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Policy: Who has control

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Title: Policy: Who has control


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Policy Who has control?
  • US Dept. of Health and Human Services
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • US Dept of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
    (APHIS)
  • EPA
  • Exposure safety of GMOs to humans

4
  • APHIS regulates the release of plants and animals
  • Includes importing species for commercial
    production or sale
  • Includes GMOs
  • Burden of proof is such that species must be
    shown to be harmful to be denied.
  • Requiring that the species has become a pest or
    problem already here or somewhere else
  • Same is true of exotic species, which has
    resulted in a very expensive non-native species
    problem.

5
US Food and Drug Policy
  • FDA has argued that existing regulations are
    sufficient to handle bioengineered foods, no new
    regulations required (no labeling required)
  • FDA requests consultation http//www.cfsan.fda.go
    v/lrd/biocon.htmllist
  • FDA does not require labeling for any
    bioengineered products if the product is not
    substantively different nor a comprehensive
    review process for new products
  • laurate canola oil a new name for a GMO canola
    that produces more lauric acid

6
This does not mean that implementing GMOs is easy
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandates
    a review of any experiments involving recombinant
    DNA (rDNA) by the Institutional Biosafety
    Committee (IBC) USDA may also require a facility
    review.
  • USDA requires a field release permit to be issued
    before any GMO can be released from the
    laboratory into the environment.
  • USDA requires shipping authorization before any
    GMO can be shipped interstate.
  • USDA requires a permit to commercialize or a
    formal decision to declare non-regulatory status
    of a GMO both require a public comment period.
  • EPA may require an experimental use permit if the
    GMO will occupy gt 10 acres.
  • EPA may determine limits on the amount of the
    product expressed in the GMO this requires a
    public comment period.
  • EPA requires product registration prior to
    commercialization this requires a public comment
    period.
  • FDA requires a review and public comment before a
    GMO may be sold as a food or included in a food
    or drug.

Point when new issues emerge, governments often
have difficulty establishing an appropriate level
of oversight
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A common example
  • Bt toxins.
  • Bacillus thuringiensis is a soil bacterium that
    produces a protoxin.
  • The protoxin, in a crystalline form has been used
    for years as an organic pesticide
  • Once in the gut of some insects, an alkaline
    environment leads to the production of simpler
    toxins as the insect breaks the protoxin down.
  • The toxins dissolve the gut of the insect,
    killiing them
  • GMOs have an inserted the gene from Bt
  • Plant produces Bt-like prototoxin
  • Of 50 early FDA consultations, 21 have been for
    herbivore resistance

8
Bt Corn Bt etc
  • Examples
  • Corn (stem borers)
  • Potatoes (Colorado potato beetle, potato virus)
  • Does not work on leafhoppers
  • Cotton (budworms)
  • Tomato (lepidopterans)
  • Environmental Defense has testified to EPA
    regarding ancillary effects of Bt corn on monarch
    butterfly populations.
  • Bt corn pollen (which contains the protoxin) is
    dispersed.
  • Some lands on milkweeds, a required food of
    monarchs.
  • Kills monarchs, Could lead to serious population
    decline

9
Bt concerns
  • There is a strong track record on chemical use
    resulting in selection in the pests for
    tolerance. GMOs may as well.
  • Every herbicide and pesticide has resulted in an
    increased tolerance among pests.
  • The ubiquity of the Bt crops is already causing
    concern for its limited lifespan of utility.
    Monsanto is now recommending intercropping with
    non-BT types.
  • Build-up of stable protoxins in the soil reduces
    soil organisms leading to auxiliary problems

10
Round-up Ready Crops
  • By adding genes from herbicide-resistant weeds,
    crop can then be sprayed with herbicides, with no
    detrimental effect
  • Examples Cotton canola, corn, squash……
  • Net good or bad?
  • Facilitates increased herbicide application on
    crops
  • Allows the application of less persistent, milder
    herbicides
  • Future will likely accelerate development of
    herbicide tolerance in weeds
  • Of 50 consultations, 26 have been for herbicide
    tolerance

11
Terminator Technology
  • In order to retain proprietary rights, companies
    want to keep rights to seed.
  • This has been happening for years with hybrid
    corn
  • Terminator technology was developed in 1996
  • Since then 6 FDA actions have focused on ability
    to add male sterility to engineered crops.
  • Will this also help limit unintended spread of
    genes?

