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OAS REGIONAL PROJECT

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Food spoilage or decomposition that can result in a food-safety problem should ... Microorganisms that will cause food spoilage must be controlled. Parasitic Hazards ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: OAS REGIONAL PROJECT


1
OAS REGIONAL PROJECT
  • QUALITY MANAGEMENT
  • MODULES 3 4

2
PRESENTER
  • Marcia Henry
  • Manager, Project Quality Management Systems
  • Scientific Research Council

3
Course Objectives
  • Understanding the Seven Principles of HACCP
  • Understanding the Guidelines for the Development
    of a HACCP Plan for each Enterprise
  • Understanding the Principles and Requirements for
    Quality Documentation

4
HACCP
  • HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS

5
What is HACCP?
  • HACCP Systems Are Designed to Prevent and Control
    Food Safety Hazards Associated With Food From the
    Time a Company Receives Raw Material, Through
    Production to Distribution to the Consumer

6
What is HACCP?
  • It Is a Preventive, Systematic System for
    Ensuring Food Safety
  • It Is Not a Stand-alone System
  • HACCP Systems Must Be Built on a Firm Foundation
    of Compliance With Current Good Manufacturing
    Practices and Acceptable Sanitation Control
    Procedures (SCP) for It to Work Effectively

7
HACCP versus Traditional
  • Traditional Methods Evaluate Processing Practices
    on the Day or Days of Inspection
  • HACCP Allows Regulators to Look at What Happens
    at the Plant Through Time by Examining the
    Monitoring and Corrective Action Records of the
    Enterprise

8
HACCP
  • Emphasizes Process Control
  • Concentrates on the Points in the Process That
    Are Critical to the Safety of the Product
  • Stresses Communication Between the Regulator and
    Industry

9
HACCP
  • Applicable to Any Food Chain From Primary
    Production to Final Consumer. The Idea of Farm
    to Fork
  • Emphasizes Commitment of Top Management and
    Involvement of People (Staff)

10
Prerequisite Programmes
  • GMP and Sanitation Procedures Affect the
    Processing Environment and Should Be Considered
    Prerequisite Programs to HACCP
  • Prerequisite Programs Are Procedures Including
    GMP, that Address Operational Conditions
    Providing the Foundation for the HACCP System

11
Prerequisite Programmes
  • When Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures
    (SSOPs) are well designed and fully and
    effectively implemented they are valuable in
    controlling hazards
  • With SSOPs in place, HACCP can be more effective
    since they would concentrate on controlling
    hazards associated with the food or processing
    and not on the processing plant environment

12
HACCP HAZARDS
  • Hazard Refers to Conditions or Contaminants That
    Can Cause Illness or Injury.

13
FOOD HAZARDS
  • A hazard is a biological, chemical or physical
    agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness
    or injury in the absence of its control

14
3 TYPES OF FOOD HAZARD
  • BIOLOGICAL
  • CHEMICAL
  • PHYSICAL

15
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS OR PATHOGENS
16
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
  • BACTERIAL
  • VIRAL
  • PARASITIC

17
BACTERIAL HAZARDS
  • CAN BE INTRODUCED DURING THE PROCESSING OF FOODS
    FROM
  • The People Involved in the Processing
  • The Environment in Which the Food Is Processed
  • From Other Ingredients in the Product
  • From the Processes Themselves

18
BACTERIAL HAZARDS
  • Bacterial hazards are defined as bacteria that,
    if they occur in food, may cause illness in
    humans, either by infection or intoxication
  • Bacterial hazards can be grouped into spore
    formers and non-spore formers.
  • Spores are normally very resistant to chemicals,
    heat and other treatments

19
What Do Microorganisms Need?
  • Food
  • Water
  • Proper Temperature
  • Air, No Air, Minimal Air
  • Without adequate amount of these, microorganisms
    stop growing and multiplying. Some die others
    stop functioning until they get the elements they
    need (spore formers)

20
Sporeforming Bacteria
  • These include the following
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Bacillus cereus

21
Non-sporeforming Bacteria
  • These include the following
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli (e.g. E. coli
    0157H7)
  • Streptococcus pyrogenes
  • Salmonella spp
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Campylobacter spp.

