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Working as a Collaborative Learning Community : Exploring Appreciative Inquiry


Dream 'What might be?' (What is the world calling for) Envisioning Results. Design ' ... Assign recorder to make two lists (p 11): Listen for high point patterns ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Working as a Collaborative Learning Community : Exploring Appreciative Inquiry

Working as a Collaborative Learning Community
Exploring Appreciative Inquiry
  • Frank J. Barrett, PhD
  • Appreciative Inquiry Partners
  • 831-656-2328

Appreciative Inquiry A Positive Approach to
Organizational Learning and Transformation
  • Discovering our strengths

Time to Re-think Human Organization and Change
  • Global Context of Change
  • Guiding Images of the Future
  • End of Apartheid
  • Power of Conversation
  • No Limits to Cooperationvalue nets,
    complimentary partnerships, combining competition
    and cooperation
  • A Positive Revolution in Change Research
  • Positive Psychology Movement
  • Whole System Excellenceagility, speed,
    accelerated learning, execution and follow
    through reality of SCALE
  • Sustainable Design Sustainability as the 21st
    Century Business Opportunity?

Peter Druckeran interview we did with him on his
book The Next Society
  • The task of leadership is to create an alignment
    of strengths, making our weaknesses irrelevant.

Could it BeCatalyzing Change Might Be All About
  • Why would strength connected to strengthcreate
  • Its often been said that strengths perform, but
    how about the idea that strengths do more than
    perform, they transform?
  • What would it mean to create
    an entire
    change theory around strengths?

Aims and Objectives
  • What is appreciative inquiry? What are the
    research influences and theories?
  • Discover strengths and share best practices
    with each other
  • Immediate takeaways for you as a leader,
    teacher, parent, etc.

Appreciative Inquiry 4-D Cycle
Discovery What gives life? (The best of what
is) Appreciating
Destiny How to empower, learn, and
adjust/improvise? Sustaining
Dream What might be? (What is the world calling
for) Envisioning Results
Affirmative Topic Choice
Design What should be--the ideal? Co-constructi

AI 4-D Summit Process
  • Discovery
  • Positive Core
  • Opportunity Context
  • Destiny
  • On-going Support
  • Sustainable Learning
  • Improvisation
  • Dream
  • Future We Want
  • Highest Aspirations

BC Schools working as a collaborative learning
  • Design
  • Co creating the ideal

Six Principles of Appreciative Inquiry
  • Constructionist Principle The way we know is
    fateful words create worlds.
  • Principle of Simultaneity Change begins at the
    moment you ask the question.
  • Poetic Principle Organizations are an open book.
  • Anticipatory Principle Deep change change in
    active images of the future.
  • Positive Principle The more positive the
    question, the greater and longer-lasting the
  • Narrative Principle Storytelling connects people
    and transfer values.

Opening Inquiry
  • Questions for Discovery 1.individual reflection
  • 2.Conversation (pairs)
  • Page 6

Starting Appreciative Interview(dialogue in
  • A--gtB (25 min)
  • B--gtA (25 min)
  • Spirit of discovery
  • Take brief notes
  • At the end.. summary thanks

Where Do Positive Images and Stories Come From?
For Us It Began to Raise New Awareness the
Deficit Theory of ChangeAnd How Pervasive.
  • Identify problem
  • Conduct root cause analysis
  • Brainstorm solutionsand analyze
  • Develop action plans/intervention
  • most schools, companies, families and
    organizations function on an unwritten rule
  • Lets fix whats wrong and let the strengths
    take care of themselves
  • --Gallop Poll

Metaphor Organizations are problems to be solved
Problem Solving
Appreciative Inquiry
  • Identify Problem
  • Conduct Root Cause Analysis
  • Brainstorm Solutions Analyze
  • Develop Action Plans
  • Metaphor Organizations are problems to be solved
  • Appreciate What is (What gives life?)
  • Imagine What Might Be
  • Determine What Should Be
  • Create What Will Be
  • Metaphor Organizations are a solution/mystery
    to be embraced.

