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The FatSoluble Vitamins

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Title: The FatSoluble Vitamins


1
The Fat-Soluble Vitamins
  • A, D, E, and K

2
The Fat-Soluble Vitamins
3
Vitamin A And Beta-Carotene
  • Retinoids and carotenoids
  • Vitamin A activity

4
Vitamin A And Beta-Carotene
5
Vitamin A And Beta-Carotene
  • Retinol-binding protein (RBP)

6
Vitamin A And Beta-Carotene
  • Roles in the body
  • Vitamin A in vision

7
  • Roles in the body
  • Vitamin A in protein synthesis and cell
    differentiation

8
Vitamin A And Beta-Carotene
  • Roles in the body
  • Vitamin A in reproduction and growth
  • Beta-carotene as an antioxidant

9
Vitamin A And Beta-Carotene
  • Recommendations
  • Retinol activity equivalents (RAE)

10
Vitamin A And Beta-Carotene
  • Vitamin A in foods
  • The colors of vitamin A foods
  • Vitamin A-poor fast foods
  • Vitamin A-rich liver

11
In Summary
  • Other names
  • Retinol
  • Retinal
  • Retinoic acid
  • Precursors are carotenoids such as beta-carotene
  • 2001 RDA
  • Men 900 ?g RAE/day
  • Women 700 ?g RAE/day

12
In Summary
  • Upper level for adults
  • 3000 ?g/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Vision
  • Maintenance of cornea, epithelial cells, mucous
    membranes, skin
  • Bone and tooth growth
  • Reproduction
  • Immunity

13
In Summary
  • Significant sources
  • Retinol fortified milk, cheese, cream, butter,
    fortified margarine, eggs, liver
  • Beta-carotene spinach and other dark leafy
    greens broccoli, deep orange fruits (apricots,
    cantaloupe) and vegetables (squash, carrots,
    sweet potatoes, pumpkin)

14
In Summary
  • Deficiency disease hypovitaminosis A
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Night blindness, corneal drying (xerosis),
    triangular gray spots on eye (Bitots spots),
    softening of the cornea (keratomalacia), and
    corneal degeneration and blindness (xerophthalmia)

15
In Summary
  • Deficiency symptoms (continued)
  • Impaired immunity (infections)
  • Plugging of hair follicles with keratin, forming
    white lumps (hyperkeratosis)

16
Deficiency Symptom Keratinization
17
In Summary
  • Toxicity disease hypervitaminosis A
  • Chronic toxicity symptoms
  • Increased activity of osteoclasts causing reduced
    bone density
  • Liver abnormalities
  • Birth defects

18
In Summary
  • Acute toxicity symptoms
  • Blurred vision
  • Nausea, vomiting, vertigo
  • Increase of pressure inside skull, mimicking
    brain tumor
  • Headaches

19
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20
Vitamin D
  • Other names
  • Calciferol
  • 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (calcitriol)
  • Animal version vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol
  • Plant version vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol
  • Precursor is the bodys own cholesterol

21
Vitamin D
  • 1997 adequate intake (AI)
  • 19-50 years 5 ?g/day
  • 51-70 years 10 ?g/day
  • more than 70 years 15 ?g/day
  • Upper level for adults
  • 50 ?g/day

22
Vitamin D
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Mineralization of bones (raises blood calcium and
    phosphorus by increasing absorption from
    digestive tract, withdrawing calcium from bones,
    stimulating retention by kidneys)

23
Vitamin D
  • Significant sources
  • Synthesized in the body with the help of sunlight
  • Fortified milk, margarine, butter, cereals, and
    chocolate mixes
  • Veal, beef, egg yolks, liver, fatty fish
    (herring, salmon, sardines) and their oils

24
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25
Vitamin D
  • Deficiency diseases
  • Rickets
  • Osteomalacia

26
Vitamin D
  • Deficiency symptoms rickets in children
  • Inadequate calcification, resulting in misshapen
    bones (bowing of legs)
  • Enlargement of ends of long bones (knees, wrists)
  • Deformities of ribs (bowed, with beads or knobs)

27
Vitamin D
  • Deficiency symptoms rickets in children
    (continued)
  • Delayed closing of fontanel, resulting in rapid
    enlargement of head

