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Community of Inquiry: Framework for Blended Learning Design

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Title: Community of Inquiry: Framework for Blended Learning Design


1
Community of Inquiry Framework for Blended
Learning Design
  • Dr. Randy Garrison
  • Dr. Norm Vaughan

2
Outline
  • Blended learning
  • Community of inquiry framework
  • Institutional leadership
  • Scenarios and student perceptions of blended
    learning
  • Teaching presence principles, guidelines,
    strategies

3
Reflecting on Blended Learning
?
?

Blended Learning
?
?
4
Blended Learning Your Thoughts
  • Definition?
  • Advantages?
  • Challenges?

5
Blended Learning
  • The U of Calgary defines blended learning as a
    blending of campus and online educational
    experiences for the express purpose of enhancing
    the quality of the learning experience.
  • Blended learning is seen as an opportunity to
    fundamentally redesign how we approach teaching
    and learning in ways that higher education
    institutions may benefit from increased
    effectiveness, convenience and efficiency.
  • At the heart of blended learning redesign is the
    goal to engage students in critical discourse and
    reflection.
  • The goal is to create dynamic and vital
    communities of inquiry where students take
    responsibility to construct meaning and confirm
    understanding through active participation in the
    inquiry process.

6
Community
  • … community means meaningful association,
    association based on common interest and
    endeavor. The essence of community is
    communication, …
  • (John Dewey)

7
Educational Community
  • … we have at our disposal one of the greatest
    vehicles for … community building known to
    humankind the one called education.
  • Palmer, 2002

8
Inquiry
  • Is problem or question driven
  • Typically has a small-group feature
  • Includes critical discourse
  • Is frequently multi-disciplinary
  • Incorporates research methods such as information
    gathering and synthesis of ideas

9
Community Of Inquiry
  • The importance of a community of inquiry is that,
    while the objective of critical reflection is
    intellectual autonomy, in reality, critical
    reflection is thoroughly social and communal.
  • Lipman, 1991

10
Community of Inquiry Framework
Social Presence The ability of participants in a
community of inquiry to project themselves
socially and emotionally as real people
(i.e., their full personality), through the
medium of communication being used.
Cognitive Presence The extent to which learners
are able to construct and confirm meaning
through sustained reflection and discourse in a
critical community of inquiry.
Teaching Presence The design, facilitation and
direction of cognitive and social processes for
the purpose of realizing personally meaningful
and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.
11
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12
CoI Categories/Indicators
13
Social Presence
  • Social presence is defined here as the ability of
    participants to project themselves socially and
    purposefully within a community of inquiry.
  • Effect of medium not most salient factor
    (contrary to Short, et al., 1976)

14
SP Categories
  • Open Communication
  • Group Cohesion
  • Affective Expression

15
Questions
  • Have we placed too much emphasis on social
    presence (SP) in supporting online and blended
    communities of inquiry??
  • Is SP a required precursor to cognitive presence?

16
Nature of a CoI?
  • Learning space or social space?
  • Their use of the medium was functional,
    organized, time-driven, and carefully evaluated.
    (Conrad, 2002)
  • Manage pathological politeness
  • Build community judiciously (takes time)

17
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18
Cognitive Presence
  • Extent to which participants critically reflect,
    (re)construct meaning, and engage in discourse
    for the purpose of sharing meaning and confirming
    understanding.

19
Practical Inquiry Model (Adapted from Garrison
Archer, 2000)
20
Teaching Presence
  • The design, facilitation, and direction of
    cognitive and social processes for the purpose of
    realizing personally meaningful and educationally
    worthwhile learning outcomes.

21
TP Categories
  • Design Organization
  • Facilitation
  • Direct Instruction

22
CoI Framework
  • What is the role of teaching presence? How
    essential is TP?
  • Do we over-emphasize teaching presence?

23
How Essential?
  • The body of evidence is growing rapidly attesting
    to the importance of teaching presence for
    successful online learning …
  • The consensus is that teaching presence is a
    significant determinate of student satisfaction,
    perceived learning, and sense of community.