12
An aside regarding social justice
  • GMOs are patented organisms
  • Is it fair to patent an organism?
  • GMOs are functionally sterile so growers must
    keep buying the seed product
  • Does this help the developing world?
  • The ethics of bioproducts and profit the case of
    drug discovery and Yellowstone

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Water Shortages Around the World
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Water availability varies, hence water stress
varies
Areas with high population growth
Key idea regions with highest population growth,
high density and food shortages (Africa) also
have very limited water
18
Global Water Use
Over the past century, water use has been
increasing about twice as fast as population
growth.
19
Ag accounts for 87 of worlds consumptive water
use
Critical idea
20
Major Water Compartments
Critical idea
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California Water Use
Critical idea
  • Groundwater
  • Rivers
  • Off-stream use
  • Consumptive
  • Irrigation
  • Non-consumptive (someone else can still use it)
  • Water used to cool machinery and then returned to
    the river (thermal pollution)
  • In-stream use (non-consumptive)
  • Using the water in the flow
  • Hydroelectric power

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1) GROUNDWATER
Human use of water
  • JUST 0.29 of the earths water
  • Yet, is the BIGGEST part of available water
  • 99.7 of earths water in oceans and ice
  • recharged in upwards of 300 years

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California is the largest consumer of
groundwater. About the same as the other 10
western states COMBINED (AZ, NM, CO, UT, NV, ID,
MT, WY, WA, OR).
http//water.usgs.gov/pubs/circ/2004/circ1268/htdo
cs/table04.html
Irrigation 1000 gal/acre of cropland/day from
groundwater
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Sources of groundwater
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Note Groundwater is legally different than
surface water
  • Land owners are entitled to pump groundwater
    underneath their property.
  • In parts of west, ag land is now purchased solely
    for pumping rights.
  • Groundwater pumping on your property can affect
    aquifer under mine.
  • So, our treatment of this is somewhat
    inconsistent. Landowners are typically allowed to
    negatively affect our neighbors land without
    their permission.

26
Depleting Groundwater
  • Groundwater provides nearly 40 of the fresh
    water for agricultural and domestic use in the
    United States.
  • In many areas in the U.S., groundwater is being
    withdrawn from aquifers faster than natural
    recharge can replace it.
  • In CA an estimated
  • 1.3 maf overdraft/year.
  • L.A. Basin saltwater intrusion.
  • Ocean water is drawn into shallow aquifers when
    aquifer is depleted, reversing the natural flow,
    bringing salt

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Groundwater mining in the western U.S.
Ogallala Aquifer
- Irrigates more than 14 million acres land. - 40
percent U.S. wheat, flour and cotton exports. -
Most water deposited during Pleistocene. - 1930
20 m thick. Today 3 m thick. - In places
dropping 1 m/year, projected to disappear in lt40
years.
Brown areas with overdraft
Source Montgomery 1992 Environmental Geology
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Irrigated Rainfall driven
Water availability (precipitation)
Surface Water
100th meridian
Water use
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--Most water in California falls in the
north. --Most water naturally runs out through SF
Bay. --Very little water flows through
SoCal --Water flows fluctuate seasonally
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The Bureau of Reclamation can fix that!
Bureau is part of Dept. Interior and was started
with a mandate to reclaim underwatered land for
Agriculture
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The State and Cities (SD, LA, SF, Oakland) also
have water projects
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MONO LAKE
Scott Mauvais
In a historic agreement, Los Angeles agreed to
stop over-drawing water from the Mono Lake basin
in order to place streamflow back into the inflow
rivers and equilibrate lake levels.
But what about this?
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CASE STUDY Metropolitan Water District of
Southern California
  • Regional water wholesaler to 6 counties - 5,200
    square miles
  • 26 member agencies
  • 18 million people
  • Regional economy 600 billion
  • Water supplies meets about half of retail
    demands

