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Next Generation Adaptive Optics NGAO Preliminary Design Phase Update

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Title: Next Generation Adaptive Optics NGAO Preliminary Design Phase Update


1
Next Generation Adaptive Optics
(NGAO)Preliminary Design Phase Update
  • Presenters
  • Richard Ellis, Michael Liu, Mark Morris, Tommaso
    Treu
  • Peter Wizinowich
  • With contributions from the
  • NGAO Science Advisory Team NGAO Design Team
  • Keck Strategic Planning Meeting
  • September 18, 2009

2
Presentation Sequence
  • NGAO Overview (Wizinowich)
  • Project Goals, Status, Plans Technical Overview
  • NGAO Science
  • Overview (Max)
  • Extragalactic Science (Ellis)
  • High Contrast Science (Liu)
  • Dark Matter Substructure Science Case (Treu)
  • NGAO Science Advisory Team (Morris)
  • NSAT role
  • Complementarity with other Facilities (especially
    TMT)
  • NSAT assessment
  • Open issues community input ? Discussion

3
NGAO OverviewPeter WizinowichSean Adkins,
Richard Dekany, Don Gavel, Claire Max NGAO Team
4
NGAO Science Goals Capabilities
Key Science Goals Understanding the Formation and
Evolution of Todays Galaxies Measuring Dark
Matter in our Galaxy and Beyond Testing the
Theory of General Relativity in the Galactic
Center Understanding the Formation of Planetary
Systems around Nearby Stars Exploring the Origins
of Our Solar System
Key New Science Capabilities Near
Diffraction-Limited in Near-IR (K-Strehl 80) AO
correction at Red Wavelengths (0.65-1.0
?m) Increased Sky Coverage Improved Angular
Resolution, Sensitivity and Contrast Improved
Photometric and Astrometric Accuracy Imaging and
Integral Field Spectroscopy
5
How is NGAO different from Kecks AO today?
6
NGAO Project Milestones Funding
  • All of the following successfully completed
  • Jun/06. Proposal submitted
  • Apr/08. System Design Review
  • Nov/08. TMT AO cost comparison
  • Mar/09. Build-to-cost concept review
  • Preliminary Design Review planned for Apr/10
  • TSIP provided 2M for the preliminary design
  • NSF-MRI (Aug/09) provided 1.4M for K2 center
    launch
  • ATI (Nov/08), MRI-R2 (Aug/09) TSIP (Sep/09)
    proposals submitted for NGAO related activities
  • Private funding being sought

7
NGAO System Design Review (April/08)
  • Very Experienced Review Committee
  • Brent Ellerbroek Gary Sanders (TMT)
  • Bob Fugate (NMT) Norbert Hubin (ESO)
  • Andrea Ghez (UCLA) Nick Scoville (Caltech)
  • The review panel believes that Keck Observatory
    has assembled an NGAO team with the necessary
    past experience needed to develop the NGAO
    facility for Keck. It is a sound, though
    aggressive, strategy to be among the first
    observatories to develop and depend on advanced
    LGS AO systems as a means to maintain Kecks
    leadership in ground-based observational
    astronomy for the immediate future.
  • The panel also believes that NGAO is an
    important pathfinder for the 2nd generation of AO
    based instruments for future ELTs
  • The NGAO Science cases are mature, well
    developed and provide high confidence that the
    science will be unique within the current
    landscape.

8
NGAO Build-to-Cost Review (March/09)
  • Very Experienced Review Committee
  • Brent Ellerbroek (TMT)
  • Michael Liu (U. Hawaii)
  • Jerry Nelson (TMT, UCSC)
  • Cost cap with instruments contingency 60M
    then-year dollars
  • "The Committee strongly congratulates the NGAO
    team for a concise, convincing presentation which
    demonstrates that the above criteria for further
    development of the system have been very
    effectively met. We recommend that the project is
    now ready to proceed with the Preliminary Design
    Phase to continue the development of the updated
    system concept, with no further changes in
    overall scope or basic architecture either
    necessary or desirable.
  • We are unable to identify any other design
    change to bring NGAO within the cost cap with
    such a modest impact upon overall scientific
    capability.

