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A CRISIS IN CONFIDENCE, 19691980

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... to win 'middle America' ... America must make a strategic retreat. improve relations with China ... White House tapes discovered. Summer 1974. Nixon ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A CRISIS IN CONFIDENCE, 19691980


1
A CRISIS IN CONFIDENCE, 1969-1980
  • America Past and Present
  • Chapter 31

2
Nixon in Power
  • Apparent success in first term
  • Triumphs in foreign affairs
  • Nixon cuts himself off from Congress, his own
    cabinet, and the nation

3
Reshaping the Great Society
  • Nixon and the Great Society
  • more efficient administration
  • shift responsibility to the states
  • shift school desegregation to the courts
  • Shift to conservative Supreme Court
  • appointment of conservatives and moderates
  • Burger Court similar to Warren Court
  • Pace of change slows but continues

4
Nixonomics
  • Nixon and inflation
  • inflation spurred by Vietnam
  • federal spending cuts
  • interest rates forced up
  • 1970--Nixon-induced recession
  • 1971--wage and price controls
  • Economy revives

5
Building a Republican Majority
  • Nixon obsessed about reelection
  • Inactive on desegregation to win South
  • Attack cultural revolution to win middle
    America
  • Democrats retain majority by joining crusade
    against drugs, crime

6
In Search of Détente
  • Foreign-policy assumptions
  • Cold War to be managed, not won
  • America must make a strategic retreat
  • improve relations with China to neutralize Russia
  • February 1972--Nixon visits China

7
In Search of Détente Outcome of China Visit
  • February 1972--U.S. recognition of Communist
    China set in motion
  • May 1972--Russians sign SALT I
  • Apparent mutual desire to reduce Cold War tensions

8
Ending the Vietnam War
  • Nixons plan
  • gradual reduction of American troops
  • intensify American bombing
  • hard line at the peace talks
  • 1970--invasion of Cambodia
  • January, 1973--peace talks conclude with
    disguised American surrender

9
The Crisis of Democracy
  • June, 1972--Nixon agents arrested for attempted
    Watergate break-in
  • Nixon stonewalled the press about White House
    involvement
  • even instructed aides to lie under oath

10
The Election of 1972
  • Nixons opponents
  • American Independent George Wallace--shot and
    disabled, followers vote for Nixon
  • Democrat George McGovern--nomination alienates
    middle class
  • Nixon landslide suggests new alignment
  • middle class shifting to Republicans
  • African Americans, Jews, the poor remain strongly
    Democratic

11
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12
The Watergate Scandal
  • Summer 1973--Senate investigation
  • damaging Senate hearings on cover-up
  • White House tapes discovered
  • Summer 1974
  • Nixon must relinquish tapes
  • House Judiciary committee recommends impeachment
  • August 9, 1974--Nixon resigns

13
The Watergate Scandal Consequences
  • Demonstrates growing power of the executive
    branch
  • Illustrates vitality of institutions
  • the press
  • the federal judiciary
  • Congress

14
Energy and the Economy
  • U.S. way of life based on cheap energy
  • 1970s energy crisis sparks inflation

15
The October War
  • October, 1973--Yom Kippur War pits Egypt, Syria
    against Israel
  • U.S. supplies weapons to Israel
  • Arab oil nations retaliate with boycott
  • prices of gasoline and home heating fuel rose
    sharply

16
The Oil Shocks
  • Effects of soaring oil prices
  • consumer spending plunges
  • recession by 1974
  • inflation persists through 1970s
  • Tax cut aids recovery
  • 1979--Iranian Revolution causes second surge in
    oil prices

17
The Oil Shocks Price Increases of Crude Oil and
Gasoline, 1973-1985
18
The Search for an Energy Policy
  • Ford tries to encourage production
  • Carter tries to encourage conservation
  • Congressional legislation to
  • encourage production, e.g. Alaska pipeline
  • encourage conservation, e.g. gas rationing
  • Energy problem persists

19
The Great Inflation
  • Oil prices drive inflation
  • price of goods soars
  • real income declines
  • Attempted government controls result in record
    high interest rates

20
The Shifting American Economy
  • U.S. share of world markets declines
  • U.S. heavy industry declines
  • High technology prospers
  • Businesses tend to diversify

21
Private LivesPublic Issues
  • Traditional American family gives way to more
    diverse living arrangements
  • Number of working women increases sharply
  • Gay rights movement emerges

22
The Changing American Family Family Life by 1990
  • 21 of women solely in childrearing
  • 30 of married coupes without children
  • 25 of households consist of one adult
  • Birthrate begins to climb after 15-year fall
  • Divorce rate levels and drops slightly

23
The Changing American Family New Family
Structure
  • Many never marry or postpone marriage
  • Most mothers work outside the home
  • Proportion of single-parent households doubled
  • Women without partners head 1/3 of impoverished
    families
  • Children comprise 40 of the poor

24
Types of Households in the United States, 2000
25
Gains and Setbacks for Women
  • Rapid movement of women into work force
  • Breakthroughs for women
  • leaders in industry, higher education
  • Roe v. Wade strengthens reproductive rights
  • women appointed to Supreme Court
  • Resistance
  • most women remain in female-dominated jobs
  • wages only 77.5 of mens earnings
  • Equal Rights Amendment fails
  • abortion widely stigmatized

26
Voting on the Equal Rights Amendment
27
The Gay Liberation Movement
  • 1969--Stonewall Riot sparks gay rights movement
  • 1980--Democrats include gay rights plank
  • 1980s--AIDS activism
  • 1987--600,000 march on Washington
  • 1993--Dont Ask, Dont Tell policy a setback
  • 1996--Defense of Marriage Act prohibits state
    recognition of same-sex unions
  • 2000--Vermont legalizes same-sex civil unions

28
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29
Politics After Watergate
  • Watergate erodes public trust
  • Confrontation leaves nation leaderless

30
The Ford Administration
  • Pardon of Nixon unpopular
  • Democratic Congress alienated
  • disclosure of illegal CIA activities under
    Kennedy and Johnson
  • opposes Democratic bills protecting the
    environment and civil rights

31
The 1976 Campaign
  • Ford damaged by Watergate
  • Democrat Jimmy Carter wins close vote
  • former governor of Georgia
  • campaigns as outsider
  • calls for decency, morality in government

32
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33
Disenchantment with Carter
  • Carter displays lack of political vision
  • Outsider status hampers effectiveness
  • 1979--Carter blames American people for "national
    malaise"

34
From Détente to Renewed Cold War
  • U.S. international dominance declined sharply in
    the 1970s
  • Internal and external events weakened foreign
    policy

35
Retreat in Asia
  • April 1975--North Vietnam captures Saigon
  • U.S. response--evacuation, no aid
  • Subsequent incidents met with caution, restraint

36
Accommodation in Latin America
  • 1977--treaty returns Panama Canal to Panama
  • 1979--U.S. refuses aid to Nicaraguan government
    against Sandinistas
  • Carter assists El Salvador against Marxist rebels

37
The Quest for Peace in the Middle East
  • Carters success
  • 1978--Camp David Accords
  • 1979--Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty
  • Carters failure
  • 1979--Iranian Revolution
  • November--U.S. embassy in Teheran invaded, 58
    Americans taken hostage
  • Carter fails to secure hostages release

38
The Cold War Resumes
  • Carter, Brzezinski shift from Détente
  • condemn Soviet human rights abuses
  • new missile systems deployed
  • increased aid to China
  • December, 1979--Russians invade Afghanistan

39
A Failed Presidency
  • Carter lost public confidence during the Iranian
    hostage crisis
  • Double-digit inflation also contributed to voter
    disappointment
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