verify data 6. Set
training priorities
64
Needs Assessment Objectives
Assessment Methods
  • Informal
  • observation
  • pre-class surveys
  • group discussions
  • Formal
  • interviews
  • task analysis
  • focus groups
  • surveys

65
Needs Assessment Objectives
Needs Assessment Tips
  • Choose a subgroup if unable to survey all
  • Contact those most relevant to the training first
  • be careful not to bias input
  • Focus on participant outcomes after training
  • Do mini needs assessment before each training

66
Needs Assessment Objectives
Objectives (SMART)
  • Specific
  • state desired results in detail
  • Measurable (observable)
  • use verbs that describe what trainees will learn
  • Action
  • describe an action that the trainee will perform
  • Realistic
  • achievable
  • Time frame
  • how long will it take the trainees to learn the
    skill

67
How Training Needs Arise
POTENTIAL TRIGGERS
EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
NEGATIVE INDICATORS
  • Employee concerns
  • Internal promotions or transfers
  • New procedures or systems
  • New standards
  • New relationships
  • Change of curriculum
  • Downsizing
  • Retirements
  • Increased work load
  • Management changes
  • Changed ownership
  • Employees Concerns
  • Incident/Accident
  • Increasing grievance or discipline
  • High staff turnover
  • Poor quality ratings
  • High or increasing rates of sickness or absence
  • Disputes
  • Low levels of motivation
  • Cases of harassment
  • Missed deadlines
  • New legislation
  • Changes to legislation
  • Competitor activity
  • Professional body regulations and requirements
  • QA codes of practice
  • Funding Council requirements

68
Designing Developing Training Materials
Considerations to be taken when contemplating on
a Training Program
  • 1. The specific goals to be met as a result
  • - contributions of training to organizational
    goals
  • reduction of labor costs
  • reduction of materials supplies costs
  • reduction of managing personnel activities costs
  • reduction of costs of efficiently servicing
    customers by improving the flow of goods or
    services from the Company to the customer

69
Designing Developing Training Materials
Considerations to be taken when contemplating on
a Training Program
  • 2. Cost Effectiveness
  • refers to the amount of money spent to attain
    organizational goals versus that spent on other
    activities in pursuit of those same goals.
  • within the area of personnel training, an
    organization has to decide if the goal of
    increased productivity could most economically
    be reached by training employees to be more
    productive, by redesigning the task so that it is
    easier to perform, or by automating it.

70
Designing Developing Training Materials
  • 3. Employee benefits from training
  • Provides adequate opportunity to learn the jobs
    duties responsibilities
  • Gives employees a chance to be successful at
    work helps them avoid the psychological
    problems of failure or incompetence.
  • Trained employees can earn more
  • Trained employees are more marketable for
    higher level jobs. Promotions are usually given
    to those who perform their current jobs the best.

71
Designing Developing Training Materials
Conditions to Effective Training
  • Training must be viewed as a means to an end
    rather than an end itself.
  • Management must be responsible for training.
  • 3. Management must have the knowledge skill to
    develop implement personnel training.
  • 4. The general climate of an organization should
    be one that favors personnel training.

72
Designing Developing Training Materials
MANAGEMENT must structure the organization so
that the personnel training will have
some meaning for employees. Therefore, The ROLE
OF MANAGEMENT is to have a consistent theme
towards training effectiveness because personnel
training can enhance the quality of its employees.
73
Designing Developing Training Materials
Consideration for Teaching Adults
  • Are they READY
  • sufficient skills
  • see a need to learn
  • How will it effect their daily job life
  • personal benefits
  • Practical practice
  • hands-on exercises, real-life scenarios
  • Knowledge sharing/Participation
  • ask questions
  • encourage discussion
  • Relate training to something they know