9
Revised Cost Estimate
  • 54M in FY09 dollars ? 60M in then-year dollars
  • Includes science instrument contingency

10
Major NGAO Milestones
11
NGAO System Architecture
  • Key Features
  • Fixed narrow field laser tomography
  • AO corrected NIR TT sensors
  • Cooled AO enclosure
  • Cascaded relay
  • Combined imager/IFU instrument

12
NGAO Imaging Capability
  • Broadband
  • z, Y, J, H, K (0.818 to 2.4 µm)
  • photometric filters for each band plus narrowband
    filters similar to NIRC2
  • Plate scale
  • 1 or more plate scales selected to optimally
    sample the diffraction limit, e.g. (?/2D), 8.4
    mas at 0.818 µm
  • Finer sampling may be important for photometry,
    astrometry
  • Science requirement for 20" diameter FOV
  • Multiple plate scales increase cost and may limit
    performance
  • Simple coronagraph
  • Throughput 60 over full wavelength range
  • Sky background limited performance

13
NGAO IFS Capability
  • Narrowband
  • z, Y, J, H, K (0.818 to 2.4 µm)
  • 5 band pass per filter, number as required to
    cover each wave band
  • Spectroscopy
  • R 4,000
  • High efficiency e.g. multiple gratings working in
    a single order
  • Spatial sampling (3 scales maximum)
  • 10 mas e.g. (?/2D) at 1 µm
  • 50 to 75 mas, selected to match 50 ensquared
    energy of NGAO
  • Intermediate scale (20 or 35 mas) to balance
    FOV/sensitivity trade off
  • FOV on axis
  • 4" x 4" at 50 mas sampling
  • possible rectangular FOV (1" x 3") at a smaller
    spatial sampling
  • Throughput 40 over full wavelength range
  • Detector limited performance

14
Early Science Return from NGAO
  • NGAO laser launch telescope
  • NSF-MRI (Aug/09) provided 1.4M to procure
    implement a center launch telescope on K2
  • NGAO Laser
  • Collaborating with ESO, AURA, GMT, TMT to fund
    share the results of preliminary designs (PDRs by
    Dec/09) from 2 vendors.
  • 2x250k Euros from ESO 300k from WMKO using
    NSF/AURA funds
  • MRI-R2 proposal submitted in Aug/09 to procure
    implement the 1st NGAO laser on K2.
    Collaboration with TMT ESO.
  • PSF calibration
  • WMKO obtained a MASS/DIMM from TMT that is being
    implemented in Sept/09 by CFHT/UH as a Mauna Kea
    facility.
  • Currently determining options for ATI proposal in
    Nov/09

15
Keck II Center Launch New LaserPredicted
Performance for T Dwarf Binary Case
Factor of 2x improvement ? 6x in dynamical mass
determination
R 16.2 NGS 31 off-axis 50? zenith angle
16
Major Keck AO Science Capability Milestones
Future
17
NGAO ScienceC. Max, E. McGrath, J. CreppA.
Barth, D. Law
18
We categorized science cases into 2 classes
  • Key Science Drivers
  • These push the limits of AO system, instrument,
    and telescope performance. Determine the most
    difficult performance requirements.
  • Science Drivers
  • These are less technically demanding but still
    place important requirements on available
    observing modes, instruments, and PSF knowledge.

