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Title: Lessons from the U.S. National Survey of Child and Adolescent WellBeing NSCAW: How Are the Children


1
Lessons from the U.S. National Survey of Child
and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) How Are the
Children Faring and Did Mental Health Services
Help?
Richard P. Barth School of Social Work University
of Maryland
Presented at ACWA Annual Conference Research
Forum University of WashingtonAugust 15, 2006
  • The research for this presentation was funded by
    the Administration on Children, Youth, and
    Families of the U.S. Department of Health and
    Human Services. Although I am grateful to the
    NSCAW Research Group for their work, points of
    view or opinions in this presentation and
    accompanying documents are those of the presenter
    and do not necessarily represent the position or
    policies of the U.S. DHHS or of my NSCAW
    colleagues. Results are preliminary and not to
    be quoted in print or other media. I am grateful
    to the Fulbright Commission for an award as a
    Senior Specialist

2
First National Random Sample Study Of CWS
  • Extended Research Team included
  • Research Triangle Institute
  • University of North Carolina
  • San Diego Childrens Hospital, CASRC
  • CSRD, Pitt Medical Center
  • National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect,
    Cornell
  • 92 Local Child Welfare Agencies
  • Federal Admin. For Children and Families
  • Children and Families
  • Taxpayers of US who have provided more than
    40,000,000 in support

3
NSCAW Cohort at Baseline
4
Wellbeing Measures
  • Social Domain
  • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale Screener, Daily
    Living Skills domain (VABS)
  • Social Skills Rating System (SSRS)
  • Behavioral Domain
  • Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)
  • Risky Behaviors (11 years)
  • Self-Report Delinquency (SRD)
  • Substance Abuse
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Suicide
  • Infant Development (0 2 years)
  • Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI)
  • Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS)
  • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Screener (VABS)
  • Cognitive Domain
  • Preschool Language Scale-3 (PLS-3)
  • Mini-Battery of Achievement (MBA)

5
Family Cumulative Risk Score
  • Risk Assessment section (CW worker)
  • 23 items (e.g., including trouble meeting basic
    needs, substance abuse, past CW involvement,
    domestic violence, parent psychopathology)
  • Proportional score created
  • Low risk (lt 22)
  • Medium risk (22 to 40)
  • High risk (40)

When using as predictor of child behavior (e.g.,
CBCL), child behavior variables are omitted from
this score
6
Risky Behavior Domain (11 to 15 at BL)
  • Self-Report Delinquency (SRD)
  • Modified version of the SRD (Elliott Ageton,
    1980) used for Wave 7 (1987) of the NLSY
  • 72 Questions
  • 36 Acts committed in previous 6 months
  • 36 Frequency of acts
  • Scoring Acts weighted by seriousness
    multiplied by frequency
  • Cronbachs a .98
  • Substance Abuse
  • Modified from Youth Risk Behavior Survey items
  • 14 questions
  • 7 Substances used past 30 days
  • 7 Frequency of use
  • Scoring Acts weighted by seriousness
    multiplied by frequency

7
Risky Domain (11 to 15 at BL)
  • Voluntary Sexual Behavior
  • Three items ask (1) Had youth ever had
    intercourse (2) Consistency of use of protection
    for sexual intercourse and (3) Had youth ever
    been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant (0
    No or not applicable, 1 Yes).
  • Scores ranged from 0 to 5
  • No risk (0, Never had intercourse or first
    experience was coerced)
  • Low risk (1, Has had intercourse but used
    protection consistently and has never been/gotten
    someone pregnant)
  • Medium/High risk (2-5, Inconsistent use of
    protection and possible pregnancy)
  • Suicidal Behavior Risk
  • Items from the Youth Self Report, and the
    Childrens Depression Inventory
  • Six items ask the youth and caregiver about
    thoughts, plans, and suicides attempts of the
    child
  • Scores range from 0 to 17
  • No risk (0, No suicidal behavior reported)
  • Low risk (1 3, Suicidal thoughts in the past
    two weeks)
  • Medium/High risk (417, Has deliberately tried
    to harm self and/or has had suicidal thoughts in
    the past two weeks, and has a plan)

