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Current Trends of Research in ICT in Education


Current Trends of Research in ICT in Education. Kwok-Wing Lai. Faculty of Education ... Misguided research - methodological issues ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Current Trends of Research in ICT in Education

Current Trends of Research in ICT in Education
  • Kwok-Wing LaiFaculty of EducationUniversity of
    OtagoPO Box 56, DunedinNew Zealandwing.lai_at_ston

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New Zealand
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University of Otago Clock Tower
Information Services Building
Two faces of the Central Library - Information
Services Building
  • Seminar outline
  • Growth of ICT use in schools - challenges
  • Trend 1 cycles of ICT use and research in
  • Trend 2 Research on impact of ICT on education
  • Break
  • What are the problems? Some suggestions.
  • Current ICT research areas
  • Your own understanding - group exercise
  • Conclusion further questions

  • Challenges
  • We are a generation in transition. Generally
    reared in a print-period, but increasingly
    required to function electronically. We are
    required to teach in a way that we have never
    been taught (Spender, 1995).
  • Developing future teachers who know how to use
    modern learning technologies to improve student
    learning is a major challenge facing our nations
    teacher preparation system
  • (Preparing Tomorrows Teachers to Use
    Technology, 2002).

  • Growth of ICT use and Internet connectivity in
    schools and classrooms
  • US - 92 of classrooms in public schools
    connected in 2002.
  • UK - 50 of all schools and 90 of secondary
    schools connected to broadband in 2003.
  • New Zealand - 86 of primary schools in 2002, 78
    of secondary schools in 2001 had Internet

  • Huge amounts of resources invested in ICT
    hardware, software and professional development
  • UK - 510 million (2002-2003), by the Department
    of Education and Skills (657 million,
    1998-2002). 230 million to help increase
    the competence of all teachers in their use of
    ICT in teaching and learning.
  • US - 5.7 billion (E-Rate Program) to speed up
    Internet connectivity (1998-2000).
  • Clinton administration (US) - 8 billion
  • A computer in every classroom
  • Every classroom wired to the Internet
  • Computer training for all teachers
  • Instructional software available to all students

  • Why do we conduct ICT research?
  • To gain knowledge and improve our understanding
    of the functioning of ICT in education at
    different levels.
  • To guide policy development and practice (reform?
    transform? action research?), and to improve
    educational practice through research.
  • ICT research is primarily applied research.

  • Trend 1 - cycles of ICT use, and cycles of ICT
  • Great expectations (new technology)
  • Promotion by academic studies (research)
  • Limited classroom use
  • Teachers are blamed (Cuban, 1986)

Four Main Waves of Computers in Schools
(Brown, 2004)
Educational use of ICT has been very much
technologically (both hardware and software)
driven Educational research in ICT also has
been very much technologically (both hardware and
software) drivenIs this your experience?
  • Research evidence - what do we know (from
    research) about ICT use in the classroom?
  • Classroom use of ICT has continued to be uneven,
    slow, and of decidedly mixed variety (Cuban,
  • Intractable workplace conditions do still limit
    widespread classroom use of computers (Becker,
  • ICT to become embedded in the work of the
    schools is a reality in only a small minority of
    schools (Office for Standards in Education,

  • Primary and Secondary Technology Projects
    (e-Learning Initiatives, 2000-2004)
  • 150 primary and 26 Secondary schools in southern
    New Zealand.
  • These schools received some 6 million dollars in
    local funding to purchase computer hardware
    and peripherals.
  • Schools were located within an urban population
    of about 115,000, as well as in several small
    provincial towns including small rural

  • Technology Adoption
  • Stage 1 Awareness
  • Stage 2 Learning the process
  • Stage 3 Understanding and application of the
  • Stage 4 Familiarity and confidence
  • Stage 5 Adaptation to other contexts
  • Stage 6 Creative application to new contexts
  • (Knezek Christensen, 1999)
  • 60 of primary teachers and 42 of secondary
    teachers were at Stages 5 6.

