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Other Marine Plants and Their Ecosystems

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http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/guide/P-58.gif. Kelp Forests. Found in cold regions ... inconspicuous flowers. Form dense seagrass beds. Extensive distributions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Other Marine Plants and Their Ecosystems


1
Other Marine Plants and Their Ecosystems
  • October 2, 2007

2
Seaweed
  • Multicellular algae - not a true plant
  • Types of Seaweed
  • Green Algae (Chlorophytes)
  • Brown Algae (Phaeophyta)
  • Red Algae (Rhodophyta)

3
Green Algae (Chlorophyta)
  • Many unicellular - belong to the plankton
  • Multicellular green algae can only live shallow -
    why?
  • Most multicellular forms are filamentous
  • Thrive in shallow rocky intertidal areas

http//mari-biotech.nstl.gov.cn/MirrorResources/19
66/chlamy.gif
http//www.seaweedsofalaska.com/species.asp?Seawee
dID13
4
Caulerpa
Ulva (Sea Lettuce)
Codium (Dead Mans Fingers)
http//www.smbaykeeper.org/images/site_images/caul
erpa.jpg
http//www.msc.ucla.edu/oceanglobe/specimenphotogr
aphs/Plants/Chlorophyta/Codium.jpg
5
Brown Algae (Phaeophyta)
  • Has pigment fucoxanthin - gives phaeophyta a
    brown/olive green color
  • Can live deeper than green algae
  • Includes all kelps
  • Important in structuring the kelp bed and kelp
    forest ecosystems

6
Brown Algae (Phaeophyta)
  • Parts of a Kelp Plant
  • Holdfast
  • Stipe
  • Blade
  • Pneumatocyst (Float)

7
http//www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/postelsia_p
almaeformis.jpg
http//seaotter.com/marine/research/egregia/menzie
sii/html/menziesii.jpg.html
http//www.westnurc.uaf.edu/anagisa/pictures.html
Fucus (Rockweeds)
Nereocystis (Bullwhip Kelp)
Postelsia (Sea Palm)
Egregia (Feather Boa)
8
Kelps
  • Laminaria
  • Form kelp beds (no surface canopy)
  • Macrocystis (Giant Kelp)
  • May reach 100 m and grow up to 50 cm/day
  • Structures the massive kelp forests

http//www.ifm-geomar.de/fileadmin/ifm-geomar/allg
emein/avillwock/meeresonline/bromoform2.jpg
http//ucjeps.berkeley.edu/guide/P-58.gif
9
Kelp Forests
  • Found in cold regions
  • Very high productivity ecosystems

10
Kelp Forests
11
Red Algae (Rhodophyta)
  • Contain accessory pigments called phycobilins
    that mask chlorophyll
  • Most are filamentous, but some have coralline
    forms (incorporate calcium carbonate into tissues)

Porphyra
Corallina
Endocladia
http//biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_203/Images
/Protists/porphyra.gif
http//www.seaweedsofalaska.com/photos/seaweed/End
ocladia_muricata_2.JPG
http//bio.classes.ucsc.edu/bio161/KFE20algae20p
hotos/Corallina
12
Life History of Seaweed
13
Economic Importance of Seaweed
  • Food
  • Products
  • Algin (extracted from kelp)
  • Used as a thickener and emulsifier in ice cream,
    cosmetics, and many other products
  • Carrageenan (extracted from red algae)
  • Thickens many dairy products
  • Agar (extracted from red algae)
  • Used in jellies and some pharmaceuticals

14
True Marine Plants (Angiosperms)
  • Seagrasses
  • Salt Marshes
  • Mangroves

15
Seagrasses
  • 50-60 species
  • Roots, stems, and leaves grow from horizontal
    rhizomes
  • Small and inconspicuous flowers
  • Form dense seagrass beds
  • Extensive distributions
  • Important as nurseries

http//www.nps.gov/archive/bisc/resource/images/se
agrass.jpg
16
Seagrasses
17
Salt Marshes
  • Ecosystems dominated by cord grasses
  • Not marine plants - terrestrial plants that are
    tolerant to salt
  • Require soft sediment and plenty of oxygen

Spartina
18
Salt Marshes
  • Very high productivity but low diversity
  • Important contribution to marine food web
  • Nursery area and habitats for many endangered
    species and migratory birds
  • Zonation
  • Lower limits set by physical stress
  • Upper limits set by competition

19
Mangroves
  • Wetlands occupied by woody, salt-tolerant
    mangrove trees (with representatives in 16
    different plant families)
  • Occur in tropical coastal areas (temperatures
    greater than 20C, latitudes less than 30)
  • Important as an input of nutrients and as
    nurseries for marine fish

20
(No Transcript)
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