74
Cone of Experience People generally remember
10 of what they read 20 of what they
hear 30 of what they see 50 of what they
hear and see
Read
Verbal
Hear Words
Watch still picture
Watch moving picture
Visual
Watch demonstration
Do a site visit
70 of what they say or write 90 of what they
say as they do a thing
Do a dramatic presentation
Simulate a real experience
Do the real thing
Adapted from Wiman Meirhenry, .Educational
Media, 1960 on Edgar Dale
75
Designing Developing Training Materials
Design Starts from your Objectives
  • Brainstorm the topic
  • Eliminate what isnt necessary to match your
    needs assessment and objectives
  • what they already know
  • more than they need to know now
  • Consider limitations due to
  • facilities
  • length of training
  • delivery method
  • how quickly the training needs to happen

76
Designing Developing Training Materials
Options for Sequencing Materials
  • Storyboard
  • Outline
  • PowerPoint
  • Index cards
  • Sticky notes

77
Designing Developing Training Materials
Organizing the Presentation
  • Set the stage
  • introductions (you them)
  • agenda, breaks, bathrooms
  • get buy-in by telling them what and why
  • Content
  • logically organize the main points (in chunks)
  • add sub-points to each chunk
  • include Visual Aids, Exercises, Handouts
  • End
  • summary
  • questions
  • other learning opportunities

78
Designing Developing Training Materials
For Every Chunk
  • Tell them what you are going to teach and why
    they care
  • big picture/overview
  • how it fits into their work life with examples
  • Teach them
  • show them how
  • do an exercise
  • ask/receive questions
  • Get them to personalize, by having them
  • say how they will use it
  • consider pros, cons and barriers

79
Designing Developing Training Materials
How much details is needed?
  • It depends!
  • Does the audience need to
  • have an idea of how to do it?
  • be able to do it?
  • be able to think about it independently?
  • come up with creative solutions

80
Designing Developing Training Materials
Methods of Delivering Training
  • Instructor-led
  • One-on-one
  • Group
  • Lecture
  • Self-paced
  • Distance-Ed
  • Web tutorial
  • CD-ROM

81
Designing Developing Training Materials
When to Create Visual Aids
  • To show process or steps
  • To show change over time
  • Complex point to be made
  • Make something stand out

82
Designing Developing Training Materials
Types of Visual Aids
  • Videos/Audios/Slides
  • Cheat sheets/Handouts
  • Charts, graphs, diagrams
  • Flip charts
  • Posters/Illustrations
  • Models

83
Designing Developing Training Materials
Design Guidelines for Visual Aids
  • Easy to see
  • Easy to navigate
  • Quick to scan
  • Accurate
  • Relevant
  • Clear
  • Complete (in relation to task)

84
Designing Developing Training Materials
Its OK to have Fun
  • Humor
  • Games
  • training tool
  • Icebreakers
  • introductions
  • questions
  • Music

85
Delivery
Methods Techniques of Training
  • On-Site Training Methods
  • On-the-Job Training - oldest most common
  • Vestibule Training - instruction found in
    production work
  • Job Rotation - workers rotate through a
    variety of job
  • Apprentice Training - common in skilled trades

86
Delivery
Methods Techniques of Training
  • Off-site training methods
  • Lecture Method
  • Audio-Visual Material
  • Conferences
  • Programmed Instruction
  • Computer-Assisted Instruction
  • Simulation
  • Role Playing
  • Sensitivity Training

87
Delivery
Rehearsing Revising
  • Two purposes of rehearsing
  • logical order transitions
  • timing
  • Revise
  • learn from the rehearsal
  • make modifications in
  • chunks logical order
  • transition statements
  • timing
  • opportunities for interaction

88
Delivery
Delivery Tips
  • Make no assumptions
  • jargon
  • ask dont tell
  • Ask questions you really want an answer to
  • Vocal variety
  • Non-verbals affect communication
  • tone
  • appearance appropriate for audience

89
Delivery
Managing Fear
  • Be prepared
  • know your presentation
  • rehearse
  • Calm yourself
  • isometrics
  • deep breathing
  • Turn your nervousness into energy

You dont have to know everything. Adults like to
share what they know
90
Delivery
General Principles for Conference Leadership
  • Let the group have the freedom to express their
    own thinking not be dominated by the conference
    leader.
  • Allow participants to express their thoughts
    fully.
  • Refrain from passing judgment on any contribution
    given by an individual - let the group decide
    whether he is right or wrong.
  • Allow the group freedom of expression while
    maintaining overall control of the discussion
    subject.