18
19
Key Science Drivers (in inverse order of
distance)
  • High-redshift galaxies
  • Black hole masses in nearby AGNs
  • General Relativity at the Galactic Center
  • Planets around low-mass stars
  • Asteroid companions

These push limits of AO system, instrument, and
telescope. Determine the most difficult
performance requirements.
19
20
Science Drivers (in inverse order of distance)
  • Gravitationally lensed galaxies
  • QSO host galaxies
  • Resolved stellar populations in crowded fields
  • Astrometry science (variety of cases)
  • Debris Disks and Young Stellar Objects
  • Giant Planets and their moons
  • Asteroid size, shape, composition

These are less technically demanding but still
place important requirements on observing modes,
instruments, and PSF knowledge.
20
21
Science Topics
  • Capabilities for spectroscopy and imaging of
    high-redshift galaxies
  • Black hole mass measurements
  • New developments in planet detection
  • Dark matter substructure

21
22
High Redshift Galaxies Blackhole
MassesRichard Ellis
23
Galaxies at the Period of Peak Star Formation0.5
lt z lt 2.5
  • NGAO will have higher spatial resolution than
    JWST, providing more detailed information on kpc
    and sub-kpc scales.
  • Internal kinematics and structure key to
    understanding details of galaxy assembly and
    evolution.
  • e.g., merger driven starbursts vs. gravitational
    instabilities/cold accretion
  • Exploring utility of other lines for z gt 2.5

SNR using H?
23
24
Challenge Redshifts 5 and (Much) Higher
  • WFC3 finds galaxies at z 7 - 8 (!)
  • Small many lt 0.2 arc sec
  • VERY FAINT J(AB) 26 - 29
  • Current Keck AO capabilities
  • H(Vega) 25 in 1 hr (pt source)
  • H(AB) 26.4 in 1 hr (pt source)
  • AO has big advantage for pt sources
  • But dont know galaxy size yet (how much smaller
    than 0.2 are they?)
  • With NGAO
  • Really compact galaxies at z 7-8 may be imaged
    in 1 night
  • A fascinating challenge for following up survey
    discoveries
  • Will evaluate NGAO capabilities over next 6
    months - let us know if you are interested in
    helping out!

Redshift 7 - 8 galaxies with WFC3Oesch et al.
2009, Bouwens et al. 2009 (see also McClure et
al. and Bunker et al. 2009)
25
Cooled AO system crucial for K-band performance
  • Target goal AO to contribute at most 30 (sky
    tel) background
  • Spectra of typical z2.6 galaxies in reasonable
    observing times 3 hours
  • Simulations in collaboration with TMT IRIS
    science team are beginning, using cloned nearby
    galaxies and latest NGAO designs

26
Black hole masses in nearby galaxies
  • Minimum detectable BH mass scales as (distance X
    ang res)2
  • NGAO will detect lower mass BHs to farther
    distances than JWST.
  • At distance of Virgo Cluster (17.6 Mpc)
  • K band 2 x 107 Msun BH
  • Ca Triplet 3 x 106 Msun
  • To date, only a handful of similar mass BHs have
    been detected kinematically.
  • NGAO using Ca II triplet is comparable with TMT
    in K band (CO bandhead).

Minimum BH mass detectable vs. distance, assuming
local M- ? relation and ? 2 diffraction ltd.
resolution elements across rgrav
26
27
Extrasolar Planet Studies with NGAOMichael Liu
28
Marois et al 2008
28
29
Direct imaging of exoplanets Why?
  • Probe gt5 AU region
  • planet frequency
  • mass function dN/dM
  • orbit distribution dN/da, dN/de
  • Target stars not suitable for RV
  • active, low-mass, and/or v.young

29
30
Direct imaging of exoplanets Why?
  • Probe gt5 AU region
  • planet frequency
  • mass function dN/dM
  • orbit distribution dN/da, dN/de
  • Target stars not suitable for RV
  • active, low-mass, and/or v.young
  • Measure physical properties
  • colors atmospheres
  • Teff , Lbol evolution
  • spectroscopy composition

30
31
NGAO enables high contrast studies for a broad
range of science programs.
32
NGAO Planet detection sensitivity
  • Large number of compelling science targets that
    are too optically faint for ExAO (Rlt9 mag), but
    suitable for NGAO.
  • NGAO will be a unique means to test planet
    formation models over a wide range of stellar
    host masses ages.

