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ROCKETS

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A rocket in its simplest form is a chamber enclosing a gas under pressure. ... vehicles that carry satellites into orbit and spacecraft to the Moon and planets. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ROCKETS


1
ROCKETS
2
Chavez Cristhian Dallana.
Principles of technology
January 2006
3
Table of Content.
Practical Rocketry
Introduction
Modern Use
History
Positive
Timeline
Negative
Principles
Conclusion
How Rockets Work
Index
Scientific Method
Glossary
Resources
Nature Science
Problem Solving
4
An Introduction to Rockets.
  • A rocket in its simplest form is a chamber
    enclosing a gas under pressure. A small opening
    at one end of the chamber allows the gas to
    escape, and in doing so provides a thrust that
    propels the rocket in the opposite direction. A
    good example of this is a balloon. Air inside a
    balloon is compressed by the balloon's rubber
    walls. The air pushes back so that the inward and
    outward pressing forces are balanced. When the
    nozzle is released, air escapes through it and
    the balloon is propelled in the opposite
    direction.
  • When we think of rockets, we rarely think of
    balloons. Instead, our attention is drawn to the
    giant vehicles that carry satellites into orbit
    and spacecraft to the Moon and planets.
    Nevertheless, there is a strong similarity
    between the two. The only significant difference
    is the way the pressurized gas is produced. With
    space rockets, the gas is produced by burning
    propellants that can be solid or liquid in form
    or a combination of the two.
  • One of the interesting facts about the historical
    development of rockets is that while rockets and
    rocket-powered devices have been in use for more
    than two thousand years, it has been only in the
    last three hundred years that rocket
    experimenters have had a scientific basis for
    understanding how they work.

5
Historical Account
  • The evolution of the rocket has made it an
    indispensable tool in the exploration of space.
    For centuries, rockets have provided ceremonial
    and warfare uses starting with the ancient
    Chinese , the first to create rockets.
  • Robert Goddard. Robert Goddard invented
    liquid-fueled rockets and a control mechanism for
    rocket apparatus. During World War I, Goddard
    developed a number of designs of small military
    rockets to be launched from a lightweight hand
    launcher, they became the forerunners of the
    bazooka of World War II.

6
Rocketry Timeline
7
Principles.
  • A rocket in its simplest form is a chamber
    enclosing a gas under pressure. A small opening
    at one end of the chamber allows the gas to
    escape, and in doing so provides a thrust that
    propels in the opposite direction. A good example
    of this is a balloon. Air inside a balloon is
    compressed by the balloon's rubber walls. The air
    pushes back so that the inward and outward
    pressing forces are balanced. When the nozzle is
    released, air escapes through it and the balloon
    is propelled in the opposite direction. 

8
How Rockets Work
  • Rockets take off if they have enough fuel to take
    them beyond the Earths gravitational pull.
  • The blast of the fuel igniting pushes the rocket
    up into the air in the opposite direction to the
    way the blast of flames is going.
  • Scientist have a rule For every action there is
    an equal and opposite reaction. And its the rule
    that explains how rockets work. The action of the
    blast rushing out of the rocket in one direction
    has an equal reaction on the rocket that pushes
    it in the opposite direction.
  • A scientist called Isaac Newton discovered this
    scientific rule hundreds of years ago. Rockets
    have enormous tanks for fuel and oxygen.
  • Space travel is an amazing and complicated thing.
    It is complicated because there are so many
    problems and obstacles to overcome. You have
    things like the vacuum of space, heat management
    problems, the difficulty of re-entry, meteorites
    and other space debris, cosmic and solar
    radiation, and going to the bathroom in space.
  • But the biggest problem of all is harnessing
    enough energy simply to get a spaceship off the
    ground. That is where rocket engines come in.
  • Rocket engines are reaction engines. Remember the
    famous Isaac Newton principle that "to every
    action there is an equal and opposite reaction."

9
Scientific Method
  • Study of a scientific data base (meeting ESOC
    requirements to process data coming from
    satellites, stations, sounding rockets, and
    balloons) Final Report BOURDAIS, A
  • A scientific data base was investigated for
    gathering data from various satellites, stations,
    sounding rockets, and balloons in order to
    classify and structure them for easier use. The
    definition of a scientific data base adapted to
    ESOC needs, the organization of the data, and
    orientation of the access means and principles of
    use are discussed. The characteristics of the
    data in the data base are described as well as
    the data input procedure. Different access means
    to the base data are described from the users
    point of view, and computer programming
    specifications are given.

10
Nature of science
11
Problem Solving
12
Process
  • Countdown to launch starts three days before the
    actual take-off
  • Rockets have a built-in guidance and control
    system so they are capable of determining their
    own position and attitude, but once a satellite
    has separated, its position and attitude are
    controlled from terrestrial or solar sensors so
    it is not possible to release a satellite from a
    rocket during night time of the Earth.Launch
    times are dependent on factors such as the season
    and orbital insertion, and require delicate
    calculations, leaving only some 30 minutes to two
    hours during a day when launch conditions are
    ideal. If these times are missed, there is no
    other option but to cancel a launch during that
    day. For example, the H-II Launch Vehicle No. 4
    launched in October 1996 started its countdown
    three days before the actual take-off, and work
    allocated for each day was steadily carried out.
    The final countdown started seven minutes before
    the lift-off.
  • The 1664 seconds from the rocket's launch to the
    satellite's separation
  • Six seconds before take-off, the first-stage of
    rocket ignites. As the rocket takes off, its
    solid rocket boosters (SRB-A) ignite. With a
    roaring sound, immediately after the rocket's
    full propulsion comes into operation, the rocket
    separates from its launch tower.At 105 seconds,
    the SRB-A separates after having burned for 100
    seconds. At 220 seconds, the satellite faring
    separates. The first-stage of rocket stops firing
    after 389 seconds and at 399 seconds separates.
    At 405 seconds, the second-stage fires for the
    first time, and at 1,421 seconds, for the second
    time. At 1,664 seconds, the satellite separates,
    and is inserted into a geostationary transfer
    orbit.

13
Practical Rocketry
14
Modern Use
15
NASA Launch
  • This rare view of two Space Shuttle orbiters
    simultaneously on launch pads at the Kennedy
    Space center was taken on September 5, 1990. The
    Orbiter Columbia is shown in the foreground on
    pad 39A, where it was being prepared for a launch
    (STS-35) the next morning. This launch ended up
    being delayed until December 1990. In the
    background, the orbiter Discovery sits on pad 39B
    in preparation for an October liftoff on STS-41

16
Negative Aspects
17
Positive Aspects
18
Conclusion
19
Index
20
Glossary
21
Resources
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