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Presque Isle Fire Department ... A Fire Rescue membe


Presque Isle Fire Department ... A Fire Rescue member assigned to monitor approaching traffic and activate an ... Positioning of fire apparatus must create a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Presque Isle Fire Department ... A Fire Rescue membe

Special Thanks
  • Freeport Fire Department
  • Maine Dept. of Transportation
  • Maine Municipal Association
  • Presque Isle Fire Department

Missouri EMT Struck and Killed at Scene
            New Jersey Firefighter Killed by
Suspected Drunk Driver
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  • The training also identifies parking practices
  • Fire Rescue Apparatus
  • Emergency Vehicles
  • Provide maximum protection and safety for
    personnel operating in or near moving vehicle
  • Practices to keep personnel safe

  • Maine Law
  • Liability
  • Duration of Incidents
  • Parts of a traffic control zone
  • Proper devices
  • Firefighter Dos and Don'ts

Maine Law29-A, MRSA 2091
  • Enacted as PL 2005 Ch. 167 under LD 1337
  • Defines a public safety traffic flagger
  • Specifies training requirements
  • Defines authority necessary apparel
  • Explains registered owners liability

Public Safety Traffic Flagger
  • A municipal firefighter, a volunteer
    firefighter, or a member of an emergency medical
    service licensed by the Dept. of Public Safety,
    MEMS who is trained in accordance with subsection
    2 and authorized by the chief official of the
    fire department or emergency medical service to
    control vehicular traffic

Subsection 2--- training
  • all PSTFs must receive training approved by the
    Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Standards in
    controlling traffic on public ways. Training may
    consist of video instruction, instruction in a
    classroom, distribution of informational
    handbooks, or other educational materials or
    other training materials.

Subsection 3--- authority
  • .. a PSTF shall wear a reflective traffic vest
    or protective clothing as defined in 26 MRSA
    2103(3), and has the authority to control
    vehicular traffic on a public way at or to
    reroute vehicular traffic around a public safety
    emergency, accident, fire., unless otherwise
    directed by a law enforcement officer.

Subsection 4 obeying the flagger
  • .. an operator of a motor vehicle on a public
    way shall obey a request or signal of a person
    who is reasonable identifiable as a PSTF. A
    violation is a traffic violation.

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)
  • NOT State law.but it is the national standard
    for all traffic control
  • Federal law 23 CFR 655.603 adopts the MUTCD as
    the national standard for all traffic control
    devices installed on any street, highway, or
    bicycle trail open to public travel.
  • The MUTCD describes the application of traffic
    control devices, but shall not be a legal
    requirement for their installation.

Intermediate Traffic Incidents
  • Expected duration of 30 minutes to 2 hours.
  • Diverting traffic past the blockage.
  • Using a Detour for a short duration.
  • Be aware of your visibility to oncoming traffic

Minor Traffic Incidents
  • Expected duration under 30 minutes
  • Typically disabled vehicles and fender benders
  • Diversion of traffic to other lanes is not needed
    or only needed briefly.
  • If blocking a lane, move it to the shoulder as
    quickly as possible

Responder Safety Considerations
  • Training all responders directing traffic shall
    be trained.
  • Worker Clothing Responders exposed to the risks
    of moving traffic shall wear hi-visibility safety
    apparel meeting ANSI 107-1999.
  • Temp. traffic barriers depends on type and
    length of the emergency, traffic volume speed,
    time of day, type of road
  • Speed reduction Emergency Responders, lane
    restrictions, etc.

Liability Exposures
  • In addition to providing protection and safety
    for emergency personnel other considerations are
  • Through our actions, not causing or contributing
  • Injury to the public
  • Damage to other vehicles
  • Damage to property

Maine Tort Claims Act
  • The Maine Tort Claims Act addresses Entity
    Liability. The Rule (Sovereign Immunity) The
    City/Town is immune.
  • City/Town Immunity Waived Immunity may be
    waived under certain circumstances such as the
    ownership, maintenance and use of equipment or
    the construction or repair of streets, operation
    and use of public buildings.

Maine Tort Claims Act Cont
  • Immunity that overrides waiver If a City/Town
    losses immunity in a waived category it may get
    it back if the acts are
  • Legislative Acts
  • Judicial Acts
  • Discretionary Function
  • Decision not to provide certain services
  • Prosecutorial Acts
  • Leasing Government property to others

Maine Tort Claims Act Cont
  • An employee has no automatic immunity like a
    City/Town does. There is a 10,000 damage limit.
    City/Town must defend.
  • Employee actions may get immunity discretionary
    functions (such as making a decision on how to
    control traffic.
  • Control of traffic at an emergency scene can
    reasonably be considered a Discretionary Function.

Discretionary Function
  • Is the defendant an employee of a governmental
  • Are the defendants actions reasonably
    encompassed by his employment duties as defined
    by job description, policy, ordinance or statute?

Discretionary Function Cont
  • Does the challenged act necessarily involve a
    basic governmental policy or objective?
  • Is the questioned act essential to the
    realization or accomplishment of that policy or
  • Does the act require the exercise of judgment and
  • Does the employee possess lawful authority to do
    the challenged act?
  • Egregious conduct exceeds scope of discretionary
    function immunity.