91
Delivery
General Principles for Conference Leadership
  • State the basis of the discussion so that all
    participants may follow.
  • Be Cooperative
  • Allow individuals to retain their self-respect in
    the eyes of the group
  • Remain impartial.

92
Delivery
General Principles for Conference Leadership
  • Control the discussion by asking questions
  • Be Precise and to the Point
  • Keep Humor to an acceptance level
  • Refrain from suggesting yourself as an authority
    or expert.

93
Delivery
General Principles for Conference Leadership
  • Keep discussion moving
  • Bring the group quickly to accept matters of
    fact. Keep to the schedule set for the program.
  • Be Sincere
  • Master the use of questions

94
Delivery
2 Basic Attitudes to be an effective trainer
POSITIVE Attitude
(Optimism, Project good faith, Belief in the
goodness of other people, Trust in situation)
Non-judgmental Attitude
95
Delivery
In addition to those qualities attitudes, the
trainer should take pains in developing himself
in the following areas
  • Listening
  • Empathy
  • Self-expression
  • Accept mistakes criticisms
  • Emotional control

96
Factors Involved in Faulty TRANSMISSION
97
Factors Involved in Faulty RECEPTION
98
13 Actions Toward Effective Communication
99
Training Evaluation
Evaluation
  • Evaluate based on objectives
  • Did the participants
  • learn what you had planned?
  • implement what they learned?
  • improve their job performance or service to the
    public?

100
Training Evaluation
Evaluation of Training Programs
Reactive (reactions) Learning (exams)
INTERNAL CRITERIA
Behavioral (changes) Results (value)
EXTERNAL CRITERIA
101
Its always helpful to learn from your mistakes
because then your mistakes are worthwhile
Garry Marshall
102
The better the training goes, the less chance
there is that anyone will appreciate the effort
that went into it. Chuck Hodell
103
OHSAS 18001
104
Introduction
Good Business
  • The first duty of business is to survive and
    the guiding principle of business economics is
    not the maximization of profit but the avoidance
    of loss.
  • Peter Drucker Management Consultant

105
Safety, health competitiveness
Introduction
  • Competitiveness, as it relates to an
    organization, is the ability to consistently
    succeed in the marketplace.
  • In order to survive prosper, organizations,
    need as many competitive advantage as possible.
  • Peak performance organization are learning that a
    safe and healthful work environment gives them a
    doubly effective competitive advantage.

106
Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
SELF ACTUALIZATION
Self-development and realization
Self esteem, recognition, status
ESTEEM
Sense of belonging, love
SOCIAL
Security, protection
SAFETY
Hunger, thirst
PHYSIOLOGICAL
107
Cost of Accidents Iceberg
108
ILO Guidelines and links to National and Tailored
Guidelines



ILO Guidelines



on



OSH
-
MS



OSH
-
MS


in

National

guidelines

Organizations

on OSH
-
MS

Tailored

guidelines on

OSH
-
MS


109
The role of the ILO in OHS
110
The Process Based Approach.
  • The new approach to standards
  • All new standards are no longer based upon the
    attainment of a prescribed level of performance
    but on the process based approach of continuous
    improvement.

111
Continual Improvement
  • Process of enhancing the OHS Management System,
    to achieve improvements in overall occupational
    health and safety performance in line with the
    organisations policy.

