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WWI and the Middle East

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'Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all ... Secularization; seizure of religious lands. Adoption of French civil code ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WWI and the Middle East


1
WWI and the Middle East
2
Ottoman Empire in WWI
3
Promises to Arabs
Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca
Hussein-MacMahon correspondence (1915-1916)
Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the
independence of the Arabs in all regions lying
within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of
Mecca.
4
The Arab Revolt1916-1918
5
Secret Promises Between the Allies
6
Zionism
Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)
Zionisms goals the political and spiritual
renewal of the Jewish people in its ancestral
homeland freedom from Anti-Semitism in the West
7
Promises to Jews
Balfour Declaration His Majestys Government
views with favor the establishment in Palestine
of a national home for the Jewish people and will
use their best endeavors to facilitate the
achievement of this object, it being clearly
understood that nothing shall be done which may
prejudice the civil and religious rights of
existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine . .
.
8
Arab Disappointment
Prince Faisal and the Arab delegation to the
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
9
British try to appease Faisal by creating
Transjordan
10
Mandates
11
Post-WWI New Arab States
Syria
Lebanon
Iraq
Transjordan
Saudi Arabia
12
And the Non-Arab States
Turkey
Persia/Iran
13
The Rise of Turkey
Mustafa Kemal aka Atatürk
14
(No Transcript)
15
Mustafa Kemal leads military resistance, War for
National Independence
16
Reforms of Atatürk (1922-1938)
G R P S
Capital moved to Ankara
Secularism Koran in Turkish translation
Adoption of a Republican Constitution and a Swiss
civil code
Westernization and Nationalism compulsory
education
17
Iran
Reza Shah Pahlavi
18
Reforms of Reza Shah (1926-1941)
E R P S T
Economic protection slightly more control over
AIOC
Secularization seizure of religious lands
Adoption of French civil code
Westernization and Nationalism improved education
Trans-Iranian railroad
19
Question Compare and contrast the reform
programs of Mustafa Kemal of Turkey and Reza Shah
Pahlavi of Iran. Why did reforms succeed in
Turkey but not in Iran?
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