32
33
NGAO enables high contrast studies for a broad
range of science programs.
  • Direct imaging of planets around VLM stars and
    brown dwarfs (e.g. WISE).

25 MJup
5 MJup
Chauvin et al (2005) VLT AO (IR WFS)
34
NGAO enables high contrast studies for a broad
range of science programs.
GQ Lup B 20 MJ, 100 AU
  • Direct imaging of planets around VLM stars and
    brown dwarfs (e.g. WISE).
  • Search for forming planets in situ around the
    youngest (1 Myr) stars.

DH Tau B 40 MJ, 330 AU
Itoh et al 2004
Neuhauser et al 2005
35
NGAO enables high contrast studies for a broad
range of science programs.
  • Direct imaging of planets around VLM stars and
    brown dwarfs (e.g. WISE).
  • Search for forming planets in situ around the
    youngest (1 Myr) stars.
  • Identify low-mass planets (e.g. Neptune) via dyn
    signatures in debris disks.

Keck NGS H-band
36
NGAO enables high contrast studies for a broad
range of science programs.
  • Direct imaging of planets around VLM stars and
    brown dwarfs (e.g. WISE).
  • Search for forming planets in situ around the
    youngest (1 Myr) stars.
  • Identify low-mass planets (e.g. Neptune) via dyn
    signatures in debris disks.

Keck NGS H-band
Undetectable Neptune with 11 resonant dust ring
Keck AO today
High Strehl NGAO
37
Testing models of exoplanet evolution
  • Interpreting the emitted light of exoplanets into
    physical quantities (Teff, Mass) requires
    theoretical models of their luminosity evolution.
  • Models can best be tested using dyn masses of
    brown dwarf binaries from NGAO astrometry.

37
38
Dark Matter Substructureand NGAOTommaso Treu
39
Missing satellites theory
Cluster
Galaxy
Kravtsov 2009
39
39
40
Missing satellites observations
Cluster
Galaxy
Kravtsov 2009
40
40
41
Milky Way Satellites
Kravtsov 2009
Strigari et al. 2007
41
41
42
Milky Way satellites big questions
  • How massive are they?
  • (Keck is working on it!)
  • Are the excess satellites predicted by theory
    non-existent or just dark?
  • Enter gravitational lensing

42
43
Missing satellites and strong lensing
  • Strong lensing can detect satellites based solely
    on their mass at virtually any redshift!
  • Satellites are detected as anomalies in the
    gravitational potential ? and its derivatives
  • ? magnification anomalies
  • ? astrometric anomalies
  • ? time delay anomalies
  • Natural scale is milliarcseconds

43
44
Flux ratio anomalies and adaptive optics
Without satellites ACB Anomaly predicted
satellite before Keck LGSAO discovered Satellite
G2 We now know MASS and LUMINOSITY!
McKean et al. 2007
44
45
Astrometric anomalies and adaptive optics
Astrometric perturbations of order 10 mas are
expected based on simulations
Chen et al. 2007
45
46
Gravitational mass imaging idea
Mass substructure distorts extended lensed
sources
46
47
Gravitational mass imaging simulations
Model
Simulated Data
5 108 Msun Detectable with HST
Surface mass density
Potential
Potential
47
Vegetti Koopmans 2009
48
Gravitational mass imaging with NGAO
NGAO should be 4-16x better than HST, reaching 3
107 108 Msun (depending on mass profile of
satellites) With this kind of resolution and a
sample of lenses one can reconstruct the mass
function of satellites Proof of concept with
LGSAO in progress
Strigari et al. 2007
48
49
Gravitational mass imaging with NGAO with sample
of 30 lenses
49
Vegetti Koopmans 2009
50
NGAO Science Advisory TeamMark Morris
51
NGAO Science Advisory Team
  • Established by Directors in Jun/09.
  • Mark Morris (chair), Laird Close, George
    Djorgovski, Richard Ellis, James Graham, Michael
    Liu, Keith Matthews, Tommaso Treu
  • Charter
  • The purpose of the NSAT is to help ensure that
    the NGAO facility will provide the maximum
    possible science return for the investment and
    that NGAO will meet the scientific needs of the
    Keck community.
  • To that end the NSAT will provide science advice
    to the NGAO project with an emphasis on the
    further development of the science cases and
    science requirements.
  • The NSAT is also expected to provide science
    input in such areas as performance requirements,
    operations design, and design trades.
  • The NSAT will report to the Directors, providing
    a panel of experts for them to consult, and will
    work closely with the NGAO Project Scientist
    providing an expert science team that represents
    a wide range of AO interests in the Keck
    community.