  • (OHSAS 18001)

112
The Management Systems Approach in the workplace
113
Factors affecting Safety Management System
114
OHS management system in the organization
Main elements
  • Policy
  • Organizing
  • Planning and implementation
  • Evaluation
  • Action for improvement

115
OHSAS 18001
Introduction to OHSAS 18001
  • Agreed by major certification bodies.
  • International credibility and development.
  • A standards based approach
  • Benchmarking opportunity
  • Aligns with other standards - integration
  • Not an ISO standard.
  • Commercially based activity
  • Auditor Competence not defined
  • Development of the global ILO guideline
  • Application to same sized undertakings

116
Introduction to OHSAS 18001
Broad Intentions of OHSMS
  • Provide a guideline how OHS
  • should be integrated in other
  • business performance
  • How to minimize enterprises work
  • How organization is managed as a whole
  • Comprehensive improvement in OHS for a firm

117
Introduction to OHSAS 18001
Development of OHSAS 18001
BS 1880 offers guidance in implementing OHS
management system OH Safety Assessment Series
(OHSAS) Specification 18001 Specification for
the certification OH Safety Assessment Series
(OHSAS) Specification 18002 Guidelines for the
implementation of OHSAS 18001
118
Introduction to OHSAS 18001
  • OHSAS 18001
  • Developed in response to urgent customer demand
    for a recognizable Occupational health and safety
    management system standard.

119
Introduction to OHSAS 18001
Scope
  • OHSAS gives requirements for an occupational
    health and safety (OHS) management system, to
    control its OHS risks and improve its
    performance in an organization.

120
Introduction to OHSAS 18001
  • OHSAS specification is applicable to any
    organization wishes to
  • OHS management system is to eliminate risk to
    employees and other interested parties.
  • Implement, maintain and continually improve an
    OHS management system
  • Assure itself of its conformance with its stated
    OHS policy
  • Demonstrate such conformance with others
  • Certification/registration of its OHS management
    system by an external organization or
  • Make a self determination and declaration of
    conformance with this OHSAS specification.

121
Introduction to OHSAS 18001
Reference Publications
  • It is advisable that the latest editions of such
    publications are consulted.
  • OHSAS 180021999 Guidelines for implementation of
    OHSAS 18001
  • BS 88001996 Guide to occupational health and
    safety management systems.
  • OHSAS 180011999 Occupational health and safety
    management systems-specification.
  • ISO 190112002 Guidelines for Quality and/or
    Environmental Management systems auditing

122
OHSAS 18001 Elements
OHS Management System Elements 4.1 General
Requirements 4.2 OHS Policy 4.3 Planning 4.4
Implementation and Operation 4.5 Checking and
Corrective Action 4.6 Management Review
123
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.1 General Requirements
  • The organization should establish and maintain
    Management System that complies with all the
    requirements of OHSAS 18001.

124
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.2 OHS Policy
  • The OHS Policy Should be
  • appropriate to the nature and scale of the
    organizations OHS, risks
  • commitment to continual improvement
  • commitment to comply with current applicable OHS
    legislation and other requirements
  • documented, implemented and maintained
  • communicated to all employees
  • available to interested parties
  • reviewed periodically

125
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.3 Planning
4.3.1 Planning for hazard identification, risk
assessment and risk control 4.3.2 Legal and other
Requirements 4.3.3 Objectives 4.3.4 OHS
management programme(s)
126
OHSAS 18001 Elements
  • 4.3.1 Planning for hazard identification, risk
    assessment and risk control

The organization shall establish the ongoing
identification of hazards, the assessment of
risks and the implementation of necessary control
measures.
127
OHSAS 18001 Elements
Hazard identification, risk assessment and risk
control process
  • Risk-based approach
  • identification of hazard
  • evaluation of risk
  • decision on the tolerability of residual risk
  • identification of additional control measures
  • evaluate the reduction of risk to tolerable
    level

128
OHSAS 18001 Elements
Review of hazard identification, risk assessment
and risk controls
  • Review may vary depending on
  • the nature of hazard
  • the magnitude of the risk
  • changes from normal operation
  • Such changes may include
  • expansion, contraction, restructuring
  • reapportioning of responsibilities
  • changes to methods of working or patterns of
    behavior

129
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.3.2 Legal and Other Requirements
  • The intent of this requirement is to allow the
    organization to understand how its activities are
    or will be affected by applicable legal and other
    requirements.