24
University of Calgary Context
25
Why Blended Learning?
  • New approaches to teaching (change culture)
  • Enhance student learning
  • Maximize institutional resources
  • Access convenience

26
Strategic Challenges
  • Awareness and understanding of inquiry and
    blended learning
  • Student orientation (resistance)
  • Commitment to fundamental redesign
  • Strategic plan covering all four undergraduate
    years
  • Teaching-research imbalance

27
History of BL at U of C
  • Institutional Learning Plan
  • Blended Learning Position Paper
  • Link to inquiry based learning
  • Raising Awareness
  • Steve Sorg, UCF (2002)
  • Carol Twigg, NCAT (2004)
  • Curtis Bonk, Indiana University (2005)
  • Peter Bullen Peter Chatterton, University of
    Hertfordshire (2006)
  • Grant program

28
LEADERSHIP
  • What are the leadership characteristics we need
    in higher education?

29
Leadership Characteristics
  • Vision
  • insightful
  • knowledgeable
  • Courage
  • decisiveness
  • integrity
  • Personal attributes
  • focus on organization not self
  • recognize talent
  • open, willingness to listen
  • accountable

30
Vision
Judgment
Credibility
LEADER-SHIP
Personal Skills/Values
Courage
Authenticity
RESULTS
Transformational Leaders
31
Leadership Constraints
  • Collegiality consensus
  • Governance model
  • Loyalty to discipline silos
  • Morale budget cuts
  • Conception selection of leaders

32
What We Did
  • Draft policy, set priorities
  • Provide incentives/financial support
  • Strategic selection of prototypes focus on
    limited number of prototypes the first year
  • Single POP for support, quality assurance, and
    project management
  • Mandatory participation in ITBL 401
  • Study and evaluate all projects/developments
  • Create a task group to address issues,
    challenges, opportunities and communicate to
    community

33
IBL Program
  • Faculty apply for course redesign grants (10,000
    with one 30,000 grant for a major course
    redesign)
  • Proposal reviews and selections are made by the
    Inquiry Learning Action Group
  • Teaching Learning Centre provides course
    redesign consultation and support (define course
    goals and expectations, redesign learning
    activities and assessment assignments, adapt and
    develop online tools, evaluate implementation,
    and disseminate results)

34
Innovation Redesign
  • Preference will be for applications that
    demonstrate true innovation in teaching and
    learning through inquiry and blended learning
    approaches
  • Enhance the quality of teaching and learning
    (e.g., increased discourse collaboration)

35
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36
Inquiry Through BL Program
  • Program planning began in 2002 virtual
    participation in the University of Central
    Floridas - Interactive Distributed Learning for
    Technology Mediated Course Delivery (IDL6543)
  • Development of the Inquiry through Blended
    Learning (ITBL) Program in 2004

37
Inquiry Through Blended Learning
  • Support Program
  • Orientation course redesign guide and initial
    meeting with representatives from the Teaching
    Learning Centre, Information Technologies and the
    Library
  • Faculty community of inquiry blending of face
    to face luncheon meetings with online learning
    activities to support project development
  • Project team meetings Teaching Learning
    Centre consultant with faculty, graduate students
    and staff involved in each specific project

38
Campus Wide Support
  • Blended learning workshop series
  • Individual and group consultation (e.g.
    departmental workshops)
  • Presentations by external experts
  • Handbook for Blended Learning Online Study
    Group
  • Tip Sheets 2 page handouts on blended learning
    topics
  • ITBL Resource Wiki

39
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40
Question
  • Is there a typical blended learning course
    design?
  • What does a blended learning course look like?

41
Scenario One Large Enrollment Course
  • Introductory Micro and Macroeconomics
  • Goal to increase
  • student engagement with course material outside
    of class time
  • opportunities to apply theory to practical
    problems
  • access and quality of tutorial resources
  • Solution
  • Replacement of scheduled classroom tutorials with
    interactive online tutorials and assignments
    (Blackboard with links to Aplia.com)

42
Scenario Two Medium Enrollment Course
  • International Development Studies
  • Goal to increase
  • Student peer interaction and critical dialogue
    during class time
  • Solution
  • Lectures replaced by Macromedia Breeze
    presentations (narrated PowerPoint with embedded
    videos and self-assessments) accessed outside of
    class time within the Blackboard learning
    management system
  • Class time used exclusively for group work (60
    students - 20 meet on Monday, 20 meet on
    Wednesday and 20 on Friday)