8
Change in Developmental Well-Being of Children
Involved with CWS from Baseline to 18 Months
  • Conditional Probability of Change
  • 2. Change scores and effect sizes
  • 3. Assessment of Contributors to Well-Being
    Using General Estimating Equations

9
Age Groups andWell-Being Measures
10
Proportion of Developmental/Clinical Cutting
Scores Per Child
W1 Median
W3 Median
Number of possible measures per child varies
from 4 to 7
11
Changes in Cognitive Development Score (BDI) for
0-2 Year Old Children Baseline to 18-Months
Note 454 cases were deleted such that the
number of cases with valid scores at Baseline and
18 Months were equal for the purposes of
comparison. All analyses are on weighted
data. Total group also includes cases with mixed
placement types across waves (I.e., in-home to
out-of-home, and out-of-home to in-home). p lt
.01
12
Changes in Risk for Developmental Delay or
Neurological Impairment (BINS) for Children 0-2,
Baseline to 18-Months
All analyses are on weighted data. Red (upper)
triangle shows negative change, Green (lower)
shows improvement.
13
Change in (BINS) for Children 0-2, BL to
18-Months (In-Home Only)
All analyses are on weighted data. Red (upper)
triangle shows negative change, Green (lower)
shows improvement.
14
Change in (BINS) for Children 0-2, BL to
18-Months (Out-of-Home Only)
All analyses are on weighted data. plt.001
(Bowkers test) Red (upper) triangle shows
negative change,Green (lower) shows improvement.
15
Changes in Language Skills Score (PLS-3) for 0-2
Year Old Children Baseline to 18-Months
Note 438 cases were deleted such that the
number of cases with valid scores at Baseline and
18 Months were equal for the purposes of
comparison All analyses are on weighted
data. Total group also includes cases with mixed
placement types across waves (I.e., in-home to
out-of-home, and out-of-home to in-home). p lt
.05 p lt .01
16
Changes in Language Skills Score (PLS-3) for 3-5
Year Old Children Baseline to 18-Months
Note 401 cases were deleted such that the
number of cases with valid scores at Baseline and
18 Months were equal for the purposes of
comparison All analyses are on weighted
data. Total group also includes cases with mixed
placement types across waves (I.e., in-home to
out-of-home, and out-of-home to in-home). p lt
.05 p lt .01
17
Changes in Daily Living Skills (VABS) Baseline to
18-Months by Setting and Age
Red shows negative change, Green shows
improvement.
18
CBCL Changes for Children (Ages 3-5) Served at
Home
Red (upper) triangle shows negative change, Green
(lower) shows improvement.
19
CBCL Changes for Children (Ages 3-5) Served
Out-of-Home
Red (upper) triangle shows negative change, Green
(lower) shows improvement.
20
  • CBCL Change Over 18 months
  • (Children Aged 3 to 5 Years at BL)

Child Gender Beta (Units Change in CBCL Score)
Male 3.25 Female Reference
Group Child Race/Ethnicity  
Black/Non-Hispanic -3.45 White/Non-Hispanic
Reference Group Hispanic -1.85
Other 1.74 Parent Cumulative Risk   Low
Reference Group Medium 3.03 High
3.27
Non-significant Variables Wave, Proportion of
Time of Out-of-Home Care, In-Home at Both Waves,
Poverty Level
plt.05 plt.01 plt.001
21
CBCL Changes for Children (Ages 6-10) Served at
Home
Red (upper) triangle shows negative change, Green
(lower) shows improvement.
22
CBCL Changes for Children (Ages 6-10) Served
Out-of-Home
Red (upper) triangle shows negative change, Green
(lower) shows improvement.
23
  • CBCL Changes Over 18 Months
  • (Children Aged 6 to 10 Years at BL)