22
Viral Hazards
  • Viruses exists everywhere
  • They are very small particles that cannot be seen
    with a light microscope
  • Viruses exists in food without growing. They do
    not cause spoilage
  • Viruses cause illness by infection

23
Viral Hazards
  • Viruses only grow once they enter a suitable host
  • Only some viruses consider humans a suitable host
  • Viruses can survive in human intestines,
    contaminated water and frozen foods for months

24
Viruses
  • Include the following
  • Hepatitis A virus causes fever and abdominal
    discomfort, followed by jaundice
  • Norwalk virus causes nausea, vomiting,
    diarrhoea and abdominal pain (gastroenteritis).
    Headache and low-grade fever may also occur
  • Rotavirus

25
ACTION
  • Transmission of viruses to foods is usually
    related to Poor Hygiene Practices.
  • Food handlers must wash and sanitize their hands
    properly

26
ACTION
  • Food spoilage or decomposition that can result in
    a food-safety problem should be prevented or
    controlled by a HACCP programme
  • Microorganisms that will cause food spoilage must
    be controlled

27
Parasitic Hazards
  • Parasites are organisms that need a host to
    survive, living on or within it
  • Parasitic worms and protozoa are two types of
    parasites that can infect people through food and
    water

28
Parasitic Worms
  • Include the following
  • Roundworms (nematodes) e.g. Ascaris lumbricoides
    that causes intestinal and lung infection
  • Tapeworms (cestodes) e.g. Diphyllobothrium latum
    that attaches itself to the intestinal walls and
    can grow up to 7 feet long. Causes abdominal
    pain, flatulence and diarrhoea.
  • Flukes (trematodes)

29
Protozoa
  • Single-celled animals
  • Most cannot be seen without a microscope
  • Examples Giardia lamblia that causes diarrhoea,
    abdominal cramps, fatigue, nausea, flatulence
    (intestinal gas) and weight loss. Illness may
    last up to two weeks but chronic infections can
    last months to a year
  • Entamoeba histolytica that causes dysentry
    (severe bloody diarrhoea)

30
CHEMICAL HAZARDS
31
Chemical Hazards
  • Chemicals Are Not Hazardous If Properly Used and
    Controlled
  • The Presence of a Chemical May Not Always
    Represent a Hazard
  • The Amount of the Chemical May Determine Whether
    It Is a Hazard or Not.
  • Regulatory Limits Are Set for Some Chemical
    Contaminants

32
Chemical Hazards
  • 3 Categories
  • Naturally Occurring Chemicals
  • Intentionally Added Chemicals
  • Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals

33
Naturally Occurring Chemicals
  • These Include Allergens and Are Derived From a
    Variety of Plants, Animals and Microorganisms
  • Examples Mycotoxins e.g. Aflatoxin From Moulds
    That Can Grow on Corn nuts Scombrotoxin
    Shellfish Toxins
  • Certain Varieties of Nuts and Seafood Produce an
    Allergic Reaction in Sensitive People

34
Intentionally Added Chemicals
  • These are Chemicals that are added to food at
    some point during the foods growth and
    distribution
  • Safe when used at established safe levels but can
    be dangerous when those levels are exceeded

35
Potential Chemical Hazards
36
Intentionally Added Chemicals
  • Food processors should review the appropriate
    regulations for approval status and any
    limitations on the use of food additives

37
Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals
  • Agricultural Chemicals (e.g. pesticides,
    fungicides, herbicides, fertilizers, antibiotics
    and growth hormones)
  • Prohibited Chemicals (Reference Code of Federal
    Regulations, Chapter 21, Section 189)

38
Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals
  • Toxic elements and compounds (e.g. lead, zinc,
    arsenic, mercury, cyanide)
  • Secondary direct and indirect e.g. lubricants,
    cleaning compounds, sanitizers and paints

39
Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals
  • Packaging materials that are in direct contact
    with the ingredient or the product can be a
    source of incidental chemicals, such as
    sanitizers or inks
  • These are of concern if they are in too high an
    amount

40
PHYSICAL HAZARDS
41
Physical Hazards
  • Include any harmful extraneous matter not
    normally found in food.
  • If eaten may cause choking, injury or other
    adverse health effects
  • Most commonly reported consumer complaints
    because the injury occurs immediately or soon
    after eating and the source is often easy to be
    identified

