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Renewable Energy Making It Work

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CHARACTERISTICS OF ASIAN COUNTRIES. Poverty: Less Options & More Suffering ... The land should not be waterlogged (Wasteland Categories 6&7) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Renewable Energy Making It Work


1
Renewable Energy Making It Work
  • Jyoti Parikh
  • Integrated Research and Action for Development,
  • New Delhi
  • 19 April 2006

2
CHARACTERISTICS OF ASIAN COUNTRIES
  • Poverty Less Options More Suffering
  • Large Population Its Growth
  • High Fossil Fuel Dependence
  • Warm Climate Except Japan China
  • Large Coastal Zones In Many Countries
  • High Frequency of Extreme Events Cyclones,
    Typhoons, Flooding

3
Energy Technology
  • New circumstances can create new opportunities
  • Every technology has to redefine itself to avoid
    obsolescence
  • How can renewable energy establish itself in the
    21st century

4
Criteria determining choice of technology
  • Renewables supply about 1 of the energy market
    (excluding hydro)
  • how can renewables help replace traditional
    energy ?
  • in which way can it claim higher share of the
    conventional energy market ?
  • what opportunities are offered by the local and
    global environmental concerns in the preference
    of energy technology ?
  • what are the the niche markets that can be
    expanded ?
  • what are the opportunities from synergy with
    other technological developments ?

5
Choice of Energy System
  • technology (scale, efficiency, locked
    infrastructure, product designs and standards)
  • costs (finance, interest rates, capital, taxes,
    relative prices)
  • accessibility (reliability, infrastructure, total
    potential, competitiveness, adequacy of supply,
    storage or hydrid)
  • environment (pollution, climate change, proximity
    of pollution, health welfare, environmental
    impacts)
  • politics (war,sanctions, subsidy, regulation)
  • demographic (lifestyle, family size, age profile,
    personal values)
  • convenience ( time needed, familiarity, habit,
    pleasure)
  • safety (risk perception, potential catastrophe,
    sustainability, renewability, future generation)
  • information (media, education, marketing)

6
Expanding Renewable Energy Market
New Areas High Paying Remote Areas
traditional
conventional
  • Fossil fuels
  • Resource Scarcity
  • Enforcement
  • Climate Change
  • Gestation periods
  • Wood, Dung,
  • Residues
  • Health
  • Development

Synergistic Development with Emerging Technologies
7
Primary source of energy for cooking in urban and
rural India
SourceCMIE,Energy,2000
8
Primary source of energy for lighting in urban
and rural India (CONTD.)
SourceCMIE,Energy,2000
9
DAYS SPENT/LOST (IN MILLION) PER YEAR DUE TO
ENERGY, WATER, SANITATION AND HEALTH PROBLEMS
RURAL ALL INDIA
10
Major pollutants emitted from biofuels
Source Smith, 1983
11
Financial Allocation to Renewables in India (GoI
1998 MNES, 1998)
12
Subsidy for Energy Sector in India During 1996-97
Rs Crore
Source Data for petroleum from MOPNG (1997) and
for power sector from GoI (1999)
13
Biofuels
14
Oil Yielding Plants
450 varieties identified in various parts of India
  • Jatropha curcas or Ratanjot     
  • Pongamia pinnata or Karanj
  • Calophyllum inophyllum or Nagchampa
  • Hevea brasiliensis or Rubber seeds
  • Calotropis gigantia or Ark
  • Euphorbia tirucalli or Sher
  • Boswellia ovalifololata

15
National Mission on Bio-Diesel
  • Jatropha Plantation in 0.4million ha.will
    generate
  • 127.6 million person days of work
  • Seed collection will provide sustainable
  • employment to
  • 8 million person days or 0.122 million person/
    year
  • Primary processing, oil esterification,
  • transport etc. will create additional jobs

16
Biodiesel - Systems Approach
 
 
Modification needed to use in Transport vehicles,
stationary equipment, and oil cakes
Separation of seed, kernels, Procurement of seeds
plantation of Oil bearing trees
Oil extraction, blending and processing
Plantation of Oil bearing trees
Energy Policy
17
INDIAN INITIATIVES
18
Demonstration Phase
  • It is planned for 4,00,000 hectare Jatropha
    plantation in the country. The phasing of
    plantation is proposed as
  •  