Gender Beta Male 2.13
Female Reference Group Child Race/Ethnicity  
Black/Non-Hispanic -0.28 White/Non-Hispanic
Reference Group Hispanic -3.89
Other -1.89 Wave Baseline Reference
Group 18 Months -2.56 Proportion of Time
in Out-of-Home Care   In-Home Reference
Group Out-of-Home 4.74 Mixed 4.70
Non-significant Variables In-Home at Both Waves,
Poverty Level, Parent Cumulative Risk
plt.05 plt.01 plt.001
24
CBCL Changes for Children (Ages 11) Served at
Home
Red (upper) triangle shows negative change, Green
(lower) shows improvement.
25
CBCL Changes for Children (Ages 11) Served
Out-of-Home
Red (upper) triangle shows negative change, Green
(lower) shows improvement.
26
  • CBCL Scores Over 18 months
  • (Children Aged 11 to 15 Years at BL)

 Significant Predictor TIME (WAVE) Beta  
Baseline Reference Group 18
Months -1.43 plt.05
Non-significant Predictor Gender, Child
Race/Ethnicity, Proportion of Time in Out-of-Home
Care, In-Home at Both Waves, Poverty Level,
Parent Cumulative Risk, Substance Abuse, and
Delinquency
Measured using Child Behavior Checklist
27
CBCL Changes for Children (Ages 2-15) Served at
Home
Red (upper) triangle shows negative change, Green
(lower) shows improvement.
28
CBCL Changes for Children (Ages 2-15) Served
Out-of-Home
Red (upper) triangle shows negative change, Green
(lower) shows improvement.
29
Summary of Changes in CBCL Baseline to 18-Months
by Setting and Age
  • 3-5 year olds show more negative change across
    settings than 6-10 year olds
  • 6-10 year olds show more positive change at home
  • 11-15 year olds show more positive change across
    settings

Red shows greater negative change, Green shows
greater improvement.
30
  • CBCL Changes for All Children Since BL

Child Age at Baseline  Beta 2
years -5.62 3-5 years -3.87
6-10 years -3.73 11 years Reference
Group Child Race/Ethnicity  
Black/Non-Hispanic -0.90 White/Non-Hispanic
Reference Group Hispanic -3.10
Other -0.24 Wave   Baseline Reference
Group 18 Months -1.55 Proportion of Time
in Out-of-Home Care In-Home Reference
Group Out-of-Home 4.36 Mixed 2.31
Parent Cumulative Risk   Low
Reference Group Medium 2.59 High
3.42
Non-significant Variables Gender, In-Home at
Both Waves, and Poverty Level
plt.05 plt.01 plt.001
31
Self-Reported Delinquency Changes for Children
(Ages 11-15) Served at Home
Unweighted n624
Red (upper) shows negative change, Green (lower)
shows improvement.
32
Self-Reported Delinquency Changes for Children
(Ages 11-15) Served Out of Home
Unweighted n141
Red (upper) shows negative change, Green (lower)
shows improvement.
33
Suicide Risk Changes for Children (Ages 11-15)
Served in Home
Unweighted n664
Red (upper) shows negative change, Green (lower)
shows improvement.
34
Suicide Risk Changes for Children (Ages 11-15)
Served Out of Home
Unweighted n156
Red (upper) shows negative change, Green (lower)
shows improvement.
35
Substance Abuse Risk Changes for Children (Ages
11-15) Served at Home
Unweighted n605
Red (upper) shows negative change, Green (lower)
shows improvement.
36
Substance Abuse Risk Changes for Children (Ages
11-15) Served Out of Home
Unweighted n135
Red (upper) shows negative change, Green (lower)
shows improvement.
37
Summary of Changes in Risk Behavior to 18-Months
by Setting and Age
Red shows greater negative change, Green shows
greater improvement.
38
CTS-PC (Child) Scores for Inappropriate
Parenting, BL to 18 Months (Children 11)
13.6 (1.4)
11.7 (1.4)
.08
Total includes children in mixed placement
settings plt.05, plt.01, plt.001
39
CTS-PC (Child) Scores for Severe Violence, BL to
18 Months (Children 11)
2.8 (.38)
1.3 (.25)
.54
Total includes children in mixed placement
settings plt.05, plt.01, plt.001
40
Predictors of Change in Well-Being for
Multivariate (GEE) Models
  • Age (at Baseline)
  • Gender
  • Race/Ethnicity Black, White, Hispanic, Other
  • Urbanicity Urban, Nonurban
  • Child Setting In-home, Out-of-home, Mixed
  • Most Serious Maltreatment Type Physical,
    Sexual,
  • Failure to Provide (FTP), Failure to Supervise
    (FTS), Other
  • Parent Cumulative Risk Score Low, Medium,
    High
  • Change in Parental Figure in 18 months (Y/N)
  • Prior CWS History (Y/N)
  • Chronic Health Problem (Y/N)
  • Ratio of Children to Adults in Household
    (continuous)
  • Poverty Rate (continuous)
  • HOME-SF Score (continuous)

