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Creation of English and Hindi Verb Hierarchies and their Application to Hindi WordNet Building and E

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Debasri Chakrabarti, Gajanan Krishna Rane, Pushpak Bhattacharyya. ... do(agt volitional thing{,icl do(agt thing)}) do(agt living thing{,icl do(agt volitional thing) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Creation of English and Hindi Verb Hierarchies and their Application to Hindi WordNet Building and E


1
Creation of English and Hindi Verb Hierarchies
and their Application to Hindi WordNet Building
andEnglish-Hindi MT
  • Debasri Chakrabarti, Gajanan Krishna Rane,
    Pushpak Bhattacharyya.
  • Computer Science and Engineering Department,
  • Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay,
  • Mumbai, 40076, India.
  • debasri,gkrane,pb_at_cse.iitb.ac.in

2
Introduction
  • Verb hierarchy
  • creation of the verb hierarchy for English and
    Hindi
  • verbs.
  • organized according to semantics and syntax
  • semantic hierarchy - through the super-ordinate
    terms and the inbuilt ontology of the UNL KB.
  • syntactic information- through UNL case relations
  • System is based on
  • English verb classes and their alternation
    (Levin)
  • UNL System UW Manual, Knowledge base (KB)
    specification
  • Semantic relations of English WordNet

3
Levins Class of English verbs
  • Classification of the English verbs
  • Adopted from English Verb Classes and
    Alternation of Beth Levin.
  • Details of Levins work
  • Levins classification of the English verb is
    the most significant and celebrated work.
  • Assumption underlying Levins work
  • Syntactic behavior of a verb is semantically
    determined
  • Levin investigated and exploited this hypothesis
    for about 3200 English verbs.

4
Details of Levins work
  • Verb Classes
  • Preliminary Investigation
  • considerable correlation between some facets of
    the
  • semantics of verbs and their syntactic behavior
  • 200 semantic classes defined in Levins system
  • each class share a number of alternations
  • Example of verb classes
  • verbs of putting , verbs of communication,
    correspond
  • verbs etc.

5
The Universal Networking Language (UNL)
  • Universal Networking Language (UNL)
  • electronic language for computers to express and
  • exchange information.
  • UNL system consists
  • Universal words (UW) Vocabulary of UNL
  • Relations, attributes Syntax of UNL
  • UNL knowledge base (KB) Semantics of UNL

6
The Universal Networking Language
  • UNL represents information
  • sentence-by-sentence as a hyper-graph
  • concepts as nodes and relations as arcs
  • Sentence is a hyper-graph
  • a node in the structure can itself be a graph
  • the node is called a compound word (CW)

7
Graphical representation in UNL
_at_ entry _at_ present
eat (iclgtdo)
agt
ins
obj
John (iofgtperson)
spoon (iclgtartifact)
rice (iclgtfood)
John eats rice with a spoon
8
Verbal Concepts in UNL
  • Verbal concepts in the UNL system are organized
    into three categories
  • (iclgtdo) for defining the concept of an event
    which is
  • caused by something or someone
  • change (iclgtdo) as in She changed the dress
  • (iclgtoccur) for defining the concept of an event
    that
  • happens of its own accord
  • change (iclgtoccur) as in The weather
    will change
  • (iclgtbe) for defining the concept of a state verb
  • remember (iclgtbe) as in Do you
    remember me?

9
Verbal Concepts in UNL
  • do(agtgtthing,golgtthing,iclgtdo,objgtthing,ptngtth
    ing,srcgtthing)
  • do(agtgtvolitional thing,iclgtdo(agtgtthing))
  • do(agtgtliving thing,iclgtdo(agtgtvolitional
    thing))
  • do(agtgthumangtliving thing,iclgtdo(agtgtlivi
    ng thing))
  • do(agtgtthing,golgtthing,iclgtdo
    , objgtthing,ptngtthing,srcgtthing)

