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SRS Secure Desktop Project Running Without Administrator Privileges

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Title: SRS Secure Desktop Project Running Without Administrator Privileges


1
SRS Secure Desktop Project Running Without
Administrator Privileges
  • Barry Hudson
  • Desktop Systems Team Lead
  • SRNS Aiken, SC 29808
  • barry.hudson_at_srs.gov
  • 803/725-8463

2
Abstract
  • SRS has approximately 10,000 PCs, the majority of
    which are centrally managed. The major project
    for 2008 was to secure these desktops by
    removing routine user of Administrator accounts.
    This was completed in parallel with a project to
    employ all applicable FDCC Group Policies.
  • In less than 8 months, all managed desktops were
    converted to the Secure Desktop model. Over
    9000 XP systems were converted to NTFS,
    administrator privileges removed, and software
    called BeyondTrust Privilege Manager was used to
    elevate privileges when needed for routine
    operation and software updates.
  • This presentation will outline the challenges and
    solutions used to make the transition to Secure
    Desktop without making it Desktop Lockdown. It
    was achieved ahead of schedule, with existing
    staffing levels, and with fewer than 100 visits
    to the desktops.

3
Drivers and Background
  • PC configuration management has been a consistent
    OIO audit finding since 2001
  • Various policies, procedures, and processes have
    been implemented over time but the administrative
    privileges have not been removed from the user
  • Another Audit was scheduled for September 2008

4
This Is Just 1 Piece of The Puzzle
  • Overview of Comprehensive Desktop Management at
    SRS
  • WSUS patching, WinInstall updates, Symantec
    AntiVirus
  • Cisco Clean Access Posture Check and Remediation
  • IVIS scanning
  • Vulnerability and Patch Management Team (VPMT)

5
VPM
Manual Internal Netstat (Network Statistics
tool) Supplemented with Selective External NMAP
(Network Mapper open source network security
Audit Tool including identifying services
offered) scans on a weekly basis
Automated Daily Sans Top 20 Scans via
Hercules and IVIS
Nikto / Web Application scans to Capture
vulnerabilities on a monthly basis (Nikto is
open source web server scanner performing
multiple checks
Oracle Oscanner Scans on a quarterly basis
List of devices Requiring manual vuln. web
application scans
Alter routine scans to incorporate port info
found
IVIS (Nessus Based Engine)
IVIS VPM Reports
Delayed scan request run within 30 days?
IVIS Low Hanging Fruit / Easily Exploitable
Vulnerabilities Report
Data
No
Data
Routine Scans
Follow Up Scans
Unseen Host Scans
Ad Hoc Scans
Yes
Quarterly Scan Results
Every hour devices on the network are checked for
record of scan in last 7 days if not full scan
commences.
If IVIS scans show vulnerabilities, follow up
scans occur daily.
Scan lists are created from ARP Table such that
the entire site is covered within 1 week.
Cisco Ops Ware/ NAS Policy Compliance Check run
by Networks And reported monthly.
Nessus Scans
Secondary Network
Secondary Network (Stand Alone)
Secondary Network
SRSNet
Secondary Network
HP Jet Admin Scanning Function run Daily for
discovery.
Secondary Network
Ad hoc scans are requested with a VPMT rep
6
Project Scope
  • Remove routine use of users with Administrator
    privileges
  • Limits Malware propagation
  • Users would be limited to install approved,
    standard applications (i.e. WinInstall
    Applications).
  • Restricts implementation of local peripherals.
  • Security configuration management is strictly
    enforced
  • Users less able to install vulnerable software
  • Group Policy enforcements where possible
  • Implement FDCC policies
  • Work in parallel with other scanning, patching,
    and security initiatives
  • Finish quickly, in time for the Going 4 Green
    audit

7
What PCs Are Out There ?
  • Operating Systems
  • 7000 Windows XP
  • 2000 Windows 2000 (Reload with XP)
  • 1500 Controllers and specialty systems
  • Owner is Admin, others have non-Admin access
  • Software Inventory Results
  • Almost 200 Centrally-managed Applications
    (WinInstall)
  • Over 40,000 identified self-installed
    applications
  • Will they continue to run?
  • What happens if they need to be reinstalled or
    updated?
  • About 2500 systems had no additional software