Two Kinds of Learning
  • Problem solving
  • Generative learning

The unintended consequences of deficit based
  • Conservative, limiting approach to inquiry
  • Learned hopelessness people learn to live with
    diminished expectations
  • Overlearned deficiency expectation we assume
    something must be wrong somewhere
  • Deftness with problem solving draws attention to

Problem with problem solving
  • Language of mystique develops
  • Managers develop self worth as problem solvers
  • Fragmented view of the world managers become
    experts in smaller parts of the system
  • Culture of defensive posturing Its not my
  • Skilled incompetence looking good better than
    being good
  • Defensiveness discourages experimentation
  • Vocabulary of human deficit

Deficit Based Change Unintended Consequences
  • Much lamented fragmented responses
  • Slow Puts attention on yesterdays causes
  • No new positive images of future
  • Visionless voice... fatigue
  • Weakened fabric of relationships
    defensivenessnegative culture
  • out of sync with the embedded economy of speed,
    partnerships, alliances, e-commerce

Deficit Language at GTE
Gap Analysis
Repeat Reports
Critical Thinking
New Circuit Failure Rate
Down Time
Spell Check
Red Tape
Words Are Tools
  • To a hammer everything is a nail!

Appreciative Inquiry is a Shift
  • No problem can be solved from the same level of
    consciousness that created it. We must learn to
    see the world anew.
  • There are only two ways to live your life. One
    is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is
    as though everything is a miracle.
  • Albert Einstein

Exercise 2 Sense making
  • Roles on p 9 discussion leader, timekeeper,
    recorder, reporter
  • Introduce your partner
  • Share highlights from Q 1, 2, and 3
  • Assign recorder to make two lists (p 11)
  • Listen for high point patterns
  • List 5 highest opportunities for innovation
  • Prepare 2 minute report out 1205

Many Disciplines
Positive Images of Future ---gt Enhance learning
  • Positive HealthPlacebo, etc.
  • Pygmalion We are Made and Imagined In Each
    Others Eyes
  • What Good are Positive Emotions? Inspiration,
    Hope, Joy
  • Imbalanced Inner Dialogue
  • Rise and Fall of Cultures
  • Affirmative Capacity?

Quick conversation
  • What areaspygmalion, inner dialogue, what good
    are positive emotions, rise and fall of
    cultures, affirmative capabilityare most
    interesting to you?
  • Other research? An experience for your life?

Exercise 3 Topics
  • Form district groups (or school groups)
  • Roles on p 9 discussion leader, timekeeper,
    recorder, reporter
  • P 12 share one or two key stories from Q 4 and 5
  • Identify root factors strengths, values,
    capacities that make possible collaborative
    learning communities.
  • Two lists
  • Record a headline for each story
  • List root causes of success (see p 13)
  • Prepare 2 minute report out

Discovery What gives life? (The best of what
is) Appreciating
Destiny How to empower, learn, and
adjust/improvise? Sustaining
Dream What might be? (What is the world calling
for) Envisioning Results
Collaborative learning In BC schools
Design What should be--the ideal? Co-constructi

Positive Topic Choice
  • Human systems move in the direction of what we
    deeply and persistently ask questions about
  • Transformational topics are possible in any
    situation, and will generate more positive
    changeevery time.
  • The skill of framing and re-framing

Best Way to Build High Engagement and Enthusiasm?
  • Do an organization survey of low morale?
  • Magnify and learn from moment of highest
    engagement enthusiasm?

Welcome to Day 2
  • Topic choice and the art of the question
  • The Large Group Summit
  • Dream and Design exploring your topics
  • Improvisation
  • Applying appreciative inquiry to your schools and
    school districts

Deficit Problems Affirmative Topics
Deficit Issues Sexual Harassment Mid-mgmt.
Turnover Fear of Job Loss Low Morale Turfism/Silos
Delayed Orders Customer Complaints Lack of
Training Missed Commitments
Affirmative Topics Positive Cross-Gender Working
Relationships Creating Outstanding
Leadership Braggingly Happy customers the
Perfect Event
Topic Creation Examples
Transformational Cooperation Healthy
Multi-racial Relationships Revolutionary Customer
Response Magnetic Work Environment Outstanding
Arrival Experiences Business as an Agent of World
Benefit Courageous Acts of Goodness Empowering
Enlightened Leadership
Topic Choice
  • Human systems move in the direction of what they
    most frequently and persistently ask questions
  • What you study, GROWS

Genius is Creating the Question
  • What would the universe look like if I were
    riding on the end of a light beam at the speed of
  • ---Albert Einstein

The Art of the Question in Leadership and Change
  • Whats the biggest problem here?
  • Why did I have to be born in such a troubled
  • Why do you blow it so often?
  • Why do we still have those problems?
  • What possibilities exist that we have not yet
  • Whats the smallest change that could make the
    biggest impact?
  • What solutions would haveus both win?

