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Biotechnology Applications

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Know the entire human genome at base pair level. Use sequences to study a ... as hepatitus B and factors which interfere with bacteria that cause tooth decay ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biotechnology Applications


1
Biotechnology Applications
  • By
  • Diana L. Duckworth
  • Rustburg High School
  • Campbell County

2
Uses of in vitro DNA
  • DNA sequencing of base pairs
  • Many organisms have been sequenced
  • Human Genome Project
  • Know the entire human genome at base pair level
  • Use sequences to study a number of issues
  • Address questions of evolution by comparing
    differences and similarities in DNA greater
    similarity, more closely related
  • Study function of different genes how they are
    regulated important with regard to gene therapy
  • Ethical issues Should one be able to patent a
    gene?
  • Example high cholesterol tolerance in Italian
    population who has the right to that gene its
    products?

3
More in vitro applications
  • Diagnosis of disease
  • HIV in earliest stages
  • Identify harmful alleles through gel
    electrophoresis
  • DNA fingerprinting
  • Paternity tests
  • Identification of criminals

4
Applications of in vivo DNA cloning
  • Gene therapy
  • Vector cells such as viruses used to produce
    recombinant DNA containing gene a normal allele
    from donor
  • Used to infect in vitro bone marrow cells (stem
    cells) from individual with genetic defect
  • Cells are then reintroduced into patient
  • Begin to produce normal proteins to combat the
    disease
  • Human trials in SCID (immune deficiency disease)
  • 9/10 showed improvement
  • 2 later developed leukemia as a result trials
    suspended

5
More in vivo applications
  • Pharmaceutical products
  • Bacteria such as E. coli as the host organism
    contain gene for human insulin
  • The gene is transcribed by the bacteria producing
    insulin
  • Can be produced in industrial environment to
    produce insulin for use by diabetics
  • Other pharmaceutical products
  • human growth hormone and
  • Tissue plasminogin activator or TPA (combats
    blood clots causing heart attacks
  • Vaccines protein that stimulates immune response
    is produced by genetic engineering just as other
    pharmaceutical products

6
More in vivo applications
  • Bioengineered bacteria can be created to aid in
    environmental cleanup
  • Already used in oil spills
  • May be used to remove heavy metals from pollution
    sites
  • Agricultural Uses
  • Transgenic livestock
  • Desirable genes (even from other species) are
    injected into a fertilized egg in vitro which is
    then implanted in a surrogate
  • Developing fetus incorporates gene organism
    then has that trait
  • Being used to create pharmaceuticals in eggs or
    in milk more economical efficient

7
More agricultural uses
  • Transgenic Plants
  • Use plasmids from soil bacteria as vector
  • Recombinant DNA incorporated into plant cells
    which regenerate into mature plants
  • Example golden rice was engineered to contain
    beta-carotene combats Vitamin A deficiency in
    half of the worlds population
  • Pharmaceuticals in tobacco plants vaccines such
    as hepatitus B and factors which interfere with
    bacteria that cause tooth decay
  • Roundup resistant corn (cannot legally be used
    for food)
  • Ethical concerns what if the plant escapes to
    the wild? In food plants what if strange genes
    proteins cause allergic reactions

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