8
But Wait! Removing Administrator Rights Doesnt
Buy You Much
  • Programs can be installed in the user space
  • Current User registry is not protected from Run,
    RunOnce, etc.
  • Why not whitelist all approved applications
  • And scan more often
  • And it will cost 500,000 or more to implement
  • Our time would be better spent doing more of what
    works

9
But Wait! Removing Administrator Rights Doesnt
Buy You Much
  • Programs can be installed in the user space
  • Current User registry is not protected from Run,
    RunOnce, etc.
  • Why not whitelist all approved applications
  • And scan more often
  • And it will cost 500,000 or more to implement
  • Our time would be better spent doing more of what
    works

BUSTED
Hijacked processes run with the rights of the
logged-on user
10
Orders From Headquarters
11
Impacts to the Business Status Quo
  • Users will not be able to perform activities that
    require administrative access.
  • Installing software from CDs
  • Creating file shares
  • Adding software drivers such as scanners and
    printers
  • Certain other system modifications
  • Activities requiring administrative privileges
    must be performed by IT support personnel or
    special accounts for the users
  • Existing supported applications will be assessed
    and modified to install and run in this
    environment
  • User supplied applications will be accommodated
    or converted to managed applications

12
Planning Assumptions
  • Barry, youre no longer in the customer service
    business, you are in the security business
  • Things will break
  • Processes will fail, but not always immediately
  • We will learn as we go
  • Some systems will be easier to migrate than
    others
  • Focus on Managed Desktops first (8500) - XP Only
  • Review of WinInstall applications
  • Review of local applications
  • Pick the least likely to fail systems first
  • Pilot migration of some tough systems
  • Then tackle controllers and shared systems (1000)
  • And finally specialty systems (500)
  • And hope everything runs at FY year-end closure

13
Design Assumptions
  • The site needs to do business in the manner they
    are accustomed to
  • Proactive planning will establish working
    footprint but likely anticipate only lt80 of the
    issues
  • Costs Software, Staffing, Lost Productivity
  • 500,000 10 FTE TBD gt 1.5 million
  • Increased support staff, apps review, new
    processes
  • Not enough time to test all standard apps will
    load and run
  • Things will break, Processes will fail, We will
    learn as we go
  • 40,000 apps that we have not idea how to test
  • We will allow deferrals (the thorn in my side)
  • Doing FDCC and Secure Desktop at the same time
  • Makes it hard to determine what broke it

14
Staffing requirements
  • What we asked for
  • Desktop Team 2 people fulltime for 1 year
  • Field Support 2 visits per year x 1 hour x
    10,000 systems 20,000 hours 10 FTEs
  • What we got
  • 2 Help Desk Agents
  • Desktop Team delayed priorities for 6 months
  • An accelerated schedule (Get the pain over
    quicker)

15
Selling It
  • Tell them why, when, and how
  • Pick a non-threatening name
  • Secure Desktop vs. Desktop Lockdown
  • Publicity campaign, Sitewide Emails, Roadshows to
    Customers
  • Involve customers, Computer Security, IT, and
    management
  • Weekly meetings of 20 stakeholders
  • 100 issues and concerns
  • IT and DOE Security goes first (walk the talk)
  • Provide a safety-valve (add the user back as
    Administrator)
  • Things will break, Processes will fail, We will
    learn as we go
  • I made a Promise
  • If you cant still do your job with Secure
    Desktop, that means I have not done my job right.

