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Title: Building Sustainable Communities:


1
Building Sustainable Communities Respecting the
Needs of People, Plants Animals
Sheila and Lindsay Fink Community Partners for
Affordable Housing (CPAH) And Moonshadow Park
Stewards
2
Our Moonshadow Park Experience
  • 10 years ago we moved to Moonshadow
  • Beautiful forest and creek in our backyard
  • On our second floor, looking at the treetops, we
    forget were just outside city limits
  • Kids share the woods with
  • plants and animals

3
Why are so many other people working in our
backyard?
  • Started noticing lots and lots of work teams
  • Boy Scouts, SOLV, Intel, parks and watershed
    council, Eco-Clubs Every now and then a few
    neighbors
  • For past 5 years, weve participated when we can,
    learned a lot about watersheds
  • We feel much more connected, and want to get more
    neighbors involved
  • Would they respond to a web site or educational
    game? Well find out!

4
What we learned about our watershed
  • Moonshadow Park 4.76 acres, straddling 1500 feet
    of the middle reach of Ash Creek paved trail
    1200 feet long
  • It is in the Fanno Creek sub-basin of the
    Tualatin River watershed
  • Fanno designated as winter steelhead and coho
    salmon rearing habitat (spawning, migration)
  • This stretch of Ash Creek impacted by high stream
    temperatures (non natives, non point source
    pollution)
  • Approximately 1.25 acres of site stream riparian
    zone, and .5 in adjacent upland habitat
  • Huge Douglas fir is 5.5 feet in diameter, 17.2
    feet in circumference over 123 plant species in
    park!

5
Moonshadow Oleson Woods What do these have in
common?
  • Stewardship PEOPLE learning to balance their
    needs with the plants and animals universal
    truth People need access to nature
  • Green Urbanism focuses on void as well as the
    built environment, links to thinkers like
    Jennifer Wolch at USC, Director of Sustainable
    Cities Project cities can be transformed into
    natural habitats via land use planning,
    architectural design and public education
    (zoopolis)
  •  Eventually, most of us figure out that its
    people, not nature, who create morality, values,
    ethicsand even the idea that nature itself is
    something worth preserving. We choose to be
    shepherds and stewards, or we dont. We will live
    wiselyor we wont, in which case nature will
    fill the vacuum we leave. She is exquisite, and
    utterly indifferent.  --Seth Norman

6
ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT
Father Loren Kerkof
  • Grassroots CDC, just starting when we moved to
    Moonshadow
  • SW Portland/Southern suburbs
  • Area jobs rich, affordable housing services
    poor
  • 7 staff, 400k budget, 175 units of
    service-enriched housing, 100 under
    development/in pipeline
  • Building housing, building hope, building lives

7
CPAHS PORTFOLIO 175 units
New Village _at_ Washington Square Oleson Woods
Apartments Rehab Greenburg Oaks Metzger Park
Apartments Tangela House (5 bedroom)
8
WHY CDCs GO GREEN
  • CPAHs mission is to build healthy communities,
    through the development of permanent affordable
    housing, sustainable economic growth and
    community based partnerships.
  • Green building / smart growth / new urbanism /
    green urbanism / green communities

9
CPAHS COMMITMENT TO GREEN BUILDING and GREEN
URBANISM
  • Village _at_ Washington Square (2002)
  • Oleson Woods Apartments (2005)
  • The Watershed _at_ Hillsdale (LEED) (2007)

The Watershed at Hillsdale (2007)
Oleson Woods (2005)
Village _at_ Wash. Square (2002)
10
WHAT IS GREEN BUILDING?
  • philosophy of environmentally sensitive building
    practices, also known as sustainable construction
  • meet the needs of the present generation without
    compromising the ability of future generations to
    meet their needs
  • typically involves fewer materials, less energy
    consumption, less pollution, less natural habitat
    loss and better indoor air quality
  • Oregon Housing Community Services Dept. Green
    Building Resource Guide