28
Vitamin D
  • Deficiency symptoms rickets in children
    (continued)
  • Lax muscles resulting in protrusion of abdomen
  • Muscle spasms
  • Deficiency symptoms osteomalacia in adults
  • Loss of calcium, resulting in soft, flexible,
    brittle, and deformed bones

29
Vitamin D
  • Deficiency symptoms osteomalacia in adults
    (cont.)
  • Progressive weakness
  • Pain in pelvis, lower back, and legs
  • Toxicity disease hypervitaminosis D

30
Vitamin D
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Elevated blood calcium
  • Calcification of soft tissues (blood vessels,
    kidneys, heart, lungs, tissues around joints)
  • Frequent urination

31
Vitamin E
  • Other name alpha-tocopherol
  • 2000 RDA
  • Adults 15 mg/day
  • Upper level for adults
  • 1000 mg/day
  • Chief function in the body
  • Antioxidant (stabilization of cell membranes,
    regulation of oxidation reactions, protection of
    polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin A)

32
Vitamin E
33
Vitamin E
  • Significant sources
  • Polyunsaturated plant oils (margarine, salad
    dressings, shortenings)
  • Leafy green vegetables, wheat germ, whole grains,
    liver, egg yolks, nuts, seeds

34
Vitamin E
  • Easily destroyed by heat and oxygen
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Red blood cell breakage
  • Nerve damage
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Augments the effects of anticlotting medication

35
Vitamin K
  • Other names
  • Phylloquinone
  • Menaquinone
  • Menadione
  • Naphthoquinone
  • 2001 AI
  • Men 120 ?g/day
  • Women 90 ?g/day

36
Vitamin K
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Synthesis of blood-clotting proteins and bone
    proteins that regulate blood calcium

37
Vitamin K
  • Significant sources
  • Bacterial synthesis in the digestive tract
  • Liver
  • Leafy green vegetables, cabbage-type vegetables
  • Milk

38
Vitamin K
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Hemorrhaging
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • None known

39
The Fat-Soluble Vitamins - In Summary
  • Interactions with each other
  • Interactions with minerals

40
Antioxidant Nutrients In Disease Prevention
  • Free radicals and disease
  • Oxidative stress
  • Defending against free radicals
  • Oxidants and antioxidants

41
Antioxidant Nutrients In Disease Prevention
42
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43
Antioxidant Nutrients In Disease Prevention
  • Defending against cancer
  • Defending against cardiovascular disease

44
Antioxidant Nutrients In Disease Prevention
  • Foods, supplements, or both?
  • Prooxidants

45
Water And The Major Minerals
46
Water And The Body Fluids
  • Functions of water
  • Transport
  • Structural support for molecules
  • Participates in metabolic reactions
  • Solvent
  • Lubricant
  • Body temperature regulation
  • Maintains blood volume

47
Water And The Body Fluids
  • Water balance and recommended intakes
  • Intracellular fluid
  • Extracellular fluid
  • Interstitial fluid

48
One Cell And Its Associated Fluids
49
Water And The Body Fluids
  • Water balance and recommended intakes
  • Water intake
  • Dehydration
  • Water intoxication

50
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51
Water And The Body Fluids
  • Water balance and recommended intakes
  • Water sources
  • Water losses
  • Water recommendations

52
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53
  • Water balance and recommended intakes
  • Health effects of water
  • Hard water vs. soft water
  • Bottled water

54
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55
How The Body Regulates Blood Volume
56
Fluid And Electrolyte Balance
  • Dissociation of salt in water
  • Ions
  • Cations
  • Anions
  • Electrolyte solution

57
Water Dissolves Salts And Follows Electrolytes
58
Fluid And Electrolyte Balance
  • Electrolytes attract water
  • Water follows electrolytes
  • Solutes
  • Osmosis
  • Osmotic pressure

59
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60
  • Vegetables sweat when sprinkled with salt
  • Raisins plump up when immersed in water

61
Fluid And Electrolyte Balance
  • Proteins regulate flow of fluids and ions
  • Regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance

62
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63
Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance
  • Sodium and chloride most easily lost
  • Different solutes lost by different routes

64
Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance
  • Replacing lost fluids and electrolytes
  • Oral rehydration therapy (ORT)