19
Criteria for Land Availability
  • Department of Land Resources under Ministry of
    Rural Development, GOI has proposed the criteria
    for selection of lands for Jatropha plantation.
    These are
  • Annual rainfall should exceed 600mm
  • The pH of soil should be less than 9 (Wasteland
    category Alkaline/saline slight )
  • Temperature should not fall below 00 C. In the
    Himalayan states in India there are places
    located above 1500 meters where temperature falls
    below 00 C. Hence the elevation of lands for
    plantation in the Himalayas should not exceed
    1500meters
  • The slope of land should not exceed 300
  • The land should not be waterlogged (Wasteland
    Categories 67)
  • The land should not be barren rocky/stony
    (Wasteland Category 26)

20
POLICY FRAMEWORK
21
Stakeholders involved in biodiesel production
Devise policy framework coordinating mechanism
Oil companies blending standardization
Oil extraction units
Procurement centres seed collection centres
Farmers
22
Policy Framework
Purchase Policies with MSP
MOPNG, MOAC, Oil Cos.
Strengthening the supply side
End use Practices
Policy Framework
MOCI, Oil cos.
MORD,MOAC
Extraction of oil from seeds
MOAC, MOARI, MOSSI, MOCI
23
Roadmap.
  •  
  • How to mobilize cultivation? What scale is
    possible?
  • What policy framework (financial interventions,
    mandate and standards) is needed?
  • What coordination is needed with vehicle
    industries?
  • Cost sharing, modernization of equipment. Will
    they also need direct subsidy?
  • What institutional structure is suitable that
    permits flexibility and reduces constraints and
    barriers?
  • Can CDM help in generating the needed revenues?
    What policy should be avoided to ensure CDM
    benefits?

24
Environment and Health
25
Health impacts of Collection of Fuels
  • Results in backache (50), neck ache, headache
    and bruises every week (80 )
  • 19 persons in HP have some symptoms

IRADe survey Himachal Pradesh
26
HEALTH HAZARDS AT EVERY STEP
Activity
Health Impact
Solutions
  • Search and Collect
  • Biomass
  • Walking
  • Cutting
  • Bruises
  • Snake bites
  • Insect bites
  • Bringing
  • fuelwood closer
  • Plantations
  • Processing and
  • Stacking
  • Bundling
  • Drying
  • Allergies
  • Chapped hands
  • Biogas
  • LPG/Kerosene

27
BIO-FUEL CHAIN AND HEALTH
Activity
Health Impact
Solutions
  • Backache
  • Headache
  • Knee pain
  • Community
  • transportation,
  • cycle rickshaws

Transportation Of Heavy Loads
  • Respiratory
  • Eye diseases
  • Infant mortality
  • Adverse
  • pregnancy
  • Clean fuels
  • Superior stoves
  • Renewable
  • technologies

Cooking
28
Linkage of respiratory diseases with literacy of
female adults (North India)
29
Vulnerability By Age Groups
The risk of having respiratory symptoms among
adults increases with age.
IRADe Study Himachal Pradesh
30
Role /Status of womenDrudgery in Collection of
Fuels
  • Women have to walk every month in the state ,
    spending 40 hours during 15 trips, each of about
    3 hrs to fetch fuels
  • Time and efforts for collection of fuelwoods

IRADe survey Himachal Pradesh
31
Reaching The MDGsBy Addressing Gender And
Energy Issues
  • Reduce rural poverty and improve the situation of
    women
  • through the provision of affordable energy
    services
  • reduce the burden on women of exhausting and
    repetitive tasks
  • improved access to cooking fuels and
    energy-efficient technologies for pumping water
    and other agricultural activities
  • promote economic opportunities for women
  • free up time from usual activities and reallocate
    their time toward attending to agricultural
    tasks, improving agricultural productivity,
    developing micro-enterprises, increase income and
    improve family well-being

32
Energy and Millenium Development Goal (MDG)
attainment
Millenium Development Goals
How energy can help?
Goal 4 Reduce child mortality (by 66 the
mortality rate) Goal 5 Improve maternal health
(by 75 the maternity mortality rates)
  • Indoor air pollution
  • Fuel supply
  • Work burden
  • Kerosene and LPG

Goal 7 Ensure Environmental Sustainability Goal
8 Safe drinking Water and Sanitation
  • Deforestation
  • Indoor pollution
  • Climate change
  • Water sanitation
  • Energy consumption

33
Conclusions
  • Renewable energy has to define to decide what
    end-user needs can be satisfied
  • Focussed strategies for different markets
  • New context/milieu
  • Environment, Gender and Health
  • Globalisation
  • Markets determine energy choices
  • Tapping emerging markets technologies to
    advantage

34
THANK YOU
Contact Us Integrated Research and Action for
Development (IRADe), C-50, Chhota Singh Block New
Delhi 110049 Tel 91-11-26495522-23 /
55646622Fax 91-11-26495522 - 23 Website
http//www.irade.org
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