11
VILLAGE AT WASHINGTON SQUAREDense Suburban
Infill (26 units/1 acre)
  • Densitygood design13variances!
  • fly ash in concrete
  • engineered lumber
  • low VOC interior paints
  • plywood cabinets
  • recycled content carpets
  • whole house ventilation
  • native plants, butterfly garden
  • non-toxic glues finishes
  • job site recycling
  • near transit/jobs/services
  • high efficiency appliances water heaters
  • faucet aerators/low flow showers
  • compact florescent lighting
  • fiber cement siding
  • bicycle parking
  • reduced on-site parking
  • on-site storm water detention/ treatment
  • design sensitive to solar exposure

12
FROM GREEN BUILDING TO GREEN COMMUNITIES/URBANISM
EPA Says Green Communities Strive for
Sustainability by Balancing Environmental
environmental compliance, waste minimization,
pollution prevention, natural resource
conservation (what we dont build) Economic
locally owned sustainable businesses, adequate
affordable housing, mixed uses and open space,
economic equity Social active/broad citizen
involvement, sustainable public actions
incorporating local values, safe/clean
neighborhoods with recreation, adequate
infrastructure, equitable/effective educational
health care systems
13
OLESON WOODS CASE STUDY IN GREEN
14
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15
ASSEMBLING THE GREEN TEAM
  • Experienced green team (self motivated)
  • Firm commitment to project goals realignment
  • Highly regulated/sensitive site, cost pressures,
    NIMBY neighbors It aint easy being green

16
ASSEMBLING THE GREEN
  • Low Interest Perm Loan NOAH/1.4 million
  • LIHTC/ESIC 3.2 million
  • HOME Loan of 700k
  • Community Dev. Block Grant 273k
  • Oregon Housing Trust Fund 100k
  • Enterprise Green Communities 32k
  • Total 5.8 million

17
OLESON WOODS ONE GREEN SITE!
  • L-shaped, 3.15 acre site in bustling regional
    center
  • Land locked multifamily west, single family
    other 3 sides
  • Zoned R5-24 w/wildlife habitat overlay on
    portion
  • No tree protection ordinance
  • Neighbors overriding concern stormwater

18
True Stories from the first neighborhood meeting
  • Would you be willing to put concrete below the
    fence, so children wont tunnel into our yard?
  • Would a barb wire topper be possible?
  • How can we afford the number of free and reduced
    lunches added by your projects? the non-English
    speakers present an unfair burden on teachers
  • Could you build a 10 perimeter fence?
  • If you are allowed to build, Ill put my house on
    the market immediately!
  • How can the County allow your project to proceed
    with all the trees youre removing? If you build,
    our flooding will increase.

19
KEEPING OLESON GREEN
  • Mantra Its all about the trees
  • Balance needs of
  • plants (35 types)
  • animals (22 types)
  • people (100) neighbors
  • Stewardship Strategy
  • Save key, mature trees
  • restore non-functioning
  • (low value) wetland

20
DESIGN GOALS
  • Buildings accommodated trees
  • Buildings cover only 25 of surface
  • Activities focused in center of site
  • stewardship of woods wetlands
  • respect privacy of neighbors
  • Leadership role in community on stormwater
    management

21
WHY GREEN NON-BUILDING MATTERS
  • Access to nature impact on physical and mental
    healthresearch indicates proximity to nature
    boosts attention /reduces obesity (ecopsychology,
    public health)
  • Nancy Wells, NY State College of Human Ecology,
    2000 profound differences emerged in their
    attention capacities even when the effects of the
    improved housing were taken into account
  • 1997 study by Swedish researchers foung green
    day care participants had better motor
    coordination ability to concentrate
  • 2001, Taylor and Kuo, Human Environment Research
    Lab at University of Illinois found green
    outdoor spaces foster creative play, enhance
    access to positive adult interaction, relieve
    symptoms of ADDthe greener the setting, the
    more the reliefregardless of income level
  • 2001, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
    connection between sprawl and obesitylack of
    sidewalks and bike paths

22
OLESON WOODS DESIGN OVERVIEW
  • Design tucked into trees included
  • Community center
  • 6 residential buildings
  • Basketball and play area
  • Woodland path
  • Restored/expanded wetlands
  • Stormwater detention pond
  • Use of existing access roads/ infrastructure
    (purchased 10 parking spaces and easements)