65
Acid-Base Balance
  • pH

66
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67
Acid-Base Balance
  • Regulation by the buffers
  • Bicarbonate
  • Carbonic acid
  • Regulation by the lungs
  • Regulation by the kidneys

68
The Minerals - An Overview
69
The Minerals - An Overview
  • Inorganic elements
  • The bodys handling of minerals

70
The Minerals - An Overview
  • Variable bioavailability
  • Binders
  • Phytates
  • Oxalates

71
The Minerals - An Overview
  • Nutrient interactions
  • Varied roles

72
Sodium
  • Roles in the body
  • Principal extracellular cation

73
Sodium
  • Hypertension
  • Salt sensitivity
  • Osteoporosis
  • Foods

74
Sodium
75
Sodium In Summary
  • 1989 estimated minimum requirement for adults
  • 500 mg/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance
  • Assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle
    contraction

76
Sodium In Summary
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Muscle cramps, mental apathy, loss of appetite
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Edema, acute hypertension
  • Significant source
  • Table salt, soy sauce
  • Moderate amounts in meats, milks, breads, and
    vegetables
  • Large amounts in processed foods

77
Chloride
  • Chlorine (Cl2) vs. chloride ion (Cl-)
  • Roles in body
  • Principal extracellular anion

78
Chloride In Summary
  • 1989 estimated minimum requirement for adults
  • 750 mg/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance
  • Part of hydrochloric acid found in the stomach,
    necessary for proper digestion

79
Chloride In Summary
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Do not occur under normal circumstances
  • Toxicity symptom
  • Vomiting
  • Significant sources
  • Table salt, soy sauce
  • Moderate amounts in meats, milks, eggs
  • Large amounts in processed foods

80
Potassium
  • Principal intracellular cation

81
Potassium In Summary
  • 1989 estimated minimum requirement for adults
  • 2000 mg/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance
  • Facilitates many reactions
  • Supports cell integrity
  • Assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle
    contractions

82
Potassium In Summary
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Muscular weakness
  • Paralysis
  • Confusion
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Muscular weakness
  • Vomiting
  • If given into a vein, can stop the heart

83
Potassium In Summary
  • Significant sources
  • All whole foods
  • Meats, milks, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes

84
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85
Calcium Balance
86
Calcium
  • Calcium rigor vs. calcium tetany

87
Calcium
88
Calcium In Summary
  • 1997 adequate intake (AI)
  • Adults 19-50 years 100 mg/day
  • Adults 51 and older
  • 1200 mg/day
  • Upper level for adults
  • 2500 mg/day

89
Calcium In Summary
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Mineralization of bones and teeth
  • Involved in muscle contraction and relaxation,
    nerve functioning, blood clotting
  • Blood pressure, immune defenses

90
Calcium In Summary
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Stunted growth in children
  • Bone loss (osteoporosis) in adults

91
Calcium In Summary
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Constipation
  • Increased risk of urinary stone formation and
    kidney dysfunction
  • Interference with absorption of other minerals

92
Calcium In Summary
  • Significant sources
  • Milk and milk products
  • Small fish (with bones)
  • Tofu (bean curd), greens (broccoli, chard),
    legumes

93
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94
Phosphorus
  • 1997 RDA for adults
  • 700 mg/day
  • Upper level for adults (19-70 years) 4000 mg/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Mineralization of bones and teeth
  • Part of every cell
  • Important in genetic material, part of
    phospholipids

95
Phosphorus
  • Chief functions in the body (continued)
  • Used in energy transfer and in buffer systems
    that maintain acid-base balance
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Muscular weakness, bone pain

96
Phosphorus
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Calcification of nonskeletal tissues,
    particularly the kidneys
  • Significant sources
  • All animal tissues (meat, fish, poultry, eggs,
    milk)

97
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98
Magnesium
  • 1997 RDA
  • Men (19-30 years) 400 mg/day
  • Women (19-30 years) 310 mg/day
  • Upper level for adults 350 mg nonfood
    magnesium/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Bone mineralization, building of protein, enzyme
    action, normal muscle contraction, nerve impulse
    transmission, maintenance of teeth, and
    functioning of immune system