130
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.3.3 Objectives
  • The intent of this requirements is to show that,
    throughout the organization, measurable
    objectives are established to enable the OHS
    policy to be achieved.

131
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.3.4 OHS Management Programmes
  • The intent of this requirements is to produce a
    documented strategy on how to deliver the
    organizations OHS objectives and ensure that
    they are reviewed and updated as needed.

132
OHSAS 18001 Elements
Objectives Targets
133
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.4 Implementation Planning
4.4.1 Structure and responsibility 4.4.2
Training, awareness and competence 4.4.3
Consultation and communication 4.4.4
Documentation 4.4.5 Document and Data
Control 4.4.6 Operational Control 4.4.7 Emergency
Preparedness and Response
134
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.4.1 Structure and Responsibility
  • To facilitate effective OHS management it is
    necessary that roles, responsibilities and
    authorities are defined, documented and
    communicated, and that adequate resources are
    provided to enable OHS tasks to be performed.

135
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.4.2 Training, awareness and competence
  • The organization should encourage participation
    in, and support for, OHS, from all those
    affected by its operations, by a process of
    consultation and communication.

136
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.4.3 Consultation Communication
  • The organization should encourage participation
    in, and support for, OHS, from all those
    affected by its operations, by a process of
    consultation and communication.

137
4.4.4 Documentation
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.4.4 Documentation
The organization should develop documentation to
the minimum required for effectiveness and
efficiency, in paper or electronic form to
  • describe the core elements of the OHS management
    system and their interaction
  • provide direction to the related documentation.

Information
Manual
138
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.4.5. Document Data Control
  • All documents and data containing information
    critical to OHS should be identified and
    controlled.

139
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.4.6 Operational Control
  • The organization shall establish and maintain
    arrangements to ensure the effective application
    of control and counter measures, whenever these
    are required to control operational risks, and
    fulfill the OHS policy and objectives.

140
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.4.7 Emergency Preparedness and Response
  • The organization should plan and prepare for
    foreseeable accident, incident and emergency
    situations, in order to maximize the
    effectiveness of its response provisions.

141
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.5.1 Performance measurement and
monitoring 4.5.2 Accidents, incident,
non-conformance 4.5.3 Records and Records
Management 4.5.4 Audit
4.5 Checking Corrective Action
142
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.5.1 Performance Measurement Monitoring
  • The organization shall establish and maintain
    procedures to monitor and measure OHS
    performance on a regular basis.

143
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.5.2 Accidents, incidents, non-conformances and
corrective and preventive action.
  • The organization shall establish and maintain
    procedures for defining responsibility and
    authority for
  • the handling and investigation of accidents,
    incidents, non-conformances
  • taking action to mitigate any consequences
    arising from accidents, incidents or
    non-conformances
  • the initiation and completion of corrective and
    preventive actions
  • confirmation of the effectiveness of corrective
    and preventive actions taken

144
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.5.3 Records and Records Management
  • It should demonstrate that the OHS management
    system operates effectively, And the processes
    have been carried out under safe conditions.
    Safety records that document the management
    system and conformance to the requirements should
    be prepared, maintained, legible, and adequately
    identified.

145
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.5.4 Audit
  • The organization shall establish and maintain an
    audit program and procedures for periodic OHS
    management system audits to be carried out.

146
OHSAS 18001 Elements
4.6 Management Review
  • Top management should review the operation of the
    OHS management system to assess whether it is
    being fully implemented and remains suitable for
    achieving the organizations stated OHS
    objectives and policy.