Slides from William J. Hasencamp, MWD Aug 2006
http//www.state.co.us/gov_dir/leg_dir/lcsstaff/CS
G2006/Powerpoints/Colorado20River20Basin20Forum
20PPT-20Thurs.20Aug2010/CO20River20Hasencamp
20060810.ppt
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MWD Member Agencies
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Southern Californias Water Supply (2000)
LAKE SHASTA
LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCTS 0.2 MAF
LAKE OROVILLE
Bay-Delta
COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT 1.2 MAF
STATE WATER PROJECT 1.4 MAF
LOCAL 1.7 MAF
METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT SERVICE AREA
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Colorado River Entitlements Deliveries (Million
acre-feet)
Mexico
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In a nutshell making 5.1 to 4.4
1.2 MAF 18 million people
VS.
4.3 MAF Cantaloupes, dates, grapes and oranges,
lemons, avocados, and other fruits lettuce,
tomatoes, onions, carrots and other vegetables
alfalfa, wheat, and other forage crops.
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When CA uses 5.1 maf and is under a court order
to reduce to 4.4 maf, who loses H2O?
1.2 MAF 18 million people
??
4.3 MAF Cantaloupes, dates, grapes and oranges,
lemons, avocados, and other fruits lettuce,
tomatoes, onions, carrots and other vegetables
alfalfa, wheat, and other forage crops.
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Who owns the water?
  • Water Rights.
  • Water is owned by the public (state). Those with
    rights to water may put water to beneficial use.
  • Groundwater rights. No permit required.
  • Riparian Water Rights. Comes from English common
    law. All landowners whose land abuts a stream
    have the right to share in the use of the water.
    These rights cannot be sold.
  • Contractual Water Rights. A legal right to divert
    water from publicly owned waters. This means from
    water development projects
  • Senior water rights / Junior water rights.
    Different contracts carry seniority of use. Thus,
    when the Federal Government declared CA to be
    overdrawing water, the Metropolitan Water
    District Rights were junior to Imperial Valley
    (IID), so IID retained water while MWD did not.

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Who owns the water?
  • State Water Resources Control Board
  • Part of CA EPA
  • Controls water quality and water allocation
  • Creates local boards
  • Adjudicates conflicts
  • Manages water transfers / water market structure

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Under the US water laws, the Metropolitan Water
District is the new kid on the block in terms of
water usage, so it is has water rights that are
JUNIOR to the Imperial Irrigation District, so it
loses water and must resort to buying the water
from the Imperial Irrigation District.
Winner
0.55 MAF 16 million people
??
3.85 MAF Cantaloupes, dates, grapes and oranges,
lemons, avocados, and other fruits lettuce,
tomatoes, onions, carrots and other vegetables
alfalfa, wheat, and other forage crops.
Loser
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Water scarcity the future
  • Reallocation of water from agricultural to urban
    uses.
  • Water markets.
  • Conservation
  • Low flow toilets, showers.
  • Landscaping.
  • More efficient irrigation.
  • More allocation to in stream uses.
  • Bay-Delta Restoration (Calfed).
  • Endangered Species Act (salmon, Klamath basin).
  • Public trust (Mono Lake).

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Lakes/wetlands
The Klamath Problem. Two states. Endangered
Species. Powerful water lobbies. Lots of
interested parties
Dams/reservoirs
Klamath
Trinity
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Californias Emerging Water Market
Conserving water by making it valuable. Authorizin
g groups who have a water right to sell the water
will encourage conservation because the resource
has a market value. Without a market Water
rights are use it or lose it.
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Standings
  • Bay Area
  • Berkeley Bowlers 8
  • San Jose Bush Babies 7
  • San Francisco Huskies 6
  • Lafayette Diablos 5
  • Oakland Bombers 5
  • So Cal
  • Snta Barb Green 9
  • Ventura Squid 8
  • SLO Moes 5
  • SD Explorers 5
  • LA Ducts 4
  • Pacific Rim
  • Sac Planetiers (1) 13
  • Hawaii T.huggers 8
  • Alaska Drillers 5
  • Sonoma Whiners 4
  • Martinez Muirs 3

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Rain Shadow Effects
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Water projects create goods and bads
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Example of uncontrolled water diversion
Aral Sea
Population increase water scarcity
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