41
Infants Other Significant Findings
  • BINS victims of sexual abuse comprised the only
    maltreatment type subgroup at higher risk at
    18-months
  • VABS children in out-of-home care have a
    greater decline in this measure than in-home
    children or children in mixed settings

42
Summary Age 0-2
  • No significant measured improvements in
    development for infants
  • In general, infants lt 2 years decline in all
    measures, those 25-35 months improve
  • Children with lower HOME-SF scores see greater
    declines in three of the four measures
  • Children in nonurban PSUs see higher risk for
    developmental delay and neurological impairment
    and worsening language skills
  • Males decline in cognitive development and social
    skills

43
Toddlers Other Significant Findings
  • SSRS children in mixed settings exhibited a
    large decline in social skills, significantly so
    compared with the relatively stable skills of
    in-home children
  • PLS-3 victims of Other abuse exhibited a
    decrease, while children in all other abuse type
    groups exhibited an increase

44
Summary Age 3-5
  • Slight decline in social skills improvement in
    language skills stable level of problem behavior
  • Age in months is a significant predictor of
    change, but not in a consistent direction
  • Prior CWS history is a predictor of change for
    both social and language skills
  • Could be that they receive greater level of
    intervention, this time
  • Could be that prior involvement already raised
    the level of their care or treatment

45
School-Age Children Other Significant Findings
  • CBCL Being male, living in nonurban areas, and
    more poverty are associated with greater
    decreases in problem behavior
  • MBA-Math Children with low parent cumulative
    risk and those in mixed settings exhibited
    increases, in contrast to their counterparts

46
Summary Age 6-10
  • Only age group that showed improvements, although
    slight, in all developmental measures examined
  • Only age group where age is not a significant
    predictor of rate of change for any domain
  • Maltreatment type is the only significant
    predictor across more than one domain, yet with
    varied results

47
Maltreated Adolescents
  • Risky and Risk-Taking Behaviors

48
Problem Behaviors
  • Approximately 40 of maltreated adolescents have
    borderline/clinical levels of problem behavior,
    compared to only 5 of children in the general
    population (Achenbach, 1991)
  • Maltreated adolescents need assistance in dealing
    with more than the maltreatment incident (e.g.,
    aggression, attention problems)

49
Delinquency
  • Delinquency is fairly stable but 6 of youth are
    reporting consistently high levels of
    serious/violent behaviors
  • Confirms other research (see Loeber Farrington,
    1998) that a small proportion of youth are
    committing the most serious/violent offenses
    (e.g., gang fights, robbery, rape)

50
Risky Sexual Behavior
  • Youth living in out-of-home care are reporting
    more risky sexual behavior.
  • Probably attributable to the fact that
    out-of-home youth are often removed from very
    high-risk homes (Carpenter, Clyman, Davidson,
    Steiner, 2001).

Are youth living in out-of-home care being
monitored sufficiently? How can we assist youth
in out-of-home care to engage in less unsafe sex?
51
Substance Abuse
  • A small portion (4) of youth are reporting
    consistently high levels of substance abuse and
    15 report high use at 18 months.
  • Higher achievement may serve as protection
    against increases in substance use for maltreated
    youth.

How can we explain the increase in the
probability of substance abuse that
non-aggressive youth are reporting?
52
Suicide Risk Behavior
  • Youth in a mixture of placements are experiencing
    more increases in suicide risk behavior.
  • What does this finding tell us?
  • Could be attributable to factors related to
    placement moves over the 18 months.
  • Race/ethnicity differences appear somewhat
    different from national trends in suicide (CDC,
    2004) but NSCAW is not measuring actual suicides.