Power of positive question
  • What do you want to learn more about?
  • What do you want to see more of?
  • What topic, if it were alive and present, would
    have a powerful impact on the health and vitality
    of your command?

Three kinds of questions
  • Neutral questions how are communications around
  • Diagnostic questions Where are communications
    breaking down?
  • Unconditionally positive questions We really
    want to learn more about holistic communication,
    can you tell me when communication has been
    strong and inclusive here?

An experience from your lifea moment of Wonder
  • Turn to person next to youinvite them to share a
    moment, a story, a meaningful experience of

What New Questions?
  • From a Study Customer Dissatisfaction and

Magnetic Connections
  • Preface
  • In the physical world, all matter is held
    together by the pull between opposite electric
    charges. Likewise, successful companies are
    magnetic-- people connect in new and innovative
    ways suppliers and customers are pulled together
    and become seamless edge-to-edge organizations.
    Communities of interest form and are pulled
    together by shared values. Knowledge networks
    form as catalysts for innovation and creativity.

Magnetic Connections (continued)
  • A. Think of a time when you felt magnetically
    connected to your client, your colleagues, and
    your community connected in a way that the
    force was so strong that it could not be broken.
    What was that experience? What did it feel like?
  • B. As you look into the future, describe how you
    see us connected to our customers and our
    colleagues in ways that are so strong that we
    are seen as inseparable business partners.

Allstate Insurance
  • Revolutionary Partnerships
  • The mark of a revolutionary partnership is doing
    things radically different together. Not only
    different, but quicker, with a common focus,
    leveraging each others diverse strength. Also,
    establishing new ways of doing business that are
    based on trust, mutual respect and a shared
  • Think of a time when you were part of a
    revolutionary partnership, a time in your life
    at work, or in your personal or community life,
    when you not only met the other person(s) half
    way, but met and exceeded needs on both sides.
    Describe the situation in detail.
  • What made it feel radically different?
  • Who was involved?
  • How did you interact differently?
  • What were the outcomes and benefits you

Engagement and Positive Energy
  • Preface
  • Organizations work best when they are vibrant,
    alive and fun. You know, when the "joint is
    jumping!" You can sense that the spirit of the
    organization is vital and healthy and that people
    feel pride in their work. Everyone builds on
    each other's successes, a positive can do
    attitude is infectious and the glow of success is
    shared. What's more, this positive energy is
    appreciated and celebrated so it deepens and

Engagement Energy
  • A. Tell me about a time when you experienced
    positive energy that was infectious. What was
    the situation? What created the positive energy?
    How did it feel to be a part of it? What did
    you learn?
  • B. If positive energy were the flame of the
    organization, how would you spark it? How would
    you fuel it to keep it burning bright?

  • There is no such thing as a Neutral question!

GroupsCrafting the Questionreturn
  • Choose one of your Topics? the Ai question (s) 3
  • I. Positive Prefaceit is a topic intro.
  • A question to evoke a story from persons history

  • A question to evoke/help give voice to their best
    images of future
  • return...

We Live in the Worlds Our Questions Create
  • Be patient and try to love the questions
    themselves. Live the questions now. Perhaps you
    will then gradually, without noticing it, live
    along some distant day into the answer.
  • Rainer Maria Rilke

Power of positive question
  • What do you want to learn more about?
  • What do you want to see more of?
  • What topic, if it were alive and present, would
    have a powerful impact on the health and vitality
    of your school?

Question about leadership and empowerment
  • Good leadership empowers people by supporting
    their growth and development. This often means
    seeing peoples potential and capacity even more
    clearly than they see themselves. Can you think
    of a time when someone provided an environment
    that allowed you or others to learn, to
    experiment, to take risks? What was going on?
  • What was it about the leader that you value most
    in this story? Describe his / her qualities.

