Patterns of Subsistence - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Patterns of Subsistence PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 12a38-NjQ4M


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Patterns of Subsistence


... parts: claws, beaks, feet, skulls, teeth, etc. ... believe Otzi's tattoos were for? ... that Otzi stood over 7 feet tall. (A) True (B) False ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:290
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 38
Provided by: sta5157


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Patterns of Subsistence

Chapter 7
  • Patterns of Subsistence

What Is Adaptation?
  • Adaptation Any change in the structure or
    functioning of an organism that makes it better
    suited to its environment.
  • This process leads to changes in the organisms
    and impacts their environment.
  • The human species adapts biologically and

Adaptation Vs. Acclimatization
  • Adaptation Anything that helps an organism
    survive in its environment which usually occurs
    over several generations.
  • Acclimatization The short-term process of
    adjusting to changes in an environment such as
    shivering for temperature regulation or
    increasing red blood cell counts to acclimatize
    to high altitudes. Usually occurs in one lifetime.

Physical Vs. Behavioral Adaptation
Physical Structural Behavioral Cultural
  • Structural Adaptation Physical features of an
    organism that change to allow an animal to
    survive in its environment.
  • Behavioral (Cultural) Adaptations Things
    organism do to survive in an environment.

Structural Adaptations Camouflage
  • Coloration and protective resemblance allow an
    animal to blend into its environment. 
  • Camouflage makes it hard for enemies to single
    out individuals.  

Structural Mimicry
  • Mimicry allows one animal to look, sound, or act
    like another animal to fool predators into
    thinking it is poisonous or dangerous. 

Monarch Viceroy Poisonous Non-poisonous
Coral snake Red milk snake Poisonous Non-poisono
Structural Coverings, etc
  • The skin covering parts claws, beaks, feet,
    skulls, teeth, etc.
  • The elephants trunk is a physical adaptation
    that helps it to clean itself, eat, drink, and to
    pick things up.

Why we dont all look alike
Bergmanns Rule Within a species the body mass
increases with latitude and colder climate (i.e.,
larger sub-species are found at higher altitudes
or colder climates.
Allens Rule In warm blooded species, the
relative size of exposed portions of the body
decreases with decreases of mean temperature.
Glogers Rule within a species more heavily
pigmented forms tend to be found in more humid
environments (e.g., near the equator most
studied in birds). Caveats Tibetans (high UV
radiation) Inuits (diet high in vitamin D).
Behavioral Adaptation
  • Behavioral adaptations include activities (i.e.,
    actions behavior) that help an animal survive. 
  • Behavioral adaptations can be learned or
  • Instinctive migrating, hibernating, defending
    oneself, etc
  • Learned Obtained by interacting with the
    environment and cannot be passed on to the next
    generation except by teaching.

How Do Humans Adapt Culturally?
  • Through cultural adaptation, humans develop ways
    of doing things that are compatible with the
    resources they have available to them and within
    the limitations of the various habitats in which
    they live.
  • Adaptations may be remarkably stable for long
    periods of time, even thousands of years. - And
    other times it can change quickly (such as
    subsistence patterns).

Human Adaptations
  • Food foraging is a universal type of human
    adaptation and typically involves geographic
    mobility including migration.
  • Adaptations involving domestication of plants and
    animals, began to develop in some parts of the
    world about 10,000 years ago.
  • Horticulture led to more permanent settlements
    while pastoralism required mobility to seek out
    pasture and water.
  • Cities began to develop as early as 5,000 years
    ago in some world regions.

Adaptation in Cultural Evolution
  • Human groups adapt to their environments by means
    of their cultures.
  • Cultural Evolution is the process of cultures
    changing over time.
  • Not all changes turn out to be positive, nor do
    they improve conditions for every member of a
  • Complex, urban societies are not more highly
    evolved than those of food foragers.

(No Transcript)
Convergent Evolution
  • In cultural evolution, convergent evolution is
    the development of similar cultural adaptations
    to similar environmental conditions by different
    peoples with different ancestral cultures.
    similarities are typically explained as the
    result of common adaptive solutions to similar
    environmental pressures.
  • Structures that are the result of convergent
    evolution are called analogous structures or
    homoplasies they are not homologous structures,
    which have a common origin.

Parallel Evolution
  • In cultural evolution, the development of similar
    adaptations to similar environmental conditions
    by peoples whose ancestral cultures were similar.
  • Parallel evolution is the independent evolution
    of similar traits, starting from a similar
    ancestral condition due to similar environments
    or other evolutionary pressures.

Marsupial mammals
Placental mammals
Comanche Cheyenne
  • Commanche Ancestors from highlands of southern
  • foragers, small animals, etc.
  • Limited group size.
  • Social power Shamans
  • Cheyenne Ancestors from woodlands of Great
  • Cultivated crops, gathering
  • Gave up crop cultivation.
  • Plains Indians such as the Comanche and Cheyenne
    developed similar cultures, as they had to adapt
    to similar environmental conditions.

Culture Area
  • This map shows the culture areas defined for
    North and Central America.
  • Cultural Area a geographic region in which a
    number of societies follow similar patterns of

  • A/an ____________ is a geographic region in which
    a number of different societies follow similar
    patterns of life.
  • ecosystem
  • culture core
  • culture type
  • culture area
  • sphere of influence

Question D
  • A/an culture area is a geographic region in which
    a number of different societies follow similar
    patterns of life.

Food Foraging Life Characteristics
  • Move about a great deal.
  • Small size of local groups (usually 100).
  • Carrying Capacity number of people that the
    available resources can support (ecological
  • Density of social relations low number
    intensity of interactions among members higher
    means more opportunities for conflict (social
  • Egalitarian, populations have few possessions and
    share what they have.

  • Which of the following does not correctly
    describe food foraging societies?
  • They are egalitarian.
  • They are small nomadic groups living within a
    fixed territory.
  • They are primitive because they did not progress
    to a higher level.
  • They are not very aggressive or warlike.
  • They live in marginal areas of the world today.

Answer C
  • The following does not correctly describe food
    foraging societies
  • They are primitive because they did not progress
    to a higher level.

Interactions Impacts
  • For 2,000 years, Bushmen have been interacting
    regularly with neighboring farmers and
  • Much of the elephant ivory used for the keyboards
    on pianos so widely sought in 19th-century North
    America came from the Bushmen.

Food Foragers and Population
  • Frequent nursing of children over four or five
    years acts to suppress ovulation among food
    foragers such as Bushmen.
  • As a consequence, women give birth to relatively
    few offspring at widely spaced intervals.

Visual Counterpoint
  • Food foragers such as the Ju/hoansi have a
    division of labor in which women gather and
    prepare bush food (here an ostrich egg omelet)
    and men usually do the hunting processing of
    larger game.

  • The New Stone Age prehistoric period beginning
    about 10,000 years ago in which peoples possessed
    stone-based technologies and depended on
    domesticated plants and/or animals.
  • The first agricultural revolution the
    transition from hunting gathering communities
  • 7-8 separate locales worldwide with the earliest
    in the Middle East around 10,000 ya.
  • http//

Skara Brae Scotland. Mudbricks..
The Fertile Crescent.
Animal Domestication - Regional
  • Southwest Asia This area probably included some
    of the first domesticated dogs, sheep, goats and
  • Central Asia People raised chicken and used
    Bactrian camels for carrying loads in Central
  • Arabia As the name implies, the Arabian camel (a
    one-humped camel, also known as a dromedary)
    originated here.
  • China China was home to early domestication of
    the water buffalo, pigs and dogs.
  • Ukraine People in the area that is now Ukraine
    domesticated the wild tarpan horses that
    historians believe are the ancestors of modern
  • Egypt The donkey came in handy here, as it can
    work hard without much water and vegetation.
  • South America The domesticated llama and alpaca
    came from this continent. Historians believe
    South Americans saved these species from the
    brink of extinction with domestication.

Domestication of the Dog
  • The modern dog evolved from the gray wolf. 1st
    animal to be domesticated.
  • Oldest fossil dog from 14,000 ya although DNA
    suggest much older 15k 100k.
  • Because wolves operate in packs, humans easily
    took the place of the "highest ranking wolf." So
    the animals quickly learned obedience.
  • Domestication caused the development of floppy
    ears, short snouts, spotted coats, highly-set
    tails and even a tendency to bark.

Domesticates in the Archaeological Record
Social Evolution
  • Cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand
    tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
  • slash-and-burn cultivation
  • Also known as swidden farming.
  • An extensive form of horticulture in which the
    natural vegetation is cut, the slash is
    subsequently burned, and crops are then planted
    among the ashes.
  • Also used to raise cattle

Slash-and-Burn Cultivation
  • Reburning an old, overgrown slash-and-burn plot
    in the Amazon forest in Venezuela in preparation
    for new planting.
  • Although it looks destructive, if properly
    carried out, slash-and-burn cultivation is an
    ecologically sound way of growing crops in the

  • Subsistence that relies on raising herds of
    domesticated animals, such as cattle, sheep, and
  • Pastoralists are usually nomadic.

Pastoral Nomads
  • In the Zagros Mountains region of Iran, pastoral
    nomads follow seasonal pastures, migrating with
    their flocks over rugged terrain that includes
    perilously steep snowy passes and fast ice-cold

Locations of Major Early Civilizations
  • Civilizations of Central and South America
    developed independently of those in Africa and
  • Chinese civilization may have developed
    independently of those in Mesopotamia, the
    Egyptian Valley, and the Indus Valley.

Development of Cities
  • Cities developed as intensified agricultural
    techniques created a surplus.
  • Individuals were free to specialize full-time in
    other activities.
  • http//

Otzi Quiz
  • How long ago did Otzi live? (A) 1,000 yrs (B)
    5,000 yrs (C) 10,000 yrs
  • What did Otzi take with him to help him start
    fires on his journey through the Alps?
  • (A) magnesium (B) matches (C) Charcoal
    (D) a lighter
  • Otzi lived in the ____________ age. (A) Bronze
    (B) Copper (C) Stone
  • Evidence suggests that Otzi spent his last hours
    battling before he died.
  • (A) True (B) False
  • The most recent evidence suggest that Otzi and
    his people lived a peaceful, egalitarian
    lifestyle. (A) True (B) False
  • What do scientist believe Otzis tattoos were
  • (A) Religious (B) Kills (C) Health care
    (D) Status
  • It is well established that Otzi stood over 7
    feet tall. (A) True (B) False
  • Otzi was (A) Male (B) Female