53
Summary of Well-Being Findings
NAPCWA told us that child welfare agencies were
not in control of enough resources to achieve
gains in well-being.. they were prescient.
54
Cognitive Well-Being over 18 Months
  • Worsened since BL for children 0-2 yrs
  • Improved for children 3-5 and 6-10 yrs
  • Males 5 yrs doing worse than females 5 yrs
  • Generally higher for White than non-White
    children
  • Abuse type has more effect on infants than older
    children
  • Poverty associated with lower cognitive
    well-being for youngest (0-2 yrs) and oldest
    (11-15 yrs) children

55
Social Well-Being over 18 Months
  • Worsened since BL for children 0-2 yrs
  • For children aged 3-5 and 6-10 yrs, social skills
    for
  • Non-White children gt White children
  • Children with low family cumulative risk gt for
    children with higher family cumulative risk
  • For children aged 6-10 yrs and 11-15 yrs, social
    skills for
  • IH children gt OOH children
  • Above poverty gt Below poverty

56
Behavioral Well-Being over 18 Months
  • Behavior showed significant improvement over time
    for 6- to 10-year-olds only
  • For children aged 3-5 and 6-10 yrs, behavior
    problems for
  • Males gt females
  • White children gt non-White children
  • Children with high family cumulative risk gt for
    children with lower family cumulative risk
  • High levels of substance abuse were associated
    with more problem behavior (11-15 yrs)

57
Risky Behavior over 18 Months
  • Delinquent behavior was fairly stable over 18
    months
  • Substance abuse levels were fairly stable over 18
    months
  • Voluntary risky sexual behavior increased
  • Suicidal behavior decreased

58
Infant Development over 18 Months
  • BDI
  • Children at 50-99 poverty had significantly
    lower cognitive development scores than children
    at 150-199 and 200 poverty.
  • BINS
  • The risk of developmental delays neurological
    impairments worsened over 18 months for infants.
    This was particularly the case for
  • African American children compared to White
    children.
  • Children at lt50 poverty compared to children at
    150-199 and 200 poverty.
  • HOME-SF (Home environment) was used as predictor
    in these models

59
Cognitive Well-Being over 18 Months
  • Worsened since BL for children 0-2 yrs
  • Improved for children 3-5 and 6-10 yrs
  • Males 5 yrs doing worse than females 5 yrs
  • Generally higher for White than non-White
    children
  • Abuse type has more effect on infants than older
    children
  • Poverty associated with lower cognitive
    well-being for youngest (0-2 yrs) and oldest
    (11-15 yrs) children

60
Conclusions Re-Report
  • Although the majority of re-reports are not
    substantiated, about one-in-five children have at
    least one re-report over the 18 months
  • Children in out of home care still have some risk
    of recurrent maltreatment
  • Possible explanations for maltreatment include
  • occurred prior to child entering foster care
  • occurred during visit with biological family
  • child on child maltreatment in foster or group
    home
  • Receipt of parenting services associated with
    increased likelihood or re-report
  • Possible explanations include
  • Families with greater needs selected into
    services
  • Agency surveillance
  • Services do not adequately family needs

61
Caregiver Report of Violent Parenting Tactics
  • Many caregivers (8) report using severe violence
    toward their child following child welfare
    involvement
  • A large proportion of severe violence remains
    unreported. This is especially true for infants
    and toddlers.
  • Violence between intimate partners often leads to
    an increase in the amount of severe violence
    children experience

62
Implications
  • Parenting services
  • Rigorous evaluation needed
  • Developmentally appropriate
  • Linkages to ongoing family support services
  • Assist families to address ongoing needs
  • Early intervention services, as required by CAPTA
    2003
  • Child welfare workers must identify and intervene
    to address violence toward caregivers

63
General Discussion
  • We are not achieving what I had hopedat least in
    the shorttermregarding childrens well-being
  • Out of home care has changed (see next slide)
  • Our models of out of home care may not be working
    the way they once had (assuming that prior
    research in NYC and San Diego was correct that
    foster care is restorative)
  • Services are not used or dont help

64
Alternate Explanations for Findings
  • PSM did not match for important unobserved
    covariates
  • Services may not have been used in full
  • Substance abuse services may interfere with
    parental adequacy
  • Focus is on parents recovery not childs welfare
  • Time and effort for SAT can be burdensome to
    parent
  • Services may result in greater surveillance which
    results in more observed behaviors that might
    place children at risk, thus more reports
  • But there was also a tendency for more placements
    into foster care (p lt .10).