23
BUILDINGS ACCOMMODATE TREES
24
COMMUNITY CENTERED
25
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26
LEADERSHIP ROLE STORMWATER AND WETLANDS
Wetlands
Storm Detention Pond
27
Green Homes are Healthy HomesHow do we keep
them that way?
  • Keep it dry
  • Keep it well ventilated
  • Keep it free of contaminants
  • Keep it clean
  • Keep it safe

28
KEEP IT DRY (Interior)
  • Hot water heater installation
  • Durable, moisture resistant materials, tub
    enclosures
  • Clothes dryers exhausted to outside
  • No use of can lights
  • Hard surfaces in entry and dining

Hot water heater, drip pan, insulated under
Seamless fiberglass one-piece tub enclosure
29
KEEP IT DRY (Exterior)
  • Thick gravel under slab provides capillary break
  • Foundation drains, moisture barrier
  • Surface water away from buildings
  • Slopes of walkways

Sloping and unobstructed basketball court,
walkways
Removed poor draining soils, imported gravel,
installed radon/ moisture barrier
On-site storm detention pond
Functional wetlands
30
OLESON WOODS KEEP IT DRY
  • Roof, wall and window flashing details

Window, and window pan flashing
Rain screen
  • Minimum of 18 overhangs to protect walls and
    windows from rain
  • Extended overhangs at entries and community
    building

31
KEEP IT CLEAN
  • Walk off mats at each unit community center
  • Smooth and resilient flooring in units and
    community center

Community center ceramic tile
Units Commercial grade vinyl, sealed with welded
seams, in kitchen, laundry, bath, entry, dining
32
KEEP IT WELL VENTILATED
  • Whole house ventilation on timer
  • Exhaust fans to outdoors (kitchen bath)
  • Adequate ventilation Fresh air (stealth vents) /
    HVAC
  • Ventilate before occupancy Follow guidelines for
    venting materials
  • Blower door test meets
  • local green building standard
  • Zonal electric heat, no ducts

All kitchen bath fans vent to outside
Stealth vents in windows for trickle
ventilation (make up air always available)
33
KEEP IT SAFE
  • Water heater temperature at 120 degrees
  • Smoke detectors, hardwired battery back up
  • Sprinklered buildings in lieu of fire truck
    turnaround to preserve wetland
  • Site lighting and walkways designed for high
    visibility light while preventing spillage (owl
    friendly woodlands)
  • CPAH encourages Neighborhood Watch knowing your
    neighbor is the best prevention!
  • Trust for Public Land claims access to nature
    linked to reductions in crime, juvenile
    delinquency
  • Studies indicate that children are safer in sites
    with open space that encourage adult supervision

34
KEEP IT FREE OF CONTAMINANTS
  • Low VOC paints and primers
  • Recycled interior paint meets Green Seal
    standards
  • Low VOC sealants and adhesives
  • Plywood cabinets with solid wood doors, solid
    wood trim
  • No added urea formaldehyde-free underlayment,
    wire shelves
  • Green Label carpets
  • Smooth and cleanable floors
  • No combustion fueled equipment or fireplaces

35
OLESON WOODS KEEP IT PEST FREE
  • Wall, floor and joint penetrations sealed low VOC
    caulk helps keep pests out

Another Way to Spell PEST Pets
  • This site known as feral cat area, impacts bird
    population
  • CPAH allows pets with deposit, monitors for
    appropriate care

36
OLESON WOODS KEEP IT WELL MAINTAINED
  • Users Manuals for residents and complex
  • Resident manual
  • Checklist of healthy features
  • Walk thru discussion of features
  • Welcome kits
  • Management training
  • Lighting, cleaning, landscape

Welcome Kits Door mat, and Cleaning Bucket
baking soda, vinegar, and pre-mixed spray cleaner
(unlimited free refills)
37
BARRIERS TO GOING GREEN
  • Contractors and subs may be unfamiliar with
    materials and processes, and resistant to change
  • Materials cost and availability, both perception
    and reality in some cases hard to find
    expensive (cant always work with usual
    suppliers, can take longer lead time)
  • Post construction consumer behavior (resident
    management) can erase green benefits
  • Sites with habitat or open space prompt
    management/ owner concerns of legal liability
  • Consumer preferences / marketability may prefer
    more carpets, familiar finishes

