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HISTORY AND SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY

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HISTORY AND SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY. History. 1665 Robert Hooke observed living ... Pasteurization to prevent wine and beer spoilage (by bacteria) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HISTORY AND SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY


1
HISTORY AND SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY
2
History
  • 1665 Robert Hooke observed living plant tissues
    (20X mag.)
  • Little boxes or Cells
  • Used simple magnifying lens
  • Suggested all living things are made of cells

3
Hooke's Microscope 1665
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was inspired by this
publication
4
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek(1677) (layu-wen-hook)
  • First observation of living cells (200-300X mag.)
  • Animalcules
  • Single lens Microscope (Self made)simple
    microscope
  • Tooth plaque
  • Rain water
  • Diarrheal feces

5
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  • Bacteria
  • Protozoa
  • Sperm cells
  • Blood cells
  • Microscopic worms

6
Antonie van Leeuwenhoeks microscope
3-4 microscope Required good lighting and
patience
7
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8
Spontaneous Generation
  • The idea that life could arise spontaneously from
    nonliving matter
  • Ex Toads and Mice could arise from soil
  • Until the 18th century this believe existed

9
History (cont.)
  • 1668 Francesco Redi
  • 1st one to disprove spontaneous generation

10
Francesco Redis experiments with meat
uncovered
covered
No maggots
Maggots
Disproved that maggots arise from decaying meat!!
11
British clergyman John Needhams experiments
(1745)
  • Proved (??) spontaneous generation in chicken
    broth
  • Heated Nutrient Fluids and poured them into
    covered flasks

Turbid broth
Hot Mutton gravy
...my phial swarmd with life...
12
Italian priest Lazzaro Spallanzani (1765)
  • Similar to Needhams Experiments
  • He showed that heating a sealed flask of meat
    broth prevented growth of organism
  • Skeptics claimedlack of O2 prevented growth!!

13
The Golden Age of Microbiology!
  • Louis Pasteur (finally disproved spontaneous
    generation after many years of debate)
  • Robert Koch (proof of germ theory)
  • Other pioneers in Microbiology

14
PasteurFather of microbiology
  • 1857- Louis Pasteur saves Frances wine industry
  • Napoleon III begged Pasteur (a chemist by
    training) to help solve a problem
  • Sailors were mutinying b/c their wine was
    spoiling after only a few weeks at sea
  • Pasteur armed with his trusty microscope accepted
    the challenge

15
Luis Pasteur
16
Louis Pasteur (1861)
  • Spontaneous Generation finally disproved
  • Boiled broth in long-s-shaped necked flasks
    (unsealed)
  • Remained sterile
  • Proved that microorganisms are present in air,
    but air does not create microbes
  • Beginning of the golden age of microbiology

17
Swan neck flask experiment disproved spontaneous
generation(1861)
18
History (cont.)
  • 1861 Pasteur
  • Proved Microorganisms are present in nonliving
    matter
  • Microbes can be destroyed by heat
  • Aseptic Technique
  • Fermentation mediated by yeast, not air
  • Pasteurization to prevent wine and beer spoilage
    (by bacteria)

19
1857-Louis Pasteur saves Frances wine
  1. Good wine contained yeast
  2. Sour wine contained bacterium (Bacteria that use
    alcohol and produce acetic acid spoil wine by
    turning it to vinegar (acetic acid).
  3. He reasoned that if wine is heated to destroy the
    harmful bacteria it wouldnt spoil (process known
    as Pasteurization)

20
Pasteurs Tomb in the Crypt of the Pasteur
Institute in Paris
21
Germ Theory of Disease
  • Pasteur proposed that wine spoiling in an analogy
    for disease (bacterial growth made the wine
    sick)
  • He hypothesized in 1857 that microorganisms are
    responsible for infectious diseases

22
Edward Jenner (country doctor)
  • Milkmaid didnt get smallpox b/c they contracted
    the milder form of cowpox
  • Immune system cannot distinguish btw
    cowpox/smallpox
  • Scratched a farmboy w/ a needle bearing fluid
    from cowpox
  • Small pox Vaccine
  • -Vacca-cow
  • Vaccination w/ cowpox provided immunity for
    smallpox

23
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24
Immunity
Protection from a disease from vaccination
25
Robert Koch (1843-1910)
  • German country physician who developed
    microbiology into a science
  • Developed pure culture techniques (used potato
    slices to grow bacteria) developed agar later on
  • Proof of the germ theory
  • Work with anthrax
  • Kochs postulates

26
Bacillus anthracis
27
Pure Culture Key to Studying Microbes
Definition Pure culture is a population of
organism, all of which are the progeny of a
single organism -In nature, microbes almost never
occur as pure cultures
28
AGAR
  • Is a complex polysaccharide derived from seaweed
  • Was suggested by Fannie Hesse wife of Kochs
    co-worker Walther Hesse
  • why do your jellies and pudding stay solid in
    warm weather?
  • AGAR-AGAR had been used as a gelling agent in
    Asia for centuries
  • Fannie learned to use AGAR-AGAR from a Dutch
    neighbor in New York who spent time in Asia

29
Kochs postulates
  1. Specific microorganism is present in all cases of
    the disease
  2. Organism can be obtained in pure culture outside
    of the host
  3. Organism when re-inoculated into host causes the
    same symptoms
  4. Organism can be isolated in pure culture from
    experimentally infected host

