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Early and Effective Practice Preventing Offending by Young People A Framework for Action 2008 Bill W

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Title: Early and Effective Practice Preventing Offending by Young People A Framework for Action 2008 Bill W


1
Early and Effective Practice Preventing
Offending by Young People A Framework for
Action 2008 Bill Whyte
www.cjsw.ac.uk
2
Early and Effective Practice Dundee, Edinburgh,
Fife, Glasgow South and Renfrewshire.
www.cjsw.ac.uk
3
Early and
Effective Interventionreduced the time taken
between many young people being detected for an
offence and them being engaged10 referrals to
reported (n480)90 engaged within 10 days
greater access to better and improved information
- social work, education, antisocial behaviour
and voluntary sector background
information from range of partners on
behaviour and family circumstances, including
healthA broader range of interventions up to
8 options .
www.cjsw.ac.uk
4
Early and
Effective InterventionSubstantial reduction in
referrals to the Reporter 26 vs 17 nationally
(referrals)23 vs 15 nationally (grounds).
a reduction in the proportion of referrals
resulting in no action. - in Insufficient
evidence to proceed or No indication of a need
for compulsory measures .
www.cjsw.ac.uk
5
Early and
Effective Interventionrelease non-cashable
savingsoperational officers back on patrol more
quicklySCRA free up time to consider more
complex and difficult cases Non-cashable cost
savings are likely to be replicable on a national
basisThe Early and Effective Intervention
process has untapped potential
preparation of an areas audit of local need
contextual information to problem solving .
www.cjsw.ac.uk
6
  • effective early intervention presents the
    greatest opportunities, challenges and greatest
    risks for practitioners and young people.
  • radical non-intervention (Schur, 1973)
  • no order principle Ch (S) Act 1995
  • early preventive intervention - Kilbrandon
  • compulsory measures as a last resort.

www.cjsw.ac.uk
7
  • Prevention - universal provision
  • Early Intervention targeted assistance for
    vulnerability towards offending and other
    problems.
  • Diversion from formal proceedings
  • Intervention only when necessary and at the
    right time and right level.
  • Participation multi-disciplinary and co-ordinated

www.cjsw.ac.uk
8
  • Netwidening
  • - drawn unnecessarily into formal process
    to their detriment.
  • Scarce resources used inappropriately
  • - used unnecessarily to detriment of those
    most risky.

www.cjsw.ac.uk
9
  • Risk Factors
  • Criminal anti-social at an early age
    PLUS
  • Multiple difficulties
  • disruptive and disrupted families
  • social educational difficulties
  • alcohol drug problems
  • ASB, pre-criminal behaviour
  • bullying , aggression, or other violent activity
    with anti social activity
  • the risk of becoming a persistent offender in
    later teens is two to three times higher for
    those first offending under the aged under 12
    than for a young person whose onset of offending
    is later
  • (McGarrell, 2001)
  •                                   

www.cjsw.ac.uk
10
? bullying other children or being the target of
bullies ? exhibiting aggressive behaviour or
being alternately aggressive and withdrawn ?
being truant from school ? being arrested before
age 14 ? belonging to delinquent or violent peer
groups ? abusing alcohol or other drugs ?
engaging in anti-social behaviour, such as
setting fires and treating animals cruelly
(Loeber and Farrington 1998)
  •                                   

www.cjsw.ac.uk
11
  • Overt ASB often well established by start of
    school.
  • Mix of temperamental risk and inexperienced
    vulnerable coercive parenting.
  • Patterson and Yoerger, 1993 1997
  • Pattersons coercion model
  • begins during the toddler stage - transformed
    during pre-school and primary school
  • persistent attention-seeking, non-compliance
    physically aggressive behaviour, fighting,
    antisocial and bullying
  • At School
  • unpopular, withdrawn isolated, rejected
    by 5
  • viewed as anti-social at school
    by 8-10
  • reading age of 11, AS peers, disaffection,
    truancy 11-14
  •                                   

www.cjsw.ac.uk
12
  • Prisoners
  • 13 times more likely to have been in care as a
    child
  • 10 times more likely to have been a regular
    truant from school
  • 13 times more likely to be unemployed
  • 2.5 times more likely to have a family member who
    has been convicted of a criminal offence 6 times
    more likely to have been a young father and
  • 15 times more likely to be HIV positive (Social
    Exclusion Unit, 2002).
  • 80 had the writing skills, 65 the numeracy
    skills and 50 the reading skills of an
    11-year-old
  • 50 of prisoners in Barlinnie prison on the night
    of 30 June 2003 came from home addresses in just
    155 of the 1,222 local government wards Roger
    Houchin (2005)
  •                                   

www.cjsw.ac.uk
13
(No Transcript)
14
  •                                   

McVey and McAra 2009 ESYT
www.cjsw.ac.uk
15
McVey and McAra 2009 ESYT
www.cjsw.ac.uk
16
  • Need/Risk Factors
  • poor parental supervision,
  • harsh and inconsistent discipline,
  • parental conflict, and parental rejection
  • disrupted and broken homes,
  • early separations, both permanent and temporary,
  • criminality in the family
  • Loeber and Stouthamer-Loeber (1986) Farrington,
    (1996).

