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The forest products value chain:

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The Sustainable Forest Products Industry Project of the ... Burning Fossil. Fuels. and. Cement. Manufacture. 1.7 Gt/yr. Land Use Change. 1.9 Gt/yr. Land Uptake ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The forest products value chain:


1
The forest products value chain Energy and
Climate Change
A Discussion Sponsored by The Sustainable
Forest Products Industry Project of the World
Business Council for Sustainable
Development (WBCSD) and The International
Council of Forest and Paper Associations (ICFPA)
2
Overview of The Forest Products Industry Value
Chain and the Global Carbon Cycle and The
Climate Change-Related Issues Faced by the
Forest-Based Industry Presented by Reid Miner,
NCASI
3
What is the Forest-Based Industry Value Chain?
  • Value Chain Elements
  • Forestry
  • Manufacturing
  • Transport
  • Product Use
  • Recycling
  • Other End-of-Life Uses
  • Product Disposal
  • Value Chain Attributes
  • Carbon Cycle
  • Recycling
  • Biomass-based
  • Substitution effects
  • Economic Social benefits

4
Why a Value Chain Perspective?
  • Allows a holistic examination of impacts and
    opportunities
  • Provides insights that can be important to public
    policy
  • Is required to properly understand sustainability
  • The climate change issue is part of the larger
    challenge of sustainable development. As a
    result, climate policies can be more effective
    when consistently embedded within broader
    strategies designed to make national and regional
    and corporate development paths more
    sustainable. (IPCC 2001)

5
The Forest Products Industry Value Chain and
the Connections to the Climate Change Issue
  • First, an overview of the current situation
  • Then some of the issues faced by the forest-based
    industry

6
Sequestration of carbon in forests and forest
products
  • The forest-based industry is intimately connected
    to the global carbon cycle
  • Some background

7
(No Transcript)
8
Major Carbon Stocks IPCC 2001
Atmosphere
730 Gt C
Terrestrial
Oceans
2,300 Gt C
38,000 Gt C
9
Major Carbon Stocks and Gross Annual Carbon
Flows IPCC 2001
Atmosphere
730 Gt C
90 Gt/yr
120 Gt/yr
120 Gt/yr
90 Gt/yr
Terrestrial
Oceans
2,300 Gt C (1200 in Forests)
38,000 Gt C
10
Relatively Small Net Annual Fluxes are Causing
Increases in Atmospheric CO2 IPCC 2001
Atmosphere
1.7 Gt/yr Land Use Change
5.4 Gt/yr
1.9 Gt/yr
1.9 Gt/yr Land Uptake
Burning Fossil Fuels and Cement Manufacture
Terrestrial
Oceans
11
Changes in Global Forest Carbon Stocks (IPCC
1996, 2000, 2001)
  • Forest carbon stocks are generally stable or
    increasing in middle and high latitudes.
  • Forest carbon stocks appear to be declining in
    the tropics, but estimates are uncertain.

12
Carbon Stored in Forest Products
  • Carbon in forest products
  • removed from atmosphere in the forest
  • remains sequestered during product use
  • Forest Product carbon pool growing
  • recent estimate 0.04 Gt C yr-1, (IPCC 2003)
  • Forest Product carbon pool will continue to grow
    for a long time
  • long times-in-use for many products
  • slow decomposition in landfills
  • increasing standards of living

13
Estimating Carbon Stored in Forest Products
  • National Inventories
  • IPCCs 2003 Good Practice Guidance for Land Use,
    Land-Use Change and Forestry - Appendix 3a.1
  • Corporate or Value Chain Inventories
  • ICFPA Tools being developed
  • Based on the 100-Year Method
  • Will be reviewed for use under WRI/WBCSD GHG
    Protocol

14
Manufacturing Emissions of GHGs
  • Global forest products industry direct emissions
  • 0.072 Gt C yr-1
  • Approximately 1.3 of global C emissions
  • Global indirect emissions more uncertain
  • Indirect emissions from purchased power are
    perhaps 50 to 75 of direct emissions
  • The forest-based industrys GHG profile benefits
    from
  • Extensive use of biomass for energy
  • Extensive use of Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