43
Scenario Three Seminar Course
  • Child and Youth Health Promotion in Schools
  • Goal to increase
  • Course scheduling flexibility
  • Exposure to diverse perspectives
  • Solution
  • Weekend course workshops
  • Virtual presentations by online guests through
    the Elluminate Live! system and related
    discussions hosted within the Blackboard
    learning management system

44
Advantages and Challenges
45
ITBL Student Survey - Overview
  • Winter 2006 - 9 courses
  • 241 completed paper-based surveys
  • 76 return rate
  • 50 first yr
  • 78 female
  • Average age 21.4 yrs

46
ITBL Student Survey - Advantages
  • Interaction - amount
  • With other students
  • 77.6 increased 15.8 nd
  • group work was primary reason
  • With instructor
  • 55.2 increased 27.4 nd
  • accessibility was primary reason

47
ITBL Student Survey - Advantages
  • Interaction quality
  • With other students
  • 68.9 increased 25.3 nd
  • group work and discussions were primary reasons
  • With instructor
  • 58.5 increased 27.8 nd
  • accessibility was primary reason

48
ITBL Student Survey Advantages
  • Most effective aspects of ITBL courses
  • group work
  • discussions face to face and online
  • increased interaction with other students and
    instructors
  • online resources
  • greater flexibility
  • self directed learning opportunities
  • application of learning
  • variety of assignments and methods of assessment
  • integration of online and in-class learning

49
ITBL Student Survey Challenges
  • Least effective aspects of ITBL courses
  • 48 indicated that they were satisfied with this
    ITBL course
  • 45 indicated that given the opportunity they
    would take another ITBL course in the future
  • 19 indicated that ITBL courses are sufficiently
    identified and expectations made clear in the U
    of C course calendar.

50
ITBL Student Survey Challenges
  • Least effective aspects of ITBL courses
  • lack of clear course expectations, organization,
    structure and direction
  • online component
  • increased workload
  • poor or lack of communication
  • technological glitches and problems

51
Teaching Presence
52
PRINCIPLES STRATEGIES
  • Structure
  • Design
  • social presence
  • cognitive presence
  • Facilitation
  • social presence
  • cognitive presence
  • Direction
  • social presence
  • cognitive presence

53
DESIGN Social Presence
  • Principle Plan to establish a climate that will
    create a community of inquiry.
  • Social presence supports purposeful collaboration
    and a questioning predisposition.
  • Strategy small group introductions
  • Technique?

54
DESIGN Cognitive Presence
  • Principle Plan for critical reflection and
    discourse and tasks that will support systematic
    inquiry.
  • The design of academic activities have a
    significant impact on how students approach
    learning
  • Strategy include collaborative activities
    discuss CP (metacognition)
  • Technique?

55
FACILITATION SP
  • Principle Establish community by shifting to
    purposeful, collaborative communication.
  • The challenge here is to maintain and enhance
    group cohesion
  • Strategy support collaboration
  • Technique?

56
FACILITATION CP
  • Principle Encourage and support the progression
    of inquiry through to resolution.
  • Facilitation is essential to keep the discourse
    on track and ensure that inquiry evolves.
  • Strategy focus discussion and move to
    resolution
  • Technique?

57
DIRECT INSTRUCTION - SP
  • Principle Manage collaborative relationships to
    support students to assume responsibility and
    sustain community.
  • Direct instruction can increase confidence and
    respect by managing potential conflict
  • Strategy focus on goals
  • Technique?

58
DIRECT INSTRUCTION - CP
  • Principle Ensure that discourse moves to
    resolution and metacognitive awareness results.
  • The primary role for direct instruction is to
    ensure that discourse and reflection achieve HOL
    outcomes.
  • Strategy review inquiry model
  • Technique?

59
ASSESSMENT
  • Principle Ensure assessment is congruent with
    intended learning outcomes.
  • Assessment will inevitably shape how students
    approach the educational experience.
  • Strategy assess HOL
  • Technique?

60
Summary
  • Design
  • plan for social and cognitive presence
  • Facilitation
  • establish social and cognitive presence
  • Direct Instruction
  • sustain progressive development of social and
    cognitive presence

61
CONCLUSION
  • Questions
  • http//tlc.ucalgary.ca/teaching/programs/itbl/

62
BLENDED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION D. R.
Garrison N. Vaughan Jossey-Bass
63
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