65
Caregiving Environments Have More Commitment but
Fewer Resources
  • Many children in out-of-home care live below the
    poverty line
  • Many children in out-of-home care live in large
    households or with single parents (and sometimes
    both)
  • Many children in out-of-home care live with
    caregivers without a HS education

66
Changes in the Foster Care Model
Agency Resources
Agency Resources
Kinship Family Social Capital
Foster Family Social Capital
Commitment to Child
Commitment to Child
Caregiving
Caregiving
67
General Discussion (continued)
  • Findings are consistent with other research that
    children in foster care have serious
    developmental risks
  • They receive substantial levels of service,
    although they are still underserved
  • Children with the most significant problems
    receive the most clinical mental health services,
    although only between a third and half of
    children with a clinical CBCL score receive
    specialty mental health services.
  • Young children at high risk of developmental
    problems are not routinely referred for
    supplementary or special educationespecially if
    they are in kinship care.
  • Children in non-kinship and group care receive
    high levels of supplementary educational
    services.
  • The services may not be what they need or be
    sufficient, or both

68
A Needed Change in Focus
  • Service Access
  • Foster Family as Resource
  • Substance Abuse Treatment as Resource to Mothers
    (it may still be protective of children)
  • More voluntary and flexible services
  • Service Quality
  • Foster Family as Recipient of Resources
  • Substance Abuse Treatment as Risk for Mothers (it
    may still be protective of children)
  • More voluntary, flexible, and family focused
    services

69
Summary of Findings Top 20
  • 1. Significant developmental needs of children
    receiving CWS at home are evident across many
    domains and not often addressed, especially among
    young children (US DHHS, 2005, US DHHS, 2003,
    and Stahmer, et al, in press)
  • 2. The diversity in apparent reasons for entering
    care is considerable and does not always include
    severe maltreatment (US DHHS, 2005 and Barth et
    al, in press (a))
  • 3. There is considerable prior CWS
    involvement--this is one of the best predictors
    of many service and developmental outcomes (US
    DHHS, 2005)
  • 4. Mental health problems of mothers are very
    common (US DHHS, 2005)

70
Summary of Findings II
  • 5. Substance abuse among mothers was less common
    than expected (US DHHS, 2005 and Gibbons et al.,
    in press)
  • 6. Domestic violence in families entering CWS is
    frequent, but relatively few placements among
    those cases (US DHHS, 2005, Kohl, et al. in
    press, Kohl et al, in press)
  • 7. Many foster families have incomes at 100 of
    the poverty rate or lower (US DHHS, 2005, US
    DHHS, 2003 Report, and Barth et al., in press
    (b))
  • 8. Large (5 or more children) nonkinship foster
    families are common about 1/3rd of all
    nonkinship homes (US DHHS, 2003, US DHHS, 2005,
    and

71
Summary of Findings III
  • 9. Caregiving environments for children in out of
    home care are generally not stimulating (US DHHS,
    2005 and Barth et al., in press (b))
  • 10. Mental health services to children with
    behavioral problems were fewer than expected,
    given prior research on the extensive cost of
    mental health services to foster children (US
    DHHS, 2005 and Burns, et al., in press)
  • 11. African American children with serious mental
    health problems are served at rates that are
    comparable to white children but African with
    fewer problems get less preventative mental
    health care (Leslie, et al., 2004).
  • 12. Mental health services that are closely
    coordinated with CWS appear to reduce the extent
    of underservice for black children (Hurlburt, et
    al., in press)

72
Summary of Findings IV
  • 13. Almost every relationship between case
    characteristics and services vary significantly
    by the age of the child (US DHHS, 2005, US DHHS,
    2003, Burns et al., in press)
  • 14. Less service use by children in kinship
    careespecially among younger children (US DHHS,
    2003 2005)
  • 15. Caregiver evaluations of CWWs are more
    positive than caregiver evaluation of services
    (US DHHS, 2005, Chapman et al., 2003)
  • 16. Children in out of home care generally (gt80)
    report feeling close to their caregivers (US
    DHHS, 2005, Chapman, et al., 2004) children in
    group care are one important exception.