99
Magnesium
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Weakness
  • Confusion
  • If extreme, convulsions, bizarre muscle movements
    (especially of eye and face muscles),
    hallucinations, and difficulty in swallowing
  • In children, growth failure

100
Magnesium
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • From nonfood sources only
  • Diarrhea, alkalosis, dehydration
  • Significant sources
  • Nuts, legumes
  • Whole grains
  • Dark green vegetables
  • Seafood
  • Chocolate, cocoa

101
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102
Sulfur
  • Roles

103
Osteoporosis And Calcium
  • Bone development and disintegration
  • Cortical bone
  • Trabecular bone

104
Healthy vs. Osteoporotic Trabecular Bones
105
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106
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107
Osteoporosis And Calcium
  • Bone development and disintegration
  • Bone density

108
Osteoporosis And Calcium
  • Age and bone calcium
  • Maximizing bone mass

109
Osteoporosis And Calcium
110
Osteoporosis And Calcium
  • Minimizing bone loss
  • Gender and hormones
  • Genetics and ethnicity

111
Osteoporosis And Calcium
  • Physical activity and body weight
  • Smoking and alcohol

112
Osteoporosis And Calcium
  • Dietary calcium is the key to prevention
  • Other nutrients play a supporting role

113
Osteoporosis And Calcium
114
Osteoporosis And Calcium
115
Osteoporosis And Calcium
  • A perspective on supplements
  • Antacids
  • Bone meal
  • Oyster shell
  • Dolomite (limestone)

116
The Trace Minerals
117
The Trace Minerals
118
The Trace Minerals
  • Food sources
  • Deficiencies
  • Toxicities
  • Interactions

119
Iron
  • Ferrous (Fe)
  • Reduced
  • Ferric (Fe)
  • Oxidized

120
Iron Absorption
121
Iron Heme vs. Nonheme
122
Iron
  • Factors enhance nonheme iron absorption
  • MFP factor
  • Vitamin C
  • Citric acid from foods

123
Iron
  • Factors enhance nonheme iron absorption
  • Lactic acid from foods
  • HCl from stomach
  • Sugars

124
Iron
  • Factors inhibit nonheme iron absorption
  • Phytates
  • Fibers
  • Oxalates

125
Iron
  • Factors inhibit nonheme iron absorption
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • EDTA
  • Tannic acid

126
Iron Recycling
127
Iron
  • High risk for iron deficiency
  • Women in their reproductive years
  • pregnant women
  • Infants and young children
  • Teenagers

128
Iron
  • Stages of iron deficiency
  • Iron stores diminish
  • Transport iron decreases
  • Hemoglobin production declines

129
  • Both size and color are normal in these blood
    cells
  • Blood cells in iron-deficiency anemia are small
    and pale because they contain less hemoglobin

130
Iron
  • Contamination iron
  • Iron supplements

131
Iron In Summary
  • 2001 RDA
  • Men 8 mg/day
  • Women (19-50 years) 18 mg/day
  • Women (51 years) 8 mg/day
  • Upper level for adults 45 mg/day

132
Iron In Summary
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Part of the protein hemoglobin, which carries
    oxygen in the blood
  • Part of the protein myoglobin in muscles, which
    makes oxygen available for muscle contraction
  • Necessary for the utilization of energy as part
    of the cells metabolic machinery

133
Iron In Summary
  • Significant sources
  • Red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs
  • Legumes, dried fruits

134
Iron In Summary
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Anemia weakness, fatigue, headaches
  • Impaired work performance and cognitive function
  • Impaired immunity
  • Pale skin, nailbeds, mucous membranes, and palm
    creases
  • Concave nails
  • Inability to regulate body temperature
  • Pica

135
Iron In Summary
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • GI distress
  • Iron overload infections, fatigue, joint pain,
    skin pigmentation, organ damage

136
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137
Zinc
  • Roles
  • Metalloenzymes
  • Absorption
  • Metallothionein

138
Zinc
  • Enteropancreatic circulation

139
Zinc
  • Zinc supplementation

140
Zinc In Summary
  • 2001 RDA
  • Men 11 mg/day
  • Women 8 mg/day
  • Upper level for adults 40 mg/day

141
Zinc In Summary
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Part of many enzymes
  • Associated with the hormone insulin
  • Involved in making genetic material and proteins,
    immune reactions, transport of vitamin A, taste
    perception, wound healing, the making of sperm,
    and the normal development of the fetus