30
Kochs findings
  • Koch and his coworkers discovered that bacteria
    caused
  • TUBERCULOSIS
  • CHOLERA
  • DIPTHERIA
  • TYPHOID FEVER
  • GONORRHEA
  • PNEUMONIA

31
Hungarian doctor Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865)
  • Taught medicine in Vienna
  • No one connected germs w/ disease yet
  • Puerperal fever childbirth fever caused 25-30
    mortality
  • Nearby obstetric hospital had only a 2 death rate

32
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33
Ignaz Semmelweis (cont.)
  • He made some observations
  • Medical Students working on cadavers moved from
    the dissecting room to the maternity ward
  • Midwives
  • Stayed only in maternity ward

34
Ignaz Semmelweis (cont.)
  • Ordered students to wash hands and medical
    instruments in chlorinated lime
  • Mortality dropped to 1.3
  • By 1848, 0 mortality

35
Paul Ehrlich-hospital dermatologist
  • Chemotherapy-Treatment using chemical substances
  • 1910 Paul Ehrlich -Magic bullet
  • Salvarsan (arsenic derivative)
  • Preparation 606
  • Syphilis

36
Alexander Fleming scottish researcher--1928
  • Discovered Penicillin (fungus) by accident
  • Was convinced that nasal mucus had antibacterial
    effects
  • Left his Staphylococcus culture on an agar plate
    for 2 weeks-went on vacation-came back found
    mold on his plate which prevented bacterial
    growth (a mycology lab underneath him had this
    rare spore drift)

37
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38
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39
Founders of Microbiology (Review)
  • First observed microbesLeeuwenhoek
  • Proved living cells can arise only from other
    living cells---Pasteur
  • Confirmed the Germ Theory of Disease --Koch

40
Scope of microbiology
41
Microbiology
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Viruses
  • Immunology

42
Bacteria
  • Medical importance
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Syphilis
  • Tetanus
  • Lyme disease
  • Plague

43
Bacteria (cont.)
  • Industrial importance
  • Food supplements
  • Amino acids Vitamins
  • Organic solvents
  • Acetone

44
Bacteria (cont.)
  • Pharmaceutical importance
  • Antibiotics
  • polymyxin
  • Hormones
  • Insulin

45
Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA
  • Biotechnology
  • The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell
    components to make a product
  • Foods, antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes
  • Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Insertion or modification of genes to produce
    desired proteins

46
Figure 9.1.1
47
Bacteria (cont.)
  • Environmental importance
  • Biodegradation
  • Oil spills
  • Wastewater treatment

48
Figure 9.1.2
49
Gram positive S. aureus
50
Gram negative E. coli
51
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52
Fungi
  • Medical importance
  • Valley fever
  • Candidiasis
  • Athlete's foot

53
Fungi (cont.)
  • Industrial importance
  • Fermentation
  • Wine
  • Beer
  • Bread

54
Fungi (cont.)
  • Pharmaceutical importance
  • Antibiotics
  • Penicillin

55
Fungi (cont.)
  • Environmental importance
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Degradation of complex organic matter
  • Lignin in wood

56
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57
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58
Viruses
  • Medical importance
  • HIV
  • Influenza
  • Rabies
  • Common cold

59
Viruses
  • Genetic engineering
  • Gene shuttles
  • Treatment of some genetic disorders

60
DNA can be inserted into a cell by
  • Microinjection
  • Gene gun

Figure 9.6 7
61
Viruses (cont.)
  • Environmental importance
  • Unknown

62
ADENOVIRUS
63
HERPESVIRUS
64
Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • West Nile encephalitis
  • West Nile Virus
  • First diagnosed in the West Nile region of Uganda
    in 1937.
  • Appeared in New York City in 1999.

65
Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
  • Prion (infectious proteinaceous material)
  • Also causes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
  • New-variant CJD in humans related to cattle fed
    sheep offal for protein.

66
Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • Escherichia coli O57H7
  • Toxin-producing strain of E. coli
  • Fist seen in 1982
  • Leading cause of diarrhea worldwide.

67
Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • Invasive group A Streptococcus
  • Rapidly growing bacteria cause extensive tissue
    damage.
  • Increased incidence since 1995

68
Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever
  • Ebola virus
  • Causes fever, hemorrhaging, and blood clotting
  • First identified near Ebola River, Congo
  • Outbreak every few years

69
Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
  • Hantavirus
  • Fist identified in 1951 in Korea as cause of
    hemorrhagic fever and named for Hantaan River
  • A new disease involving respiratory symptoms was
    seen in the U.S. in 1995
  • The U.S. virus, called Hantavirus Sin Nombre
    virus, probably came to the U.S. with rats around
    1900

70
Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • First identified in 1981.
  • Worldwide epidemic infecting 40 million people
    14,000 new infections everyday.
  • Sexually transmitted disease affecting males and
    females.
  • In the U.S., HIV/AIDS in people 13-24 years of
    age 44 are female and 63 are African American.

71
Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • Anthrax
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • In 1877, Koch proved B. anthracis causes anthrax.
  • Veterinarians and agricultural workers are at
    risk of cutaneous anthrax.
  • In 2001, dissemination of B. anthracis via mail
    infected 22 people.
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