16
Publicity Campaign
17
Early Discoveries
  • Life as Non-Admin (life changes)
  • Restricts access to registry, printer installs,
    software installs
  • Cant setup scheduled tasks
  • Life as Non-Admin with NTFS (life gets really
    interesting)
  • NTFS Restricts access to files and folders (eg
    c\Windows, c\Program Files, Local Apps, default
    profiles, and more)
  • Cant read other users or All Users profiles
  • Some apps might need to be modified or sections
    of PC opened up for them to run

18
Technical Tools to Make It Work
  • BeyondTrust Privilege Manager to elevate
    privileges when needed
  • Approx 160 rules in place
  • To install software
  • To run some software
  • Elevate System processes (eg TCP/IP Configure,
    Add Local Printer, VPN Firewall, Plug and Play)
  • Provides Inheritance so that auto-installers can
    retain rights
  • Use CACLs to tighten or loosen file and folder
    permissions
  • Approx 100 exceptions needed
  • Some apps write INI files to c\program files
  • Refine Registry permissions (CACL or BeyondTrust)
  • Some apps change HKLocalMachine or HKClassesRoot
  • Add and manage Non-person domain account with
    privs
  • For hands-on support
  • For system updates and automated processes

19
More About BeyondTrust
  • Attach permission levels to Windows applications
    and processes
  • Integrated with Active Directory and applied
    through Group Policy
  • Policy is applied by creating rules in the Group
    Policy Object Editor (using their GUI)
  • Operates transparently to the end-user
  • Permits least privilege elevation
  • Costs about 30 per seat (300,000 plus 15)
  • Container license vs. Domain license
  • Computer object limit and user limit

20
Examples of Rules
  • Rules can permit or elevate based on
  • GUID or URL-specific ActiveX controls
  • Residence in a particular Folder
  • Hash of the file
  • MSI that is being installed
  • Specific Path of the file
  • Other attributes
  • Recommendations
  • Use a Hash when possible
  • Multiple versions (eg Flash4 and Flash5) are
    allowed
  • Avoid Path and Folder rules if you do not control
    the fileshare
  • Dont open a path or share where anyone can drop
    an installer or EXE
  • Look for inadvertent inheritance to downward
    processes
  • An elevated DOS box can be a big hole

21
BeyondTrust Configuration Screen
22
Process Tools to Make It Work
  • How to permit users and field support to regain
    Administrator rights when needed
  • Locally written tool to add Admin back to PC and
    log the reason
  • Temporary Restoration of Administrator Rights
    (TRAP)
  • 20-30 per day added by Help Desk
  • TRAP process should be followed by a scan after
    user does install
  • 200 Admin Restores exist at any point in time
  • The PA process and PC-SPPT-xx groups
  • PA Personal Admin account allows selected users
    to support their PC
  • PC-SPPT-xx groups added to specific Workgroup PCs
    (shadow support)
  • The CS/DA process
  • Computer Support accounts for installers and
    Field Support
  • Desktop Admin accounts for my staff
  • RunAs and Remote Administration
  • Non-secured machines that are offline are
    identified and secured within 2 days of
    connection
  • Daily inventory to check settings, TRAP abuse,
    lost sheep returning

23
Who Gets to Go First?
  • Management champions
  • IT and DOE Security goes first (walk the talk)
  • SRNL gets a gold star (150 of the 1st volunteers)
  • Ask for volunteers (motivate them with get
    better help before the storm)
  • Verify laptop, VPN, and off-line operations
  • Email campaign with magic button to migrate now
  • Sent to users with no known extra applications
    (Dear User)
  • Convincing users to participate. Not everyone is
    special
  • Look, SRNL did it and is still running!
  • Allow Deferrals only for Good Reason (preferably
    classes of systems, eg Doc Mgt, Maintenance,
    Controllers)
  • Publicize your success, acknowledge your
    weaknesses

24
The Schedule
  • The Planned Schedule
  • 10-12/07 proof of concept
  • 1/08-3/08 100 user pilot
  • 30 days to regroup
  • 4/08-5/08 1000 easy systems
  • 6/08-12/08 6000 total migrated
  • The Forced Schedule
  • 10-12/07 proof of concept
  • 1/08-2/20/08 50 user pilot
  • 2/25/08 500 users added
  • 2/26-3/5/08 1500 easy systems
  • 3/08-5/08 6000 total migrated
  • 6/08-12/08 deferrals
  • 1/09-2/09 who is hiding?