  • Advance Warning
  • Block
  • Buffer Zone
  • Downstream
  • Flagger
  • Shadow
  • Taper
  • Temporary Work Zone
  • Transition Zone
  • Upstream

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Advance Warning
  • Notification procedures that advises approaching
    motorist to transition from normal driving status
    to that required by the temporary emergency
    traffic control measures ahead.

  • Positioning Fire Rescue on an angle to the lanes
    of traffic creating a physical barrier between
    upstream traffic and the work area.
  • Includes
  • Block to the Left
  • Block to the Right

  • To the Left

Buffer Zone
  • The distance or space between personnel and
    vehicles in the protected work zone and nearby
    moving traffic
  • Turn your wheels so that a vehicle hitting from
    behind will not send your vehicle into the work

  • The direction that traffic is moving as it
    travels away from the incident scene.

  • A Fire Rescue member assigned to monitor
    approaching traffic and activate an emergency
    signal if the actions of a motorist do not
    conform to traffic control measures

  • Protected area at a vehicle related roadway
    incident that is shielded by the block from

  • Action of merging several lanes of moving traffic
    to fewer lanes of moving traffic

Temporary Work Zone
  • The area of roadway within which emergency
    perform their Fire/EMS tasks at a vehicle related

Transition Zone
  • Lanes of a roadway within which approaching
    motorist change their speed and position to
    comply with traffic control measures at an
    incident scene

  • The direction that traffic is traveling from as
    the vehicles approach the incident scene.

Apparatus Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks
  • Always position first arriving apparatus to
    protect scene, patients and emergency personnel.
  • Positioning of fire apparatus must create a safe
    parking area for EMS units.

Apparatus Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks
  • When blocking with apparatus to protect the
    scene, establish a sufficient size work zone that
    includes (Shadow)
  • Damaged vehicles
  • Roadway debris
  • Patient triage and treatment area
  • Operating personnel, equipment and patients

Apparatus Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks
  • Ambulances should be positioned within the
    protected work area with their rear patient
    loading door area angled away from the nearest
    lanes of moving traffic
  • Command shall stage unneeded emergency vehicles
    off the roadway or in a staging area

Apparatus Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks
  • At all intersections or where the incident may
    be near the middle of the roadway, two or more
    sides of the incident may need to be protected.

Apparatus Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks
  • Where a charged hoseline may be needed, block so
    the the pump panel is downstream to protect the
    pump operator

Apparatus Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks
  • Traffic cones shall be deployed from the rear of
    the blocking apparatus toward approaching traffic
  • Personnel shall place and retrieve cones while
    facing oncoming traffic
  • Cones shall be deployed at 15-foot intervals
    upstream of the blocking apparatus

Apparatus Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks
  • Emergency Scene Ahead signs shall be deployed at
    all roadway incidents, prior to the furthest cone.

Incident Command Benchmarks
  • The initial-arriving officer or member, and or
    Incident Commander must complete critical
    benchmarks to assure that a safe and protected
    work environment for emergency scene personnel is

Incident Command Benchmarks
  • Assure that the first arriving apparatus
    establishes an initial block
  • Assign parking location for all ambulances.
  • Lanes shall be identified numerically as
    Breakdown, Lane 1, Lane 2.
  • Typically, vehicles travel a lower speed in the
    lower number lanes

Incident Command Benchmarks
  • Assign parking location for all ambulances.
  • Directions Right Left shall be as identified
    as from the approaching motorist point of view
  • Instruct ambulance to block to the left or right
    to protect rear patient loading area.

Incident Command Benchmarks
  • Assure that all ambulances on scene are placed
    within the protected work area. (Shadow)
  • Assure that all patient loading into ambulances
    is done from within the protected work zone
  • Operate as or assign a Scene Safety Officer
  • Assure all traffic emitter devices are turned off.

Emergency Crew Personnel Benchmarks
  • Always maintain an acute awareness of the high
    risk of working in or near moving traffic
  • Never trust moving traffic
  • Always look before you move(look both ways)
  • NEVER turn your back to moving traffic.
  • Exit enter crew cabs from the protected side
    (shadow), away from traffic

Emergency Crew Personnel Benchmarks
  • Protective clothing and Helmet must be donned
    prior to exiting the emergency vehicle
  • Class II Vest or bunker coat with a Helmet as a
    minimum. (Full PPE when performing FF work)

Emergency Crew Personnel Benchmarks
  • Always look before opening doors and stepping out
    of apparatus or emergency vehicles.
  • Be alert when walking around apparatus.
  • Stop at corner of the unit, check for traffic
  • Stay on protected side when possible
  • Maintain reduced profile when moving through any
    area where a minimum buffer zone exist.