Partial hierarchical structure for do
10
do in UNL KB
  • Semantic hierarchy in terms of the inbuilt
    ontology in KB
  • do(agtgtthing,golgtthing,iclgtdo,objgtthing,ptngtth
    ing,srcgtthing)
  • do(iclgtdo(agtgtthing,golgtthing,objgtthing),golgt
    abstract thing,objgtabstract thing)
  • do(iclgtdo(agtgtthing,golgtabstract
    thing,objgtabstract
  • thing),golgtcustomgtabstract
    thing,ob jgtcustomgtabstract thing)

do(golgtabstract thing)
do(golgtcustom)
do(golgtthing)
11
Creation of the verb hierarchy
  • First, a particular verb class is selected from
    Levin.
  • Next the class is categorized according to the
    UNL format
  • Parent node of a class is obtained through
    English wordnet and various dictionaries

12
Creation of the verb hierarchy
  • put
  • Put your clothes in the cupboard.
  • (to put something into a certain place)
  • (iclgtmove(agtgtperson,objgtconcrete
    thing,golgtplace)
  • (loc_prepin/on/into/under/over)
  • VTRANS, VOA-ACT
  • hang
  • He hanged the wallpaper on the wall.
  • (to suspend or fasten something so that it
    is held up from above and
  • not supported from below)
  • (iclgtputgtmove(agtgtperson,objgtconcrete
    thing,golgtplace)
  • (loc_prepfrom/on)
  • VTRANS, VOA-ACT
  • Partial hierarchy of the put class

13
Verb Hierarchy in Hindi
  • ???? rakhanaa rkHna
  • put Put your things here. (to put something
    into a certain place)
  • (iclgtact(agtgtperson,objgtconcrete thing,golgtplace)
  • ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? (pna saman yha) pr
    rkHo) apanaa saamaana
  • yahaa par rakho)
  • (adv_plc (????/???? / yha) / vha) loc_postp
    (?? pr)
  • ????, ????? rkHna, sjana rakhanaa ,
    sajaanaa
  • arrange he arranged the books here.(to put
    into a proper or systematic
  • manner)
  • (iclgtputgtact(agtgtperson,objgtthing)
  • ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? usne kitabo)
    ko yha) pr sjakr rkHa.)
  • (usne kitabo ko yahaa par sajaakar rakhaa.)
  • (adv_man (?????, sjakr ???? ??, krm se))
    (adv_plc (????/???? / yha) /
  • vha) )) loc_postp( ?? pr)

14
Verb Hierarchy in Hindi
  • Syntax frames specified for the put class in
    English
  • (adv_plchere/there)
  • (loc_prep)
  • Sentence frames for put in Hindi
  • adv_man
  • adv_plc adv_man
  • loc_postp adv_man

15
Verb hierarchy and the Hindi WordNet
  • Application of the hierarchy in the Hindi wordnet
  • will help in determining
  • semantic relations like hypernymy and troponymy
  • syntactic frames
  • Application of the hierarchy in the Hindi wordnet
  • revealed facts like
  • difference in the representations for troponyms
    in Hindi and English
  • reclassifications of the verbs in Hindi

16
Representations of Troponyms
17
Classification of Hindi Verbs
conjunct
18
Classification of the Hindi Verbs
  • Simple verbs
  • ????(kHana) to eat
  • Compound verbs
  • ??? ?????(gir pêna) to fall down
  • Conjunct verbs
  • noun verb ???? ???? (armbH krna) to
    start
  • adjective verb ???? ???? (Sant krna) to calm
    down
  • adverb verb ????? ???? (utakr rkHna) to
    lift

19
Reclassification of the Hindi verbs
  • Sentence frames of the verbs reveals
  • only noun verb conjunct is a true conjunct
  • Hence, a re-classification of the verbs is
    needed

20
Application in NLP
  • The application of the verb hierarchy in NLP
  • gives semantic hierarchy of a verbal concept
  • enumerates syntactic details of a verb
  • UNL based MT will be immensely benefited
  • possible UNL relations that appear with a concept
    is specified

21
Application in MT
22
Conclusion
  • System statistics
  • approximately 3000 English verbs
  • approximately 5500 UWs
  • Common English verbs are dealt with
  • tested against British National Corpus
  • Coverage of both English and Hindi verbs is
    increasing everyday
  • Visualizer and an application programming
    interface for the verb knowledge bases in both
    the languages are under construction
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