15
Benefits from Biomass Fuels and CHP
  • The forest products industry derives more of its
    energy from biomass than any other industry
  • Approximately 50 of energy requirements in OECD
    countries
  • The pulp and paper industry is among the leaders
    in using CHP systems
  • Reduces fuel requirements, including fossil fuels
  • Often powered by biomass fuels
  • In many countries, CHP systems supply more than
    1/2 of electricity needed by pulp and paper mills

16
Estimating Manufacturing Emissions of GHGs
  • Pulp and paper mill calculation tools
  • ICFPA/NCASI calculation tools
  • Accepted for use under WRI/WBCSD GHG Protocol
  • Solid wood products manufacturing calculation
    tools
  • Developed for AFPA and FPAC by NCASI
  • Being reviewed by WRI/WBCSD for use under the GHG
    Protocol

17
So we see that the carbon profile of the
forest-based industry consists of
  • Carbon in the forest
  • Carbon in products
  • Biomass energy
  • Carbon recycled, beneficially used, disposed
  • Manufacturing emissions
  • Indirect emissions
  • Other emissions along the Value Chain

18
Issues for the Forest-Based Industry
19
Carbon Sequestration Issues
  • 1. The Productivity - Sequestration connection
  • Higher forest productivity Reduced footprint
  • Higher productivity Cost competitive
    carbon-sequestering products that can displace
    more GHG-intensive alternatives
  • 2. Dangers of emphasizing forest sequestration
  • Leakage of benefits
  • Misses importance of other value chain effects
  • Makes carbon-intensive substitutes more
    attractive
  • Carbon storage in the forest probably saturates
    more quickly than storage in forest products

20
Carbon Sequestration Issues
  • 3. Managing for multiple objectives
  • Developing tools that allow the cost of carbon
    and other environmental attributes to be
    reflected in forest management decisions
  • 4. Integrating carbon into corporate
    sustainability
  • Connection to sustainable forestry
  • Impacts on industrys ability to provide economic
    and social benefits to rural communities and
    other stakeholders

21
Biomass Fuel Issues
  • 1. Competition for fiber
  • Market-distorting public policies
  • Many non-carbon benefits accrue when fiber is
    used as a feedstock rather than fuel
  • Unintended substitution effects
  • 2. Need policies that encourage additional supply
    of virgin and recovered fiber

22
Manufacturing GHG Issues
  • 1. Opportunities for improved efficiencies
  • Incentives
  • 2. Regulatory and market barriers to increased
    use of CHP and export of electricity
  • 3. The costs to achieve GHG reductions
  • 4. Changing fuel costs
  • 5. Different types of mills have different
    opportunities
  • 6. Must consider the turnover of capital

23
Value Chain GHG Issues
  • 1. Net effects of forest management on emissions
    from the forest
  • 2. Indirect emissions can be significant
  • Purchased power, transportation, energy-intensive
    raw materials
  • Opportunities for partnering or process changes
    to achieve reductions
  • 3. End-of-life emissions from forest products
  • The complicated effects of recycling
  • Less organic waste is going to landfills
  • Biomass fuel from landfill methane and
    non-recyclable paper

24
Substitution Effects Issues
  • 1. Over the long term, substitution effects are
    very important
  • Often greater than sequestration
  • Most substitution effects are permanent
  • Building products as an example
  • 2. Some substitution effects are understood
  • 3. In many cases, however, a better understanding
    is needed

25
Many issues to discuss
  • Sequestration of carbon in forests and products
  • Manufacturing emissions of greenhouse gases
  • Biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels
  • Combined heat and power
  • Value chain emissions of greenhouse gases
  • Choices between products based on GHG-intensity
    and climate concerns (substitution effects)

26
Closing Observations
  • The globes population is growing while
    standards-of-living are increasing
  • An examination of the value chain suggests that
    the forest-based industry can help meet this
    global sustainability challenge.
  • The industry has the opportunity to provide
    products that
  • provide carbon and other environmental benefits
  • provide a range of economic and social benefits
  • support rural economies
  • But a range of issues must be addressed
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