  • Lack of Integration
  • Teachers use of ICT is predominantly for
  • Preparing handouts
  • Writing lesson plans
  • Recording and calculating grades (Becker, 2000)
  • Student experiences with ICT primarily occur in
    four contexts
  • Separate courses in computer education
  • Pre-occupational preparation in business and
    vocational education
  • Exploratory uses in elementary classes
  • Word processing of work for assessment

  • Barriers to using technology
  • Costs
  • Teacher knowledge of equipment and value of use
  • School managements understandings about value
    of use
  • Availability of equipment and resources
  • Provision of back-up support
  • Software licensing
  • Knowledge necessary for technical planning and
    integrating technology
  • The huge investments in technology hardware just
    dont seem to be enough

  • Use and integration of technologies in teaching
    is a complex issue affected by
  • Attitudes and pedagogical beliefs of teachers
  • School and work culture
  • Leadership and management at the school and
    system levels
  • Professional development opportunities
  • Provision of technical support by the school

Teachers should ask 3 questions before using
technology in their classrooms
  • Computer-supported learning environments
  • Integrated
  • Engaging
  • Real-world driven
  • Extended
  • Student-centred
  • Teacher facilitated
  • Collaborative
  • Multi-media based
  • Assessment compatible

Is the lack of use, lack of integration, your
experience as well ? What are the factors
limiting the use of ICT in your own classroom?
  • Trend 2 Lack of hard evidence on impact
  • What do we know so far from research about the
    impact of ICT on education ?
  • Has ICT had an impact on education? Is ICT likely
    to have a profound and positive impact on
  • There is yet no conclusive evidence that ICT has
    universal benefits or its use is appropriate in
    every learning situation.
  • Schacter (1999) has summarized seven major
    reviews on the impact of technology on student
    learning and he concludes that computer assisted
    instruction (including integrated learning
    systems), simulation applications, and open-ended
    applications all have positive effects on

  • Kuliks meta-analysis of 500 individual research
    studies of the impact of computer-assisted
    instruction (CAI) on achievement (Kulik, 1994).
    The CAI applications (particularly the tutorial
    programs) reviewed by Kulik (1994) were often
    used to support a teacher-centred learning
  • Scardamalia and Bereiters (1996) Computer
    Supported Intentional Environment (CSILE) (now
    known as the Knowledge Forum, refer Scardamalia,
    2000), a project which creates a student-centred,
    constructivist, learning environment to support
    in-depth knowledge acquisition and creation for
    young learners. This review shows that technology
    could be used to promote virtually any value
    system into the classroom (Pea, 1998).

  • Becta (British Educational Communications and
    Technology Agency) reports in 2000 there is a
    consistent trend for primary schools with better
    ICT resources to achieve better grades for their
    pupils in KS2 national tests for English,
    mathematics and science.

  • What are the problems with ICT research?
  • Technology becomes domesticated (eg CAI
  • Technocentric focus - expectation that
    technology, all by itself, will bring about a
    change (Impact of ICT)
  • Law of the Hammer
  • Misguided research - methodological
    issues(Salomon, 2000, http//
  • There is a lack of systematic and longitudinal
    research in ICT (Panel on Educational Technology,
    1997, http//

  • New ways of analysing (Roberson, 2003)?
  • Rational - barriers of use, resourcing, training,
    leadership, etc, how about a match between
    beliefs and usage?
  • Cultural - dissonance between ICT and teachers
    professional culture,social context, user needs
  • Historical - a long term view of
    socio-technological adoption - simplicity and
    specialism, IT labs and purposeful devices (PDA)?
  • Gender/cultural - female teachers alienation
    from ICTs male discourses, male dominance
  • Gender/cognitive - teachers learning and
    interaction styles
  • Cognitive - common human preferences for learning
    and interaction style

  • How do we know about the trends of ICT research
    in education? Current research areas?
  • Participate in national and international
    conferences (or review their proceedings)
  • ICCE (International Conference of Computers in
  • NECC
  • WCCE
  • SITE
  • Ed-Media
  • Review journal articles
  • Computers and Education
  • British Journal of Educational Technology
  • Educational and Information Technologies
  • J of Interactive Learning Research
  • J of Technology and Teacher Education
  • Journal of Research on Technology in Education
  • Journal of Educational Computing Research

  • Information Explosion
  • The first million abstracts in chemistry took 30
    years (1907-1937) to be accumulated. The most
    recent one took one and a half years (Noam,
  • The whole Encyclopaedia Britannica takes up 37
    volumes in print, but only one CD-ROM.
  • The Web has about 3 billion documents.
  • The computer exposes students to a lot of
    information, but how relevant is the information
    (Secondary teacher, 2000).
  • The Internet gives you too much information
    (Secondary student, 2002).