52
Complementarity with Other Facilities
  • Other ground-based observatories
  • JWST ALMA
  • TMT

52
53
NGAO in the world of 8-10 m telescopes
Uniqueness is high spatial resolution, shorter
?s, AO-fed NIR IFS
  • Most 8-10 m telescopes plan either high contrast
    or wide field AO
  • Only VLT has narrow-field mode, but has low sky
    coverage and needs best seeing

53
54
Complementary Landscape ALMA
  • Millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths (0.35 -
    9 mm)
  • Typical spatial resolutions 0.1
  • Resolutions for widest arrays as low as 0.004 at
    the highest frequencies
  • ALMA science regions colder and more dense than
    those seen in the visible and near-IR by NGAO
  • Keck NGAO and ALMA observations complementary
    for
  • Spatially resolved galaxy kinematics, z lt 3
  • Debris disks, protoplanetary disks young
    stellar objects
  • Planetary pre-planetary nebula

54
55
NGAO comparison to JWST TMT
56
NGAO comparison to JWST
57
NGAO comparison to TMT
  • NGAO NFIRAOS wavefront errors are similar (162
    vs 174 nm rms).
  • Similar Strehls. TMT will have higher spatial
    resolution and sensitivity.
  • NGAO advantages earlier science, accumulate
    experience that TMT will benefit from. NGAO will
    screen most important targets for TMT (time
    scarce), do synoptic obsns.

58
Synergy / collaboration with TMT AO
  • Design reviews
  • Ellerbroek Sanders on NGAO SDR committee
  • Ellerbroek on NGAO Build-to-Cost committee
  • Wizinowich TMT telescope/AO performance review
    chair on NFIRAOS PDR committee
  • Analysis Development
  • Joint TMT / NGAO error budget comparison
  • Joint TMT / NGAO cost assessment
  • Working together on extending LAOS simulation
    tool capabilities
  • TMT provided atmospheric site monitor that WMKO
    is working with CFHT/UH to implement on Mauna Kea
    (for PSF reconstruction support)
  • Discussions of real-time control architecture
    algorithms
  • Evaluating where TMTs IRIS the NGAO science
    instrument designs can overlap
  • Hardware Development
  • CCD development (led by Adkins)
  • Laser preliminary designs (with ESO, AURA GMT)
  • MRI-R2 proposal for procuring/implementing laser
    for K2

59
NSAT Initial Assessment
  • Very positively disposed to the evolution of the
    NGAO project
  • The scientific topics driving NGAO are the key
    topics our community needs and wants to invest in
  • Project is going well and on track complex
    project
  • Supportive of development / science steps along
    the way (e.g., center launch, new laser, PSF
    calibration demos)
  • NGAO provides extremely beneficial groundwork for
    AO in the TMT era
  • NSAT is a conduit for the communitys input.

60
Open Issues Community Input
  • What science might drive NGAO to shorter
    wavelengths?
  • Given NGAO as it is currently envisioned are
    there other science cases that we should be
    considering to further enhance the scientific
    appeal of NGAO?
  • How do we define science metrics for the
    stability and knowledge of PSFs?
  • What other opportunities are there for productive
    TMT/NGAO collaboration?
  • And for TMT/Keck community involvement?
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