147
... the decision is now in our hands !
148
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149
EMS
150
Introduction
What is The Environment?
?!!
  • Everything, including me
  • Planet Earth

151
Introduction
Natural Systems
  • Good at adapting
  • Tend to be cyclic
  • Have limited resources carrying capacity

152
Introduction
Carrying Capacity
ECONOMY
CONSUMPTION
PRODUCTION
RESOURCES
WASTES
ENVIRONMENT
POLLUTE
DEPLETE
153
Introduction
Product Life Cycle
154
Environmental Issues for Business
155
Introduction to EMS
The fears of the population are multifarious -
ozone hole / climate - radioactivity - killing
of forest - poison in food - pollution of
water - pollution of air - emission of
cars - growing waste problem -
poisoned ground
156
Introduction to EMS
Historical Development of EMS
157
Introduction to EMS
ISO 140011996
  • Voluntary standard
  • Minimum requirement
  • Compliance with Environmental Laws
  • Commitment to Continuous Improvement
  • No absolute requirements
  • Use for safety aspects in the future

158
Introduction to EMS
ISO 140011996
  • Intentions of this International Standard
  • Assistance for organizations to achieve
    environmental and economic goals.
  • The overall aim of the standard is to support
    environmental protection and prevention of
    pollution in balance with socio-economic needs.
  • Issues with strategic and competitive
    implications are considered in this standard.

159
Introduction to EMS
Field and Scope of Application
  • any organization
  • incorporated or not
  • public or private
  • has functions and administration
  • worldwide range of validity

160
Introduction to EMS
Definiton of an EMS
A continual cycle of PLANNING, IMPLEMENTING
REVIEWING IMPROVING the actions that an
organization takes to meet its environmental
obligations.
161
Introduction to EMS
Definiton of an EMS
  • Built on TQM Model by Shewart Deming
  • Concept of CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT!

162
Introduction to EMS
Continuous Improvement
  • Requirement of ISO14001
  • Similar to Total Quality Management
  • Kaizen is Japanese version
  • Measurement basis
  • Track progress and Feedback Success

163
Introduction to EMS
Benefits
  • Improved environmental performance
  • Improved compliance
  • Increased efficiency / reduced cost
  • New customers / markets
  • Enhanced employee morale
  • Enhanced image with public
  • Enhanced image with regulators

164
The ISO 14001 Cycle
Plan Do Check Action
165
EMS Model
166
4.2 Environmental Policy
167
4.3 Planning
168
Identifying Environmental Aspects
  • GUIDE
  • Emission to air
  • Releases to water
  • Waste Management
  • Contamination of Land
  • Impact on Communities
  • Use of raw materials and natural resources
  • Other Local environmental issues
  • Noise
  • Visual Impact

169
Objectives Targets
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES
TARGETS
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
PROGRAMS
170
Objectives Targets
171
4.4 Implementation Operation
172
EMS Structure Responsibility
173
4.5 Checking Corrective Action
4.5.4 Audit
4.5.1 Monitoring Measurement
4.5.3 Records
4.5.2 Non-Conform. Corr./ Prev. Action
174
4.6 Management Review
The management review shall address the possible
need for changes to policy, objectives and other
elements of the EMS in the light of OHS
management system audit results, changing
circumstances and the commitment to continual
improvement.
175
4.6 Management Review
  • Management reviews should include
  • results from audits
  • the extent to which objectives have been met
  • the continuing suitability of the EMS in
    relation to changing conditions information
  • concerns amongst relevant interested parties

176
Cost of EMS
177
What Environment Teams Really Do?
  • Manage Information
  • Keep an Ideas Pot
  • Gather Best Practice from outside
  • Understand the business its Effects
  • Run Employee Involvement Programmes
  • Demonstrate Encourage Leadership
  • Set up Purchasing, Use Disposal Programmes
  • Measure request Measurements
  • Set Targets Plan to meet them
  • Report both internally externally

178
The Essence of Successful Environmental Management
Environmental literacy
Understanding impacts
Senior management leadership
Environmental manager
Using less and buying better
Integration with management system
Measurable benefits
communications
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