42
Physical Hazards
43
7 PRINCIPLES OF HACCP
44
PRINCIPLES OF HACCP
  • Conduct Hazard Analysis
  • Determine Critical Control Points in the Process
  • Establish Critical Limits
  • Monitor Each Critical Control Point
  • Establish Corrective Actions
  • Establish Verification Procedures
  • Establish Record Keeping and Documentation
    Procedures

45
SOME DEFINITIONS
  • CONTROL
  • CONTROL MEASURE
  • CONTROL POINT
  • CRITICAL CONTROL POINT
  • CRITICAL LIMIT
  • HAZARD

46
PRINCIPLE 1
  • Conduct a Hazard Analysis
  • Must look at the
  • Likelihood of occurrence and
  • Severity (seriousness of a hazard)
  • For each food safety hazard, identify a
    preventive measure

47
PRINCIPLE 2
  • Identify The Critical Control Points in the
    Process
  • This is a point, step or procedure in a food
    process at which control can be applied and, as a
    result, a food safety hazard can be prevented,
    eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels
  • The Decision Tree Approach can be used to
    determine CCP

48
PRINCIPLE 3
  • Establish Critical Limits for Each Critical
    Control Point
  • A Critical Limit Is the Maximum or Minimum Value
    to Which a Physical, Biological or Chemical
    Hazard Must Be Controlled at a Critical Control
    Point to Prevent, Eliminate or Reduce to an
    Acceptable Level, the Occurrence of the
    Identified Food Safety Hazard

49
PRINCIPLE 4
  • Establish Monitoring Procedure for Each Critical
    Control Point
  • These are Activities that are done routinely
    either by an employee or mechanically, to measure
    the process at a given CCP, and create a record
    for future use. These include employee
    observations or checks and records from
    instruments
  • Physical and chemical monitoring procedures are
    preferred over microbial approaches because they
    provide rapid feedback.

50
PRINCIPLE 5
  • Establish Corrective Actions
  • These are the activities to be taken when there
    is deviation from critical limits
  • This is a very important principle as deviations
    from critical limits will occur. The enterprise
    must ensure that deviations do not lead to unsafe
    foods

51
PRINCIPLE 6
  • Establish Verification Procedures
  • These procedures must ensure that the HACCP plan
    is working correctly and effectively
  • Ongoing verification includes tasks such as
    calibrating monitoring instruments, observing
    monitoring activities and corrective actions and
    reviewing HACCP records to see that they are
    being made and kept according to plan.
  • Validation initial phase in which the plan is
    tested and reviewed.
  • Reassessment an overall review of the plan that
    must be performed at least annually.

52
PRINCIPLE 7
  • Establish Effective Record Keeping and
    Documentation Procedures
  • 4 kinds of categories are kept as part of the
    HACCP system
  • HACCP Plan and support documentation
  • Records of CCP monitoring
  • Records of Corrective Action
  • Records of Verification Activities

53
Preliminary Steps in Developing a HACCP Plan
54
PRELIMINARY STEPS
  • Establish the HACCP TEAM
  • This should include at least one person that is
    trained in HACCP
  • Consider including human resources that may be
    outside your company who has experience in HACCP
    control systems e.g. UWI Dept. of Chemistry, Food
    Chemistry Unit

55
PRELIMINARY STEPS
  • Description of the following
  • Food or Food Product
  • Method of Distribution
  • Intended Use
  • Intended Consumer
  • Example
  • Bottled ready to drink coconut water distributed
    and sold refrigerated, to be used by the general
    public

56
PRELIMINARY STEPS
  • Development and Verification of the Products
    Flow Diagram
  • This Is a Simple Flow Showing the Steps Required
    to Manufacture and Distribute a Food Product.
  • It Is an Important Visual Tool that the HACCP
    Team Can Use to Complete the Remaining Steps for
    Development of the HACCP Plan

57
PRELIMINARY STEPS
  • Management Commitment
  • For a HACCP plan to work, it is extremely
    important to have the support of TOP COMPANY
    OFFICIALS. Without it, HACCP will not become a
    company priority or be effectively implemented

58
PRELIMINARY STEPS
  • HACCP Training
  • Education and Training Are Important Elements in
    Developing and Implementing a HACCP Plan
  • Employees Who Will Be Responsible for the HACCP
    Program Must Be Adequately Trained in Its
    Principles.
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