142
Zinc
  • Significant sources
  • Protein-containing foods
  • Red meats, shellfish
  • Whole grains

143
Zinc
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation,
    impaired immune function, hair loss, eye and skin
    lesions, loss of appetite

144
Zinc In Summary
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Loss of appetite, impaired immunity, low HDL,
    copper and iron deficiencies

145
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146
Iodine
  • Iodine vs. iodide
  • Deficiency
  • Goitrogens

147
Iodine In Summary
  • 2001 RDA for adults 150 ?g/day
  • Upper level 1100 ?g/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • A component of two thyroid hormones that help to
    regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate

148
Iodine In Summary
  • Significant sources
  • Iodized salt, seafood, bread, dairy products,
    plants grown in iodine-rich soil and animals fed
    those plants
  • Deficiency disease
  • Simple goiter
  • Cretinism

149
Iodine In Summary
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Underactive thyroid gland, goiter
  • Mental and physical retardation in infants
    (cretinism)
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Underactive thyroid gland, elevated TSH, goiter

150
Selenium
  • 2000 RDA for adults 55 ?g/day
  • Upper level for adults 400 ?g/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Defends against oxidation
  • Regulates thyroid hormone
  • Significant sources
  • Seafood, meat
  • Whole grains, vegetables (depending on soil
    content)

151
Selenium
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Predisposition to heart disease characterized by
    cardiac tissue becoming fibrous (Keshan disease)
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Loss and brittleness of hair and nails
  • Skin rash, fatigue, irritability, and nervous
    system disorders
  • Garlic breath odor

152
Copper
  • 2001 RDA for adults 900 ?g/day
  • Upper level for adults
  • 10,000 ?g/day (10 mg/day)
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Necessary for absorption and use of iron in the
    formation of hemoglobin
  • Part of several enzymes

153
Copper
  • Significant sources
  • Seafood
  • Nuts, whole grains, seeds, legumes
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Anemia, bone abnormalities
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Liver damage

154
Manganese
  • 2001 AI
  • Men 2.3 mg/day
  • Women 1.8 mg/day
  • Upper level for adults 11 mg/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Cofactor for several enzymes

155
Manganese
  • Significant sources
  • Nuts, whole grains, leafy vegetables, tea
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Rare
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Nervous system disorders

156
Fluoride
  • 1997 AI
  • Men 3.8 mg/day
  • Women 3.1 mg/day
  • Upper level for adults 10 mg/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Involved in the formation of bones and teeth
  • Helps to make teeth resistant to decay

157
  • U.S. Population With Fluoridated Water

158
Fluoride
  • Significant sources
  • Drinking water (if fluoride containing or
    fluoridated)
  • Tea, seafood
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Susceptibility to tooth decay
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • Fluorosis (pitting and discoloration of teeth)

159
Chromium
  • 2001 AI
  • Men 35 ?g/day
  • Women 25 ?g/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Enhances insulin action
  • Significant sources
  • Meats (especially liver)
  • Whole grains, brewers yeast

160
Chromium
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Diabetes-like condition
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • None reported

161
Molybdenum
  • 2001 AI for adults 45 ?g/day
  • Upper level for adults 2 mg/day
  • Chief functions in the body
  • Cofactor for several enzymes
  • Significant sources
  • Legumes, cereals
  • Organ meats

162
Molybdenum
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Unknown
  • Toxicity symptoms
  • None reported
  • Reproductive effects in animals

163
Other Trace Minerals
  • Nickel
  • Silicon
  • Vanadium

164
Other Trace Minerals
  • Cobalt
  • Boron
  • Arsenic

165
Contaminant Minerals
  • Heavy metals
  • Lead

166
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167
Phytochemicals And Functional Foods
168
Phytochemicals And Functional Foods
169
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170
Phytochemicals And Functional Foods
  • Defending against cancer
  • Defending against heart disease

171
  • Functional foods...
  • from nature
  • from manufacturers

172
Phytochemicals And Functional Foods
  • Functional foods
  • Inconclusive research
  • Food labels
  • Safety
  • Overall healthfulness of products
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