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Manual Handling is Associated with

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Task Modifications ... RWL = LC HM VM DM FM AM CM. RWL = recommended weight limit ... FM = frequency multiplier. AM = asymmetry multiplier. CM ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Manual Handling is Associated with


1
Manual Handling is Associated with
  • 27 of all industrial injuries
  • 670,000 injuries/yr in the United States
  • 60 of all money spent on industrial injuries
  • 93,000,000 lost workdays/yr

2
Approaches to Recommendations
  • Biomechanical
  • Physiological
  • Psychophysical

3
Manual Handling Variables
  • Individual
  • Technique
  • Task

4
Pushing and Pulling Strength Factors
  • Handles
  • One hand vs. two hands
  • Body posture
  • Application height
  • Direction

5
Push/Pull Summary
  • Two hands are usually better than one.
  • Force capability goes down as it is exerted more
    often.
  • Initial force capability is higher than sustained
    capability.
  • Pushing capability is higher than pulling.
  • Push at waist level pull at thigh level.

6
Task Modifications
  • Measure the force required to move all wheeled
    equipment periodically check the forces.
  • Install vertical push/pull bars on carts.
  • Push rather than pull loads.
  • Avoid muscle-powered pushing and pulling for
    ramps, long distances, and frequent moves.
  • Use mechanical aids and momentum.
  • Reduce force by reducing friction.

7
Holding
  • Problems
  • Holding gives a static load combining body weight
    and object weight.
  • Low-back pain arises from spine biomechanics.
  • Solutions
  • Reduce the magnitude and duration of the torque.
  • Use balancers.
  • Limit high loads to short durations.

8
Carrying Guidelines
  • Replace carrying with pushing or pulling.
  • Minimize the moment arm of the load relative to
    the spine.
  • Consider carrying large loads occasionally rather
    than light loads often.
  • Use teamwork.
  • Consider using balancers, manipulators,
    conveyors, or robots.
  • Reduce lifting by raising the initial location.
  • Avoid carrying objects up and down stairs.

9
Lifting Guidelines
  • 51 lbs is the maximum that can be lifted or
    lowered (load constant).
  • Recommended weight limit (RWL) is load constant
    multiplied by various factors.
  • Lifting index
  • load weight / RWL

10
NIOSH lifting example
  • At initiation,
  • Horizontal location, H1 10 in.
  • Vertical location, V1 40 in.
  • Vertical location, V2 51 in.
  • Angle of asymmetry, A 0
  • Frequency, F 12 /min.
  • Load 14 lbs.
  • Duration 2 hr.
  • What is the RWL?
  • What is the Lifting Index, LI?

11
Basic NIOSH Lifting Formula (pg. 269)
  • RWL LC HM VM DM FM AM CM
  • RWL recommended weight limit
  • LC load constant (51 lbs.)
  • HM horizontal multiplier
  • VM vertical multiplier
  • DM distance multiplier
  • FM frequency multiplier
  • AM asymmetry multiplier
  • CM coupling multiplier

12
Multiplier Formulas
  • Horizontal multiplier
  • HM BIL / H
  • BIL Body interference limit
  • H Horizontal location
  • Vertical multiplier
  • VM 1 VC V KH
  • VC Vertical constant
  • 0.0075 for inches, 0.003 for cm.
  • V Vertical location
  • KH Knuckle height (assume 30 in.)

13
Multiplier Formulas (cont.)
  • Distance multiplier
  • DM .82 DC/D
  • DC Distance constant
  • 1.8 for inches, 4.5 for cm.
  • D Vertical travel distance
  • Asymmetry multiplier
  • AM 1 .0032A
  • A Angle of symmetry

14
Multiplier Formulas (cont.)
  • Frequency multiplier
  • See Table 15.9.
  • Lifting frequency mean number of lifts in a
    15-minute period
  • Lifting duration /session in hours may be
  • Short .001 h to 1 h
  • with recovery time of 1.2 duration
  • Moderate gt1 h 2 h
  • with recovery time of .3 duration
  • Long gt2 h but 8 h

15
Multiplier Formulas (cont.)
  • Coupling multiplier
  • See Table 15.10, 15.11, Fig. 15.13
  • Depends on
  • Height of initial and final handcontainer
    coupling
  • Whether coupling is good, fair, or poor

16
Force Limits
  • FL A F DIST
  • A Age factor
  • F Frequency factor
  • DIST Distance factor
  • Differences between force limits and NIOSH
    guidelines.
  • Different factors
  • Different criteria
  • FL permissible load 1.8 times that of NIOSH

17
Resources
  • Manual Handing Guide (Mital et al.)
  • Biomechanical software
  • ErgoIntelligence MMH
  • 2D Static Strength Prediction Program
  • 3D Static Strength Prediction Program

18
Guidelines for Manual Handling
  • Three categories
  • Select individual
  • Select strong people based on tests.
  • Teach technique
  • Bend the knees.
  • Dont slip or jerk.
  • Dont twist during the move.
  • Design the job
  • Use machines.
  • Move small weights often.
  • Get a good grip.
  • Put a compact load in a convenient container.
  • Keep the load close to the body.
  • Work at knuckle height.

19
Examples to discuss
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