Interstate Highway Operations
  • State Police and DOT have a desire to keep the
    traffic moving on these roadways.
  • When in the judgment of the IC it becomes
    essential for the safety of operating personnel
    and patients, any or all lanes can be shut down
  • This should rarely occur and should be for a
    short period of time as practical

Interstate Highway Operations
  • First arriving engine company shall establish an
    initial block of Lane 1 or Lane 2.
  • Traffic cones shall be placed farther apart with
    the last cone approximately 150 feet upstream
  • Personnel shall place and retrieve cones while
    facing traffic
  • Emergency Scene Ahead signs shall also be
    deployed at all highway incidents, prior to the
    furthest traffic cone.

Interstate Highway Operations
  • Assign a flagger to monitor approaching traffic.
  • Notify Command via radio of approaching traffic
    not responding to speed changes
  • Police vehicles also used for advanced warning
  • Staging of additional companies off the highway
    may be required

Interstate Highway Operations
  • Establish liaison with State Police as soon as
    possible to jointly coordinate a safe work zone
  • Termination of the incident, removal of crews,
    apparatus and equipment must be done promptly to
    reduce exposure to moving traffic and minimize
    traffic congestion.

Officers Safe Parking Cue Card
  • Block
  • Block at least One Lane
  • Block so pump panel is Down Stream
  • Block most critical or highest traffic volume
    direction first
  • Consider requesting addition PD units or

Officers Safe Parking Cue Card
  • Crews wear proper PPE w/Helmet
  • Bunker Coat or Class II vests at all times
  • Helmet or hard hat at all times

Officers Safe Parking Cue Card
  • Establish more than adequate advance warning.
  • Traffic cones at 15 intervals
  • Deploy minimum 5 cones upstream
  • Deploy Emergency Scene Ahead sign prior to last
    cone upstream
  • Cones only Suggest, they dont block
  • Expand initial safe work zone

Officers Safe Parking Cue Card
  • Direct placement of ambulances
  • Assure ambulances park within shadow of larger
    apparatus as directed
  • Lane 1 is furthest right lane, next is Lane 2
    from approaching motorists point of view
  • Direct ambulance to block to the right or left
    to protect loading doors
  • All patient loading is done from within a
    protected work zone

Officers Safe Parking Cue Card
  • You are the Scene Safety Officer
  • Consider assigning a FF as upstream flagger or
    spotter as necessary for approaching traffic

Officers Safe Parking Cue Card
  • Night or Reduced Light Conditions
  • Turn off Headlights
  • Turn off Traffic emitter
  • Provide overall scene lighting
  • All personnel in PPE w/helmets or vest
  • Consider additional company for additional
    upstream block if necessary

Officers Safe Parking Cue Card
  • Highway Operations
  • Establish initial block of one lane
  • Place cones and signs upstream of apparatus
  • Last Cone 150 upstream
  • Deploy Emergency Scene Ahead sign prior to
    furthest cone
  • Monitor approaching traffic
  • Terminate incident aggressively

Traffic Control devices
  • Signs
  • Channelization Devices
  • Lighting Devices
  • Pavement Markers

Traffic Control Devices
  • Should meet 5 basic requirements
  • Fulfill the need
  • Command Attention
  • Convey a clear and simple meaning
  • Command respect from road users, and
  • Give appropriate time for response (reaction time)

Protective Clothing
  • The outer garment shall have retro-reflective
    material which meets NFPA or ANSI standards.
  • Firefighter helmet or hard hat with
    retro-reflective tape on front, sides and rear of
    helmet or hard hat.

Channelizing Devices(cones, barricades, etc.)
  • Warn and alert road users of work conditions in
    or near the roadway
  • Guide drivers and pedestrians safely
  • Should provide a smooth, gradual, and obvious
  • 28 plus 2 retroreflectorized white bands--one 6
    band about 2 above one 4 band

Traffic Signs
  • Typically diamond shaped with black lettering on
    orange or fluorescent pink retroreflective
  • Should be placed in advance of hazard
  • May be rigid or flexible material
  • Size generally 36 by 36

Stop and Slow Signs
18 inches
General Safety for Flaggers
  • Stand on side of Road facing traffic
  • Always have an escape route
  • Dont stand in shadows
  • Beware of where the sun is, it may blind drivers
  • Beware of the contrasting colors behind you.
  • Stand alone

Hand Signals
Stop on-coming traffic
Beckoning on-coming traffic
Safety Benchmarks
  • Never trust approaching traffic
  • NEVER turn your back to approaching traffic
  • Establish an initial Block with first arriving
    fire apparatus
  • Always wear firefighting helmet or hard hat with
    retro reflective tape.
  • Wear Proper PPE

Safety Benchmarks
  • Turn off sources of vision impairment to
    approaching motorist at nighttime incidents.
  • Use apparatus or police vehicles to redirect the
    flow of moving traffic
  • Establish advance warning upstream
  • Use traffic cones and incident signs to control
    traffic direction
  • Establish Flagger to monitor approaching traffic

  • Junior emergency personnel shall not be allowed
    to direct traffic.
  • Under 18 years of age

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  • Protect Yourself
  • Protect your Scene
  • Dont Assume that all drivers will follow your

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Dont Get Bit
Dont Become A
Maine Speed Bumps