25
Migration Rate
Dont run out of licenses!
Push it till it breaks Deferrals
released
Push it till it breaks
The 2000 jump-start provides confidence. Sure,
they are still running but what about at the end
of the month?
26
Automating the Migration Process
  • Make all of WinInstall BeyondTrust Aware
  • NTFS Conversion via email Magic Button
    invitations and forced WinInstall
  • Pre-req before getting added to the Scheduler
    list
  • The Secure Desktop Scheduler
  • Triggers at login if you are on the list, NTFS,
    and an Administrator
  • Launches the upgrade process in WinInstall
  • One giant WinInstall
  • Install BeyondTrust Privilege Manager
  • Install Basic CACLS to secure additional selected
    folders (approx 10)
  • Add Local Printer shortcut
  • Temporary folder for 16 bit applications in
    location not under c\windows
  • Remove Administrators from Computer and randomize
    local password
  • Move Computer to BeyondTrust Container
  • Apply Common CACLS to open additional selected
    subfolders (approx 100)
  • Write all done logfile
  • About 100 systems did not migrate and required
    reload

27
What Broke It and How to Remedy It
  • Secure Desktop gets blamed for everything!
  • Diagnosis
  • App wont install or wont run?
  • Is everything broken or something specific?
  • Is BeyondTrust running? Do you have the current
    rules?
  • Add user back as Admin and see if it fixes it
  • This is your safety net
  • Keeps the business running while you figure it
    out
  • Look for activity in the NTFS-protected folders
    (Program Files, Windows, System32, etc)
  • Look for activity in the Registry
  • Triage to identify commonalities
  • Repair
  • Elevate the program (hash vs. path)
  • Liberalize rights on sub-folders or files (CACLS)
  • Change program configuration (set INI file or
    prefs files to write elsewhere)

28
Phase-in of New Secure Desktops
  • Unfair to put installers on the front lines
  • Deliver and add user as Admin
  • Permit users or installer to add software
  • Scan the system for vulnerabilities
  • Add to the SD migration list after 3 days
  • All Windows 2000 were re-built on-site as Secured
  • Deliver As-Secure at the end of the project
  • Local Admin used only to add to domain
  • Then remove all Admins

29
Unexpected Issues
  • Chicken and Egg situations
  • Have to be an Admin to become secured
  • But our goal is to eliminate Admin users
  • How to pre-build a secured machine
  • Dealing with the absence of a universal
    Administrator account
  • There is no local administrator to break in
    with
  • 90 day lost of trust issues
  • Cached login with last good user
  • Set Owner Issues
  • Some files are owned by the installer and cannot
    be accessed by others or have provided unwanted
    access to install folders
  • Essential things did not work and need elevation
  • Defrag, Clock, Ipconfig, RunOnce after installs
  • Issues with multi-user systems
  • No unrestricted place to put turnover files
  • Screensaver locked at shift change

30
Ongoing Maintenance
  • Daily Un-TRAP of Admin Restores
  • Look for abuse
  • Propagate PA and PC-SPPT-xx accounts
  • Verify new installs are secured
  • All scanning and remdiation activities must be
    Secure-Desktop aware
  • Add rules as issues arise (about 4 per month)
  • New products
  • Stuff breaks
  • Updates to existing rules
  • BeyondTrust product enhancements

31
Summary
  • Project success despite objections from users and
    reluctance of IT staff
  • Early 500/day was a crazy idea but provided
    valuable insight and confidence
  • Almost finished before we had planned to get
    started
  • Critical success factors
  • Publicity campaign
  • Top level management support
  • Acknowledgement that things would break
  • Availability of a relief valve (Restore Admin
    user)
  • Ability to select and throttle the update list

32
Questions
  • Barry Hudson
  • Desktop Systems Team Lead
  • SRNS Bldg 773-51A
  • Aiken, SC 29808
  • barry.hudson_at_srs.gov
  • 803/725-8463
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