www.cjsw.ac.uk
17
Early preventive practice universal pick-up
points - health visiting of (all) under-fives
transitions to primary school (5-8) to
secondary school (11-13), preparation for
leaving school (over 15) entering the world of
work.
www.cjsw.ac.uk
18
  • Prevention Early intervention Pick ups
  • Under 5 - persistent attention-seeking,
    non-compliance, physically aggressive behaviour
    HALT 4
  • in-home skills based modelling
  • Age 5-8 isolated unpopular, poor concentration -
    Statutory assessment
  • parent skills programme and individual
    developmental work with child
  • Age 8-11 bullying and anti-social associations
  • As above with greater focus on parental
    supervision, school enhancement, behaviour,
    associations
  • Age 11-14 Literacy, numeracy, personal
    management, ASB, offending
  • As above, structured family work,
  • Age 15 persistent offending
  • multi-systemic family focused work, offence
    focused programmes

.
www.cjsw.ac.uk
19

1 In-home modelling, Behaviour skills programmes,
Functional family work, Educational enhancement
programmes and family conferencing 2
Multi-systemic family work, intensive wrap-around
support, offence focused programmes, drug/alcohol
counselling and restorative practices
www.cjsw.ac.uk
20
  • inability to question or challenge practitioners
  • fears of being judgemental and heavy-handed
  • fears of intervention being forced on them.
    Dumbrill, 2006, p 31). Spratt and Callan (2004)
  • Where family members perceive fewer practical
    barriers, even where a high number of barriers
    may actually be present, their optimism can
    support increased participation
  • (Morawska and Sanders, 2006).

www.cjsw.ac.uk
21
  • Education
  • Poor school performance, low intelligence and
    being seen as troublesome in school at a young
    age are major crime-risk factors
  • The odds of ever committing an offence for those
    who play truant have been reported to be more
    than three times those who have not truanted
    those skipping school once a week or more are
    more likely to admit to offending
  • (Graham and Bowling 1995).

www.cjsw.ac.uk
22
(No Transcript)
23
.
  • Understanding Crime
  • the background of the asb/crime
  • the form
  • the social and moral context
  • the situation

www.cjsw.ac.uk
24
.
.
Referrals by Day and Time of Offence for YP under
15
www.cjsw.ac.uk
www.cjsw.ac.uk
25
.
  • returning home after 10 pm
  • parents only sometimes or never knowing where a
    young person is or with whom
  • those spending little or no quality time with
    parents
  • those spending a lot or quite a lot of time
    hanging around away from home
  • those truanting sometimes or often.

www.cjsw.ac.uk
26
  • Family based initiatives
  • early home visitation provision and pre-school
    education programmes, parent training and
    structured family work
  • combine training in parenting skills, education
    about child development and the factors that
    predispose children to criminal behaviour with
    other approaches such as social and problem
    solving skills for children, pro-active classroom
    management, and peer related programmes for older
    children (ODonnell et al 1995).
  • Multi-dimensional family (FFW, MSFW)
  • avoid arrest - 40 vs. 7 (Barton et al 1985)

.
www.cjsw.ac.uk
27
  • Intensive family intervention projects (FIPs)
    Pawson et al 2009
  • reduced risk of homelessness/eviction 81
  • reduced complaints of antisocial behaviour 94
  • positive change - depression 62, alcohol abuse
    43, educational progress 66
  • intensive family-based interventions are
    essential if the deepest-rooted ASB problems are
    not simply to be recycled from one area to
    another (Home
  • Affairs Select Committee, 2005).

.
www.cjsw.ac.uk
28
  • Intensive family intervention projects (FIPs)
    Pawson et al 2009
  • Antisocial behaviour/respect in home and
    community 14
  • Parenting 14
  • Tenancy management and maintenance of tenancy 12
  • Establishing healthy relationships within the
    family 12
  • Education and maintenance of school attendance 7
  • Condition and suitability of family accommodation
    6
  • Employability and future careers 5
  • Budgeting and financial skills 5
  • Reduce alcohol misuse/dependency 4
  • Raising confidence and self-esteem 3
  • Drug misuse/ dependency 2

.
www.cjsw.ac.uk
29
  • School based initiatives
  • influence the organisation and ethos
  • anti-bullying initiatives
  • family-school partnerships (Mendel 2000).

.
www.cjsw.ac.uk
30
.

.
.
Sports All agree that there are personal and
social development objectives which form part of
a matrix of outcomes. These developments may,
sooner or later, improve offending behaviour, but
their impact is unpredictable in scale and
timing. To expect anything more tangible is
unrealistic (Taylor et al 1999 p.50).
www.cjsw.ac.uk
31
.
  • Early and Effective Practice
  • Housing policy and housing support
  • Neighbourhood and outreach work
  • Community involvement
  • Restorative Practice
  • Direct Family Work
  • Contact Family
  • Contact Person
  • Personal Change programmes
  • Social Opportunities
  • Youth and Family Outreach

.
.
www.cjsw.ac.uk
32
.
  • Effective Communities
  • How to involved the community?
  • What is local practice to be?
  • Will there be a shared understanding of the
    policy objectives?
  • Will practices be based on evaluated evidence on
    the nature of youth crime and anti-social
    behaviour and on what is likely to be effective
    in dealing with it?
  • How will responses be integrated with mainstream
    provision

.
.
www.cjsw.ac.uk
33
.
.
Getting it
Right for Every Child The Whole Child Physical,
social, educational, emotional, spiritual and
psychological development                       
                                                 
www.cjsw.ac.uk
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