73
Summary of Findings V
  • 17. Substance abuse and domestic violence by
    caregivers (self-report) are often not known to
    CWWs (US DHHS, 2005, Gibbons Barth., in press
    Hazen, et al., in press)
  • 18. Termination of parental rights almost always
    follows reunification effortsreunification
    bypasses are not common (Barth, Wulczyn, Crea,
    in press).
  • 19. At 18-months, about one-third of children
    are receiving care in multiple care sectors
    (i.e., special education and specialty mental
    health) (Farmer et al., under review)
  • 20. The substantiation status of sexual abuse
    allegations explains service rates more so than
    children's exhibited needs (McCrae, Chapman,
    Christ, in press).

74
References I
  • Barth, R.P., Wildfire, J., Green, R. L. (in
    press (a)). Placement into foster care and the
    interplay Nof urbanicity, child behavior
    problems, and poverty. American Journal of
    Orthopsychiatry.
  • Barth, R. P., Green, R., Wall, A., Webb, M. B.,
    Gibbons, C., Craig, C. D. (in press
    (b)).Characteristics of out-of-home caregiving
    environments provided under child welfare
    services. Child Welfare.
  • Barth, R.P., Wulczyn, F. Crea, T. (in press
    (c)). Adoption from foster care since the
    Adoption and Safe Families Act. Journal of Law
    and Social Policy.
  • Burns, B.J., Phillips, S.D., Wagner, H.R., Barth,
    R.P., Kolko, D.J., Campbell, Y. (2004). Mental
    health need and access to mental health services
    by youth involved with child welfare. Journal of
    the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
    Psychiatry, 43, 960-970.
  • Chapman, M. V., Wall, A., Barth, R.P. (2004).
    Children's voices The perceptions of children in
    foster care. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,
    74(3), 293-304.
  • Chapman, M. V., Gibbons, C, B., Barth, R.P.,
    McCrae, J.S. (2003). Parental views of in-home
    services What predicts satisfaction with child
    welfare workers?, Child Welfare, 82(5), 571-596.
  • Farmer, E.M.Z., Mustillo, S.A., Wagner, H.R.,
    Burns, B.J., Kolko, D.J., Barth, R.P., et al.
    (under review). Multi-sector service use by youth
    in contact with child welfare.
  • Gibbons, C., Barth, R.P. (in press). Prevalence
    of substance abuse among in-home caregivers in a
    U.S. child welfare population Caregiver vs.
    child welfare worker report. Child Abuse
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  • Gibbons, C., Barth, R.P., Martin, S. (under
    review (a)). Characteristics of substance-abusing
    mothers involved with child welfare services.
  • Gibbons, C., Barth, R.P., Martin, S. (under
    review (b)). Substance abusing mothers in child
    welfareWho gets treatment?

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References II
  • Hazen, A., Connelly, C.D., Kelleher, K.,
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  • Hurlburt, M.S., Leslie, L.K., Landsverk, J.,
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  • Kohl, P.L., Barth, R.P., Hazen, A.L.,
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  • Kohl, P.L., Edleson, J.L., English, D.J.,
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    pathways into child welfare services Findings
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  • Leslie, L. K., Hurlburt, M. S., Landsverk, J.,
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  • McCrae, J., Chapman, M. V., Christ, S.L. (in
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  • Stahmer, A.C., Leslie, L. K., Hurlburt, M.,
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  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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  • (2005). National Survey of Child and Adolescent
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  • child welfare services (Baseline Report).
    Washington, DC, ACF, US DHHS.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    Administration for Children and Families (2003).
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    Well-Being Children living for one year in
    foster care. Washington, DC, ACF, US DHHS
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