38
GREEN LESSONS LEARNED
  • Integration of disciplines critical for long term
    green (construction, design, property asset
    management, resident services)
  • Team discipline/communication essential
    coordination with key subconsultants and
    subcontractors
  • Green materials and installation alien to many
    contractors and their subs resistance to change
    requires additional time/training
  • Early buy-in is good, but accurate early
    submittals are better
  • Something on the add-back list for everyone
    (keeps all focused)
  • Green features make the project unique, compel
    extra effort

39
CPAHS PROGRAMS
  • Youth Adult Education, Public Safety, Hunger,
    Health
  • Focus Site-based service integrationbringing
    the Community into CPAHs communities

40
PROGRAMS REQUIRE AMPLE COMMUNITY SPACE AND STRONG
PARTNERSHIPS
41
CPAH PROGRAMS/PARTNERSHIPS
  • Youth Programs Summer Youth Program After
    School Program REAL Recreation, Education and
    Active Leadership (drop out prevention, core
    performance, attendance, parental involvement,
    and leadership)
  • SELF Stable Environments to Launch the Future,
    building hope opportunity
  • CYCLES of Hope Creating attachment and positive
    parenting (birth 5)
  • Other Neighborhood Watch, Recovery Groups,
    Partner Activities (10 Agencies)

42
Ballet Folklorico de CPAH
43
OLESON WOODS MINI ZOOPOLIS
  • Nature education potential far greater with
    immediate access to over 50 plants and animals at
    home
  • One of a series of Nature Libraries in Portland
    area
  • CPAHs Summer Youth 2006 No Child Left Inside

crow
goldfinch
raccoon
fox squirrel
towhee
scrub jay
kestrel
Ruby crowned kinglet
Screech owl
44
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45
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46
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47
Sustainable Communities and Stewardship Dont
Just Happen
  • Robert Putnam (Harvard) in Bowling Alone and
    Better Together outlines civic engagement,
    highlights Hillsdale
  • Society as a whole benefits enormously from the
    social ties forged by those who choose connective
    strategies in pursuit of their particular goals.
    redundant contacts, mixing and bridging,
    recycling of existing networks,
    multistrandedness, active varied social spaces
  • Communication varied daily Active and
    intersecting leadership on neighborhood and
    business associations
  • Multistrandedness getting schools, police,
    environmentalists, transportation planners,
    service and housing providers working together on
    common issues
  • Takes voluntary leadership (leadership is a
    choice, not a position)youre either a steward,
    or youre not

48
The Bertha Triangle in Hillsdale
Brownfield, triangular shaped site bounded by
busy streets Started by naming it Bertha
Stationit was a stop on the old Red Electric
Line and is at Bertha Blvd and Bertha Court
49
Why CPAHs next project is called, The Watershed
_at_ Hillsdale
  • Hillsdale activists told us our project name was
    trite (Bertha was way over used, and the Red
    Electric didnt run for very long), they would
    help us find just the right one
  • They chose Watershed because its between
    Tualatin and Willamette River watersheds, its at
    the headwaters of Stephens and Fanno Creeks, and
    its sensitively handling all the stormwater it
    can on-site
  • They think of it as a watershed moment in their
    development history, one of the last pieces of
    buildable land, and a project that will book end
    their neighborhood (the Hillsdale Library on the
    other end is also LEED)

50
The Watershed _at_ Hillsdale
  • For most of us, watersheds are more than just
    drainage areas.
  • They are the place where we live, work, and
    recreate.
  • Watersheds provide habitat for specific plants
    and animals.
  • In areas like Hillsdale, where streams have been
    undergrounded, people forget that its still a
    watershed!
  • So the name ties its past history to its function
    today, as it collects stormwater and lets gravity
    guide it through cascading rain gardens

51
John Wesley Powells definition of Watersheds
  • "that area of land, a bounded hydrologic system,
    within which all living things are inextricably
    linked by their common water course and where, as
    humans settled, simple logic demanded that they
    become part of a community."
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