Second question
  • Can you think of a time when you supported
    someone elses growth and development, when you
    saw this persons potential and supported them to
    go beyond their previous limits?

The AI Organization Summit Method
Increasing positive capacity through large
group methods
4 Common Approaches to Change
  • Top Down Strategies
  • Bottom Up Strategies
  • Representative Cross-Section Strategies
  • Pilot Strategies
  • Back Room

Typical Results
  • Less Informed and Ultimately Less Effective
    Change Efforts
  • A Few Try to Convince Many That Change is Needed
  • Partial Responsibility Mindset
  • Change Occurs Sequentially
  • Change is Perceived as a Disruption of Real Work

Typical Results (cont)
  • Pace of Change is Too Slow
  • Substantial Change in Part or Modest Change in an
    Entire Organization
  • Breakdown at Implementation

Dream Design The AI Organization Summit
  • Whole System in the Room
  • Task is Clear...
  • Future Focus Continuity Search
  • Self-Management and Dialogue
  • Narrative Rich Inter-generational
  • From Common Ground to Inspired Action
  • 3-Day event/100 to 1000 Participants
  • Uncommon Action/Follow Through

Why Does Experience of Wholeness
  • Bring out the best in human beings?
  • Propel innovation?
  • New life?
  • Eclipse old patterns?
  • So easy?

Inspired and passionate leadership transforming
the way people live and conduct their lives
  • Making a difference
  • Exceeding our own and
  • customers expectations
  • Pride of working for Nokia

Roadway Express 65 Ai Summits Energized,
  • Recently Featured in Fast Company and Forbes.
  • Stock Prices rise--14 to 41 per share
  • From 300 to Zero Grievances, e.g. Akron Terminal
  • Powerful Product Innovations, e.g. Manhattan
  • New Culture of Leadership
  • Powerful Learning Partnerships Alcoa, Boeing,
    Cisco, Harley-Davidson, US Navy.
  • Roadway Has Done 65 Appreciative Inquiry Summits
  • 10,000 People Engaged

AI 4-D Cycle
  • Discovery
  • Opportunity Call
  • Positive Core
  • History
  • Destiny
  • Self-initiated Actions
  • Collective Programs
  • Innovation Structures
  • Dream
  • Purpose
  • Vision

Igniting Leadership at All Levels Navy Summit
  • Design
  • Principles Propositions
  • Ideal Organizational Designs

Question for GroupsWhat Might A School Summit
Look Like?
  • If anything imaginable were possible, what would
    the nature of a summit look like if it were
    designed in every way to succeed and create a
    collaborative learning culture?
  • Reports at_____oclock

Valuable Applications of Appreciative Inquiry
  • AI Summit Method Quality Growth Strategy
    Benchmarking Leadership Merger Summit Org
  • Leading Quality Improvement Initiatives
  • Labor-management Partnerships
  • Transformation of Measurement Systems
  • Operational Excellence Optimal Margins Service
  • Mergers Alliances
  • Knowledge Magnification The AI Plus
    Collaboration and Best Practices Software
  • Action Learning Leadership Development

Actionable project
  • Where can you apply AI? What project do you have
    in mind?
  • What system? Boundaries?
  • Format? Large group? Small group? Leadership
    coaching? Strategic planning? Meeting formats?
    Performance appraisal?

  • Barrett, F and R. Fry. (2005). Appreciative
    Inquiry A Positive Approach to Building
    Cooperative Capacity. Taos, New Mexico Taos
    Institute Press.

Website For Sharing AI Tools Appreciative
Inquiry Commons
  • http//
  • Bibliographies, Tools, Articles
  • Case Western Reserve University

Future Learning Opportunity
  • Appreciative Inquiry A Workshop for Leaders and
    Consultants Engaged in Organization
  • With Frank Barrett and David Cooperrider
  • June 18-21, 2007
  • Carmel, California
  • For information contact
  • Jodi Hayes at Meeting Solutions 831-625-3606
  • (or Frank Barrett at 831-656-2328