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Exploration and Encounters

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Exploration and Encounters. Why would Europeans risk dangerous ocean voyages to ... Conditions were extremely horrible and cramped ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Exploration and Encounters


1
Exploration and Encounters
  • Why would Europeans risk dangerous ocean voyages
    to discover sea routes to other parts of the
    world?

2
Quick Review!
  • Renaissance in Europe 1400s to 1500s
  • New ideas rebirth and development
  • Renewed interest in classical ideas and culture
    (Greece and Rome)
  • Changes in way of thinking
  • Humanism focus on individual instead of group
    life
  • Encouraged people to question the world around
    them

3
Early Exploration
  • In the 1400s Europeans began to make oceanic
    voyages of exploration
  • The Portuguese and Spanish were the first to
    establish global empires in 1500s
  • The Dutch, English and French compete for
    colonies in Asia, Americas and Africa during the
    1600s-1700s
  • Food, people, plants, animals, technology and
    diseases passed from continent to continent

4
Reasons for European Exploration
  • Land routes to Asia were controlled by the
    Ottomans
  • To gain direct access to Asian trade, Portugal
    and Spain looked for new oceanic routes
  • Naval technology such as mapmakers or
    cartographers created better maps and charts
  • Sailors learned to use magnetic compass
    determined direction and the astrolabe was used
    to figure out latitude at sea

5
Early Encounters
  • In 1488, Bartholomew Dias, Portuguese, rounded
    the Cape of Good Hope at the Southern tip of
    Africa
  • A decade later, Vasco da Gama traveled across the
    Indian Ocean to India
  • 1492 Columbus, Financed by Spain, sailed west
    reaching the Islands in the Caribbean Sea Ship!
  • Reasons for exploration were riches and the
    spread of Christianity

6
3 Gs
  • Glory
  • Gold
  • God

7
Europeans Compete for Colonies
  • Domination by one country of the political and/or
    economic life of another country is imperialism
  • Mid-1600s the Dutch arrived in South Africa and
    established Cape Town
  • Spain founded colonies in Southeast Asia and in
    the 1500s in the Americas
  • Many Spanish Conquistadors or conquerors traveled
    to the Americas in search of gold and to spread
    Christianity

8
Exploration and Encounters Part II
  • What were the three reasons for European
    Exploration?

9
Reasons for Spanish success
  • 1.Used armor, horses and powerful weapons-guns
  • 2. Disease brought by the Europeans killed
    millions of Native Americans (small pox)

10
Battle for North America
  • Countries compete for Americas
  • In the 1600s, the French settled in Canada
  • In 1607, the English established Jamestown
    eventually growing into 13 colonies

11
Triangular Trade and Slavery
  • In the 1500s, Europeans used a large number of
    Africans to satisfy the labor shortage on
    American plantation
  • Trade involved Europe, Africa and the Americas
    was Triangular Trade
  • Voyage from Africa to America on slave ships was
    called the Middle Passage Middle Passage
  • Conditions were extremely horrible and cramped
  • By the 1800s when slave trade ended, and 11
    million Africans had been sent to America

12
European Capitalism and Mercantilism
  • Increased trade with colonies led to European
    capitalism- investment of money to make a profit
  • Joint-Stock companies grew
  • (trading companies)
  • mercantilism - is building up national wealth by
    exporting more goods than the nation imports
  • Colonies supplied the parent nation with raw
    materials and served as markets for its exports
    or finished goods

13
European Capitalism and Mercantilism Effects
  • Nobles became less powerful because their wealth
    was based on land
  • A powerful middle class would develop called
    merchants

14
Encomienda System
  • Encomienda System
  • System which allowed Spanish colonies to only
    trade with Spain
  • Everyone had to speak Spanish
  • Social class system

15
Columbian Exchange
  • Worldwide exchange of people, goods,
    technologies, ideas and diseases
  • Named after Christopher Columbus
  • Brought changes worldwide with exchanging goods
    across continents
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