Knowledge or information A clear distinction is
necessary between information and knowledge
(Salmon, 2000).
  • What are the current trends in ICT research?

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  • ICCE (International Conference of Computers in
    Education) 2004 Paper Topics
  • Distance Learning Education (19 Building
    learning communities on the Web, 14
    Mobile/wireless education, 4 Virtual
  • e-Learning and Knowledge Management (5
    Application of instructional design
    theories, 15 Developing an organizational e-
    learning strategy, 3 Devising mentoring and
    coaching programmes, 3 Human resource
    management/development, 20 Instructional
    design for e-learning, 9 Knowledge construction
    and navigation, 4 Life-long learning).
  • Evaluating Teaching and Learning Technologies (4
    Accreditation of new competencies and
    evaluation, 28 Assessing the use of
    technology in teaching and learning, 12
    Educational software and hardware, 4 Equity
    and social issues, 13 Evaluation and
    performance measurement, 4 Evaluation of
    e-Learning programmes, 1 Evolution of
    national policies, 3 Tutor role in virtual

  • ICCE (International Conference of Computers in
    Education) 2004 Paper Topics
  • AI and Networked Learning (19 Interactive
    learning environments, 11 Intelligent
    tutoring systems, 6 Pedagogical agents and agent
    technology, 6 Virtual reality in education).
  • Leadership in e-Education (19 Innovative
    pedagogical methods, 8 Policy and strategy
    for technology implementation, 10 Vocational
    training and education).
  • Learning Technologies (18 Architecture and
    system design issues, 6 Authoring systems
    and tools, 15 Computer-Supported
    Collaborative Learning (CSCL), 14 Human-computer
    interaction and education, 1 Learning
    companions, 2 Learning Object Metadata
    (LOM), 2 Ontology in education, 1 Standardization
    of learning technologies, 2 Student
  • Web Mediated Learning Tools (11 Multimedia and
    hypermedia, 8 Networked and distributed
    learning systems, 1 Web-based ITS, 12
    Web-based Training Systems).

  • WCCE (International Conference of Computers in
    Education) 2005 Paper Topics
  • Knowledge as a resource
  • Networking the learner
  • ICT as a catalyst for change
  • Learner-centred teaching
  • Flexible and distance Learning
  • Integration of ICT into education and training
  • Innovative pedagogical methods
  • Changing role of tutors
  • Teacher Education
  • Informatics as a subject for study

  • WCCE (International Conference of Computers in
    Education) 2005 Paper Topics
  • Educational software and hardware
  • Equity and social issues
  • Progress in developing countries
  • Evolution of national policies
  • Professional development and vocational education
  • Evaluation and accreditation
  • The role of the school in a knowledge based
  • ICT and the changing school
  • Why they failed unsuccessful projects
  • History of Educational Computing

  • Conclusion
  • Educational research in ICT is largely driven by
    advance in technology.
  • No conclusive evidence on impact of ICT in
  • There is a big gap between research and practice.
    Teachers rarely read educational research
    articles. How about practitioners journals (ISTE
    journal - Teaching and Leading with Technology,
    Computers in New Zealand Schools)? ICT
    researchers do not use ICT to communicate
    research results to practitioners.
  • Lack of involvement of teachers the need for
    collaborative and action research (eg e-learning
    fellows in New Zealand). Few teachers publish
    reflective documents, their teaching experience
    can help shape education research topics.

Research to predict the future?
640K ought to be enough for anyone (Bill
Gates, 1981).
There is no reason why anyone would want a
computer in their home (Ken Olson, President,
DEC., 1977).
Technology use will change but as teachers and
educators we should be clear that our main
objective is to teach, facilitate, and support
students to become Independent, mindful
thinkers, skilled in life long learning, capable
of intelligently handling complex problems alone
and in teams, and guided by some social values
that transcend egotistic benefits (Salomon,
2000). Technology must be used to support
teachers to achieve this!
  • Thank You!