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Computer Architecture Lecture Notes Spring 2005 Dr. Michael P. Frank

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Title: Computer Architecture Lecture Notes Spring 2005 Dr. Michael P. Frank


1
Computer Architecture Lecture Notes Spring
2005Dr. Michael P. Frank
  • Competency Area 1
  • Computer System Components
  • Lecture 2

2
ENIAC - background
  • Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
  • Eckert and Mauchly
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Proposed to develop a computer for the
    calculation of Trajectory tables for weapons
    during WWII (Army Ballistics Research Laboratory)
  • Started 1943
  • Finished 1946
  • Too late for war effort
  • Used to help determine feasibility of H-bomb
  • Used until 1955

3
ENIAC - details
  • Decimal (not binary)
  • Its memory contained 20 accumulators of 10
    digits.
  • 10 vacuum tubes represented each digit.
  • Programmed manually by switches
  • 18,000 vacuum tubes
  • 30 tons
  • 1500 square feet
  • 140 kW power consumption
  • 5,000 additions per second

4
von Neumann/Turing
  • Stored Program concept
  • Main memory storing programs and data
  • Turing Machine (Alan Turing) Given enough
    memory and sufficient time the general purpose
    computer can compute all functions that are
    computable.
  • ALU operating on binary data
  • Control unit interpreting instructions from
    memory and executing
  • Input and output equipment operated by control
    unit
  • Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies
  • IAS Computer (major components in a computer
    system)
  • Foundation for general-purpose computer
  • Completed 1952

5
Picture of the IAS Computer
Smithsonian Image 95-06151
6
Structure of von Neumann machine
7
IAS - details
  • 1000 x 40 bit words
  • 1000 storage locations of 40-bit words
  • Binary number
  • 2 x 20 bit instructions
  • Set of registers (storage in CPU)
  • Memory Buffer Register (MBR)
  • Memory Address Register (MAR)
  • Instruction Register (IR)
  • Instruction Buffer Register (IBR)
  • Program Counter (PC)
  • Accumulator (AC)
  • Multiplier Quotient (MQ)

8
Structure of IAS detail
MBR Contains a word to be stored In memory, or is
used to receive a Word from memory.
MAR Specifies the address in memory of the word
to be written from or into MBR
IR Contains the 8-bit opcode instruction being
executed
IBR Temporarily holds the right hand instruction
from a word in memory
PC Contains the address of the next instruction
pair to be fetched from memory
9
IAS - details
  • The IAS computer had 21 instructions which are
    grouped as follows
  • Data Transfer Moves data between memory and ALU
    registers or between two ALU registers
  • Unconditional Branch Changes the sequence of
    instructions to execute repetitive operations
  • Conditional Branch The branch can be made
    dependent on a condition, thus, allowing decision
    points.
  • Arithmetic Operations performed by the ALU
  • Address /modify Permits addresses to be
    computed in the ALU and then inserted into
    instructions stored in memory.

10
Commercial Computers
  • 1947 Eckert-Mauchly developed their own
    Computer Corporation
  • UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer)
  • Designed to perform mainly scientific
    calculations (e.g. US Bureau of Census 1950
    calculations)
  • Became part of Sperry-Rand Corporation
  • Late 1950s - UNIVAC II
  • Faster
  • More memory

11
IBM
  • Punched-card processing equipment
  • 1953 - the 701
  • IBMs first stored program computer
  • Scientific calculations
  • 1955 - the 702
  • Business applications
  • Lead to 700/7000 series

12
Transistors
  • The second generation of technology Transistors
    replaced vacuum tubes
  • Smaller
  • Cheaper
  • Less heat dissipation
  • Solid State device
  • Made from Silicon (Sand)
  • Invented 1947 at Bell Labs
  • William Shockley et al.
  • Discrete components

13
Transistor Based Computers
  • Second generation machines
  • More complex arithmetic and logic units
  • Incorporated the use of high-level programming
    languages
  • Also used system software with machines (e.g.
    operating systems)
  • NCR RCA produced small transistor machines
  • IBM 7000 Series
  • Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) - 1957
  • Produced PDP-1 which began the minicomputer
    phenomenon

14
Transistors
Computer Generations
15
Microelectronics
  • Up to this point, computers were manufactured
    using discrete components which was becoming more
    expensive and cumbersome as computers continued
    to improve in performance.
  • Microelectronics dominated the next generation of
    computers.
  • Literally - small electronics
  • A computer is made up of gates, memory cells and
    interconnections
  • These can be manufactured on a semiconductor
  • e.g. silicon wafer

16
Generations of Computer
  • Vacuum tube - 1946-1957
  • Transistor - 1958-1964
  • Small scale integration - 1965 on
  • Up to 100 devices on a chip
  • Medium scale integration - to 1971
  • 100-3,000 devices on a chip
  • Large scale integration - 1971-1977
  • 3,000 - 100,000 devices on a chip
  • Very large scale integration - 1978 to date
  • 100,000 - 100,000,000 devices on a chip
  • Ultra large scale integration
  • Over 100,000,000 devices on a chip

17
Moores Law
  • As microelectronics grew in the computer
    industry, an increase in the density of
    components on chip became evident.
  • Gordon Moore - cofounder of Intel
  • Gordons Observation Number of transistors on a
    chip will double every year.
  • Since 1970s development has slowed a little
  • Number of transistors doubles every 18 months
  • Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged
  • Higher packing density means shorter electrical
    paths, giving higher performance
  • Smaller size gives increased flexibility
  • Reduced power and cooling requirements
  • Fewer interconnections increases reliability

18
Moores Law
  • Formal Consequences of Moores Law
  • Cost of chip has remained relatively stable
    during a period of rapid growth in density. This
    implies the cost of computer logic and memory
    circuitry has fallen at a drastic rate.
  • Because logic and memory elements are placed
    closer together on more densely packed chips, the
    electrical path length is shortened, increasing
    operating speeds.
  • The computer becomes smaller, making it more
    convenient to placed in a variety of
    environments.
  • There is a reduction in power and cooling
    requirements.
  • The interconnections on the integrated circuit
    are much more reliable than solder connections.
    With more circuitry on each chip, there are fewer
    interchip connections.

19
Growth in CPU Transistor Count
20
IBM 360 series
  • Introduced in 1964
  • Replaced ( not compatible with) 7000 series
  • First planned family of computers
  • Similar or identical instruction sets
  • Similar or identical O/S
  • Increasing speed
  • Increasing number of I/O ports (i.e. more
    terminals)
  • Increased memory size
  • Increased cost
  • Multiplexed switch structure
  • The introduction of this family cemented IBM as a
    world leader in computer manufacturing industry.

21
Picture of IBM 360
22
DEC PDP-8
  • Also introduced in 1964
  • First minicomputer
  • Did not need room w. A/C
  • Small, could sit on a lab bench
  • Relatively cheap 16,000
  • Compared to 100k for IBM 360
  • Embedded applications Original Equipment
    Manufacturers (OEM) allowed users to buy PDP-8
    machines and integrate them into a total system
    for resale.
  • BUS STRUCTURE

23
DEC - PDP-8 Bus Structure
  • Highly flexible
  • All systems share a common set of signal paths
  • Allows other modules to be plugged into the bus
  • to create various configurations

24
Intel
  • 1971 - 4004
  • First microprocessor
  • Whole CPU on a single chip
  • 4 bit
  • Followed in 1972 by 8008
  • 8 bit
  • Both for specific applications
  • 1974 - 8080
  • Intels first general purpose microprocessor

25
Speeding it up
  • Pipelining
  • On board cache
  • On board L1 L2 cache
  • Branch prediction
  • Data flow analysis
  • Speculative execution

26
Pentium Evolution (1)
  • 8080
  • first general purpose microprocessor
  • 8 bit data path
  • Used in first personal computer Altair
  • 8086
  • much more powerful
  • 16 bit
  • instruction cache, prefetch few instructions
  • 8088 (8 bit external bus) used in first IBM PC
  • 80286
  • 16 Mbyte memory addressable
  • up from 1Mb
  • 80386
  • 32 bit
  • Support for multitasking

27
Performance
1970s Processors
28
Performance
1980s Processors
29
Performance
1990s Processors
30
Performance
Recent Processors
31
Performance Mismatch
  • Processor speed increased
  • Memory capacity increased
  • Memory speed lags behind processor speed!!

32
DRAM and Processor Characteristics
33
Pentium Evolution (2)
  • 80486
  • sophisticated powerful cache and instruction
    pipelining
  • built in maths co-processor
  • Pentium
  • Superscalar
  • Multiple instructions executed in parallel
  • Pentium Pro
  • Increased superscalar organization
  • Aggressive register renaming
  • branch prediction
  • data flow analysis
  • speculative execution

34
Pentium Evolution (3)
  • Pentium II
  • MMX technology
  • graphics, video audio processing
  • Pentium III
  • Additional floating point instructions for 3D
    graphics
  • Pentium 4
  • Note Arabic rather than Roman numerals
  • Further floating point and multimedia
    enhancements
  • Itanium
  • 64 bit
  • See Intel web pages for detailed information on
    processors

35
Intel Itanium 2 (McKinley)
  • 64b Processor
  • 221 million transistors! (US adult
    population)
  • How are they used?
  • What will we do as transistor counts
    continue to grow?
  • Most of chip is used for memories, inst.
    decoding, dynamic scheduling
  • Why is it done this way?
  • How much more efficient could it be if more
    of area went to actual processing?

36
Even More Recent Example
  • Runs 64-bit IA-64 ISA
  • Die 3.74 cm2
  • .13µ process
  • 410M transistors
  • 1.5GHz core
  • 1.3V logic
  • 130W powerconsumption!
  • 6.4GB/s bus
  • Cost 2,247- 4,226
  • 9MB L3 cache later this year

37
Internet Resources
  • http//www.williamstallings.com
  • Computer Organization and Architecture
  • http//www.intel.com/
  • Search for the Intel Museum
  • http//www.ibm.com
  • http//www.dec.com
  • Charles Babbage Institute
